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owing to its variously-coloured materials and elegant shafts; | the Puy de Sancy (6188 feet), is also the most elevated Viollet le Duc considers one of its galleries to belong to peak of central France ; it commands the group of the volthe oldest known type of cathedral cloister (8th and 9th canic Monts Dore, so remarkable for their rocky corries, centuries). Connected with the cloister are remains of their erosion valleys, their trap dykes and orgues of basalt, fortifications of the 13th century, by which it was sepa- their lakes sleeping in the depths of ancient craters or rated from the rest of the city. Near the cathedral the confined in the valleys by streams of lava, and their wide baptistery of St John (4th century), built on the founda- plains of pasture-land. The Puy de Sancy, forming part tions of a Roman building, is surrounded by walls and of the watershed, gives rise on its northern slope to the numerous remains of the period, partly uncovered by recent Dordogne, and on the east to the Couze, a sub-tributary of excavations. The church of St Lawrence (14th century) the Loire, through the Allier. The Monts Dore are joined contains the remains of Du Guesclin. Le Puy possesses to the mountains of Cantal by the non-volcanic group of fragmentary remains of its old line of fortifications, among the Cézallier, of which the highest peak, the Luguet (5101 them a machicolated tower, which has been restored, and feet), rises on the confines of Puy de Dôme and Cantal. a few curious old houses dating from the 12th to the 17th On the north the Monts Dore are continued by a plateau century. Of the modern monuments the statue of La of the mean height of from 3000 to 3500 feet, upon which Fayette and a fountain in the Place de Breuil, executed are seen sixty cones raised by volcanic outbursts in former in marble, bronze, and syenite, may be specially mentioned. times. These are the Monts Dôme, which extend from The museum, named after Crozatier, a native metal-worker south to north as far as Riom, the most remarkable being to whose munificence it principally owes its existence, con the Puy de Dôme and the Puy de Pariou, the latter having tains antiquities, engravings, a collection of lace, and ethno a crater more than 300 feet in depth. To the east of the graphical and natural history collections. Among the department, along the confines of Loire, are the Monts du curiosities of Puy should be noted the church of St Michel Forez, rising to 5380 feet and still in part crowned with d'Aiguille, beside the gate of the town, perched on an forests. Between these mountains and the Domes extends isolated rock like Mont Corneille, the top of which is the fertile plain of Limagne. The drainage of Puy de reached by a staircase of 271 steps. The church dates Dôme is divided between the Loire, by its affluents the from the end of the 10th century and its chancel is still Allier and the ('her, and the Girondle, by the Dordogne. older. The steeple is of the same type as that of the cathe- The Allier traverses the department from south to north, dral. Three miles from Puy are the ruins of the Château receiving on its right the Dore, which falls into the Allier de Polignac, one of the most important fendal strongholds at the northern boundary and lowest level of the departof France. The population of Puy in 1881 was 18,567. ment (879 feet); on its left are the Ilagnon from the The trade is chiefly in cattle, woollens, grains, and vege- Cantal

, the two ('ouzes from the Luguet and the Vonts tables. The principal manufacture is that of laces and Dore, and the Sioule, the most important of all, which blondes (in woollen, linen, cotton, silk, gold, and silver drains the north-west slopes of the Monts Dore and Dôme, threads), which is carried on by 130,000 workwomen in and joins the Allier beyond the limits of the department. the neighbourhood, the yearly turnover being £1,000,000. The 'her forms for a short space the boundary between the The town is connected by rail with St Etienne and Lyons, departments of Puy de Dôme and (freuse, close to that of and also with Brioude on the line from ('lermont-Ferrand Allier. The Dordogne, while still scarcely formed, flows to Mimes.

past Mont-Dore-les-Bains and La Bourboule and is lost in It is not known whether Le Puy existed previously to the Roman a deep valley which divides this department from that of invasion. Towanls the end of the 4th or beginning of the 5th

('orrèze. None of these streams are navigable, but boats century it became the capital of the country of the Vellavi, at which furioul the bishoprie, originally at Revession, now St Paulien, was

can be used on the Illier during floods. The climate of transferred hither. Gregory of Tours speaks of it by the name of | Puy de Dôme is usually very severe, owing to its high level Inirium, because a chapel" ad Deum” had been built on the and its distance from the sea; the millest air is found in mountain, whence the name of Mont Arlion or Ani, which it still

the northern valleys, where the elevation is least. During retains. In the 10th century it was called Podium Sanctie Marie, whence Le Puy. In the Middle Ages there was a double enclosure,

summer the hills about ('lermont-Ferrand, exposed to the one for the cloister, the other for the town. The sanctuary of sun, become all the hotter because their black voleanic soil Votre Dame iras niuch frequented by pilgrims, and the city grew absorbs its rays. On the mountains from 24 to 36 inches famous and populous. Rivalries between the bishops (who hell of rain fall in the year, but only half this amount (18 ciretly of the sees of Rome and the lorils of Polignac, revolts of the town against the royal authority, and the encroachments of the inches) in Limayne, around which the mountains arrest foulal superiors on municipal prerogatives often disturbed the quiet the clouds. Nevertheless the soil of this plain, consisting of the town. The Stracens in the Sth century, the Routiers in the of alluvial deposits of volcanic origin, and watered by 12th, the English in the 14th, the Burgundians in the 15th, suc

torrents and streams from the mountains, makes it one of Insively raramel the neighbourhool. Le l'uy sent the flower of its chivalry to the crusales in 1096, and Raymond d'Aiguille, called the richest regions of France. I'lgiles one of its sons, was their historian. Many councils and

Of a total area of 1,961.05 artis 9:23,110 ara arables, 261, 2:21 various semblies of the states of Languedoe met within its walls; mea low anıl grassland, 237,210 unlus wood, 78,000 under vines, payung and sovereigns, among the latter Charlemagne and Francis while 397,663 are moorland or coisa' j.a-turage. Out of a total 1., rivieml its cintury. Pestilence and the religious wars put an

of 566,064 inhabitants 392,117 arranged in aggiulture. I'uy . to its pruwprits. Long ocrupied by the Leagiers, it did not

de Dome possesses 14,50horns 1000 index, 4150 annes, 161,100 vulommit to Henry IV. until many years after his accession.

open on luils. 174.000 cows or beings, 60,500_alves, 303,000 slierl', PU'T DE DOME, a department of central France, four-,500 piss, 2.2, cats, and 25. bi hirs, which in 1521 poro

Quemil 95 tons of honey and 3 tons of was. In these wrism fifths of which belonged to Basse-.luvergne, one-sixth to

prouluced 369,331341rtits of whet, 493.1:34 of rum, 197,211 of Rourbonnais, and the remainder to Forcz (Lyonnais), lies Carles, 3:20,135 of onts, 25,172 of laskust

, 5,172, 103 lubels of between 45' 17 and 46' 16' X. lat, ani 2 23' and t° E. potatoes and in 1647:231,00 bushels of ollioul vigatahol.., 1,9-7,2018 long. It is bounded on the X. by Allier, on the E. by Bushels of betront, cons of tobien, 1625 tons of hemp 21 tons laire , on the S. by Haute-Loire and (antal, and on the flas 2017 buah la cup ripe-sel2 Tout quantity of rol oil,

anil 13,031,032 gallons of wine. The Limite promluera fruits of W. by Corrize and ('reuse. The chief town, ('lermont- all kinds-apricots, chemin quars, apples, and wainuis, and there Ferrand, is :? 17 miles south of Paris in a direct line: and are also plantations of muilurry tms. The department the department takes its name from a volcanic cone ( 4800

numerous mineral 1701-115. i The 10l-misoinping i surfa.rs fert) which orerlooks it. A meteorological observatory area of thrones emploi 1381 mm, and in 14. prolul 18:23 has stood on the summit, on the site of an old Roman of Haute-Loiro, employ 12.1 or 1.300 min in this two departments lemple, since 1876. The highest point of the department, 'Vext come those of si Elvi near the department of Allir, and of

on the

Bourg-Lastic and Messeis on the borders of Corrèze. The depart- / snow-covered summits of the Elburz are seen
ment also works peat, asphalt, and bituminous schists.

Mines south.
of argentiferous lead employ 610 men and produce 33,695 tons of
lead or silver, worth £15,600. The most important mines and

The sulphur springs, about fifteen in number, come from a great foundries are at Pontgibaud on the Sioule. Copper, arsenic, iron, depth, from trachytic rocks, and vary in temperature from 72 to antimony, barium sulphate, alum, manganese, white lead, sulphur,

115° Fahr. ; they are used both for drinking and for bathing. Before sulphuretted zinc, loadstone, and (of precious stones) amethysts,

the opening of the railway the summer patients already numbered jacinths, rubies, agates, chalcedonies, opals, are also found in the

thousands and have become more numerous since; but defective department. Quarries of porphyry and lava are worked (Volvic accommodation and high prices tend to prevent their further inwith 900 men), as well as marl, limestone, and gypsum. The hot

crease, notwithstanding the very high esteem in which these springs of Mont Dore, known in the clays of the Romans, contain a

mineral waters are held by medical authorities, both Russian and mixture of arsenic and iron bicarbonates, and are used especially West European, The industries of Pyatigorsk are insignificant, but for affections of the respiratory organs. "The waters of La Bour- its trade has always had some importance, and it is still visited boule, containing sodium chlorides and bicarbonates, are particularly during its fairs by a few Persian merchants. rich in arsenic, and ellicacious against affections of the lymphatic PYGMALION is the Greek form of a Phænician name glands, scrofula, diseases of the skin and air-passages, and rheuma- probably derived from the name of a god, bya (C.I.S., tism. chlorides and bicarbonates, are efficacious in' liver complaints, par. i. t. 1. p. 133). Pygmalion or, as Josephus writes, rheumatism, and gravel. Some of them are petrifying, as the Phygmalion, brother of Dido (Elissa), has been spoken of spring of St Allyre at Clermont-Ferrand. The waters of Royat, in PHENICIA (vol. xviii. p. 807). "Another Pygmalion, in use in the time of the Romans, containing solium and iron son of C'ilix and grandson of Agenor, king of Cyprus, is the chlorides and bicarbonates, sparkling and rich in lithia, are used subject of a famous story. He fell in love with an ivory

of anæmia, gravel The waters of Châteauneuf (on the Sioule), also known to the Romans,

statue he had , contain iron bicarbonates and are resorted to for skin diseases. Those of Châtelguyon, like the waters of Carlsbail and Marienbad, Jetum., x. 2 13 sq.). are used for disorders of the digestive organs, congestions of the PYGWIES. The name “pygmy” (Greek Tvypalos, from liver, rheumatism, &c. The waters of Châteldon are used for the table

. There are other chalybeate waters at St Martial, Beaulieu, trypeń) means one whose height is measured by the distance Pontgibaud, St Myon, St Maurice, Arlane, and many other mineral between the elbow and the knuckles of an ordinary man, springs of varied character. Manufactures are for the most part or rather less than an ell. The pygmies appear in Homer grouped around Thiers, which produces a large amount of cheap (Il., iii. 6) as a tiny folk who dwelt by the streams of Ocean cutlery, pasteboards (especially adapted for stamps or playing in the far southern land whither the cranes fly at the cards), and leather ; 20,000 workmen are thus employed, and the annual turn-over amounts to £1,200,000. The department con

approach of our northern winter. The cranes made war tains important paper-mills, factories for lace and braid (in the on them and slaughtered them. These battles between mountains), for buntings, and camlets. Those for woul, cotton, and the pygmics and the cranes are often mentioned by later hemp contain 3500 spindles and more than 100 looms. There are

writers and are frequently represented on vases. Philowool-carding works and factories for linens, cloths, and counterpanes, — also silk-inills, tanneries, manufactories for chamois and stratus describes a picture of the sleeping Hercules beset by other leathers, for caoutchoue, important sugar-works, starch-works, swarms of pygmies, as Gulliver was by the Lilliputians. manufactures of edible pastes with a reputation as high as those of Aristotle held that the pygmies were a race of little men Italy, and manufactures of fruit-preserves. The saw-mills and the inhabiting the marshes out of which he supposed the Nile cheese industry in the mountains complete the list, which includes 201 establishments employing 75,553 persons. The department

to flow. Other writers localized them in various parts of exports grain, fruits, cattle, wines, cheese, wood, and mineral | the world. Ctesias describes at some length a race of waters. Traffic is carried on over 294 miles of Government rouls, pygmies in the heart of India. They were black and ugly; 9591 miles of other roads, and 178 miles of railway. The depart. | the tallest of them were only two ells high ; their hair and inent is crossed from north to south by the railway froin laris to Nîmes, and that of Vichy to Thiers ; from west to cast by that beards were so long that they served them as garments; from Bordeaux to Lyons by Tulle, Clermont-Ferrand, and Thiers, they were excellent bowmen, and hunted hares and foxes with branches from Eygurande to Largnac and from Vertaison to with hawks, ravens, and eagles; their language and customs Billom. It is skirted on the north-west by the line from Montluçon a mines of

were those of the rest of the Indians, and they were very Twenty thousand inhabitants of the department, belonging chiefly honest; their cattle were small in proportion. Pygmies to the district of Ambert, leave it during winter and find work are also mentioned in Thrace (where they were called elsewhere as navvies, chimney-sweeps, pit-sawyers, &c. The de Catizi by the natives, according to Pliny) and in Caria. partment in 1881 contained 566,061 inhabitants and includes five Eustathius speaks of pyymies in the far north, near Thule. arrondissements—CLERMONT-FERRAND (9.2.), Ambert (town, 39410 inhabitants), Issoire (6137), Riom (9590), Thiers (10,583)—50 can

Strabo was inclined to regard them as fabulous; no trusttons, and 467 communes. It is attached to the bishoprie of Cler- worthy person, he says, had seen them. There is, howmont-Ferrand and to the 13th Army Corps in the same town; ever, a story in Ierodotus which would seem to show that the superior court is at Riom.

(G. ME.)

the belief in the pygmies originated in well-founded PYEMIA. See PATHOLOGY (vol. xviii. 1). 401) and reports of a race of undersized men in the heart of Africa. SURGERY.

According to Herodotus (ii. 32), five men of the NasamonPYATIGORSK, a district town and watering-place of ians (a Libyan people near the Greater Syrtis) journeyed Caucasus, Russia, in the government of Terek, 124 miles westward through the desert for many days till they came by rail to the north-west of Vladikavkaz. It owes its to a tribe of little black men of a strange speech, by whose origin to its mineral waters, which had long been known city ran a great river flowing from west to east, and in it to the inhabitants of Caucasus, and even at the begin- there were crocodiles ; moreover

, there were fruit-bearing ning of the present century attracted many Russians, who trees in that country and great marshes. This story is not used to stay at the Konstantinogorsk fort, 2 miles off. improbable; the river may have been the Niger (Joliba or The first buildings at the mineral springs were erected, Quorra) and the people may have been allied to the Akka, however, in 1812, and in 1830 the name of Pyatigorsk an undersized race discovered within recent years near the (“ town of the five mountains”), referring to the five equator by Schweinfurth, who thinks that they, as well as summits of the Beshitau, was given to the new settlement. the Buslimen of South Africa, are remnants of an aboriIts subsequent rapid increase was greatly stimulated by ginal population of Africa now becoming extinct. the completion of its railway connexion with Rostoff, and PY), JOHN (1584-1643), was born at Brymore in Somerit has now nearly 14,000 inhabitants (13,670 in 1882). set in 1584. In 1599 he entered Broadgates Hall, now The town is charmingly situated on a small plateau on Pembroke College, Oxford, as a gentleman commoner. He the south-western slopes of the Mashuka mountain, hy is said by Clarendon to have held at a later date an office which and the Beshtau it is protected on the north. The l in the exchequer, in which he no doubt acquired that


familiarity with financial business which afterwards dis- | to a hasty dissolution of parliament, but it laid down the tinguished him. His wife, Anna Hooker, died in 1620, basis of a policy which afterwards stood Pym in good and in the following year he entered parliament for the stead. That policy was precisely what had been forefirst time as member for Calne, the statement that he sat shadowed in his speech of 1621, the association of the in the Addled Parliament being now known to have been majority who thought alike in civic union against official erroneous. To the patronage of the earl of Bedford no authority ; but that which in 1621 was to be a union of doubt Pym owed the position which he thus acquired. The Englishmen alone in 1640 included Scots as well. use which he made of it was all his own. He had none of With the dissolution of the Short Parliament Pym once the fire of Eliot's genius, but he early showed himself to be more sinks out of sight. There is, however, good reason possessed of the two qualities which in combination make to suppose that the summer months of 1610 were for à leader of men, a thorough and honest sympathy with him a time of unusual activity, and that he was a leading the ideas of the time and a moderation in their applica- spirit in those negotiations with the Scots the exact tion. There was more of measured force in him than nature of which cannot now be traced. At all events in there was in Eliot. His powers as a party leader were as the end of August he was in close communication with yet unsuspected.

the leaders of the opposition, and he then drew up, in Pym's name was first prominently brought forward by co-operation with St John, the petition in which twelve his speech of 8th November 1621, directed against the peers demanded the redress of grievances and the summonCatholics. He strove to distinguish between an attempt “to ing of parliament. The rout of Newburn gave emphasis to punish them for believing and thinkiny" what they did and the language of the peers, and on 30 November 1640 the disabling of them from doing " that which they think the Long Parliament met. and believe they ought to do." His remedy was an oath Pym's leadership of the Commons rested on his sympathy of association to be taken by all loyal Protestants. Those with the feelings of the House combined with his skill who object to Pym's counsel as divisive must nevertheless in directing those feelings into a practical course. He acknowledge that there was a singular consistency in his expressed the general sentiment in the impeachment of advocacy of it. By organizing the resistance of the Stratford and Laud, and in the passing of the Triennial majority of Englishmen, he wished to baffle parties which Act, which was to make the long intermission of parliamight be dangerous by their organization or by the assist-ments impossible for the future. In the trial of Stratford ance which they might receive from abroad.

he showed himself resolute. Being determined to give to After the dissolution Pym was confined for three months an act of state policy the character of a vindication of the in his house in London. In the following parliament law, Pym had to contend against the impatience of his he pleaded for the execution of the penal laws against followers and against the efforts of (harles, and still more recusants and for the restoration of the silenced l’uritan of Henrietta Maria, to save Stratford by force. Overclergy. In 1626 he was one of the managers of Bucking-whelmed for a moment by the impatience of the House, ham's impeachment. In 1628 he was cqually prominent which converted the impeachment into a bill of attainder, in advocating the Petition of Right and in carrying on the he yet carried his point that the change should be no impeachment of Mainwaring. The political question and more than nominal, and that the legal arguents should the religious question were in Pym's mind fused into one. proceed just as if the impeachment had been continued. His intellect was intensely conservative, not easily admit The struggle within the House itself was the least part ting new ideas or projecting itself into the future to deal of l’ym's labours. In meeting the army plot and the with growing changes in society, but seeking to rest on other intriynes of the court he had to develop the powers the conservatisin of existing society rather than on the of a commissioner of police, to be as ready in collecting maintenance of artificial forces. He looked for support to and sifting information as he was prompt in counteracting the nation itself, and he found it hard to believe that the the danger which he feared. In the protestation which national judgment could much differ from his own. In was adopted by the Commons on 31 May he fell back on 1699 he found himself differing from those with whom he his old remedy, banding together the majority in resistance usually acted. Eliot carried the House with him in turn- to an unscrupulous minority. By the legislation which ing the dispute with the king on the question of tonnaye followed on the death of Stratford the abolition of the and pundage into one of parliamentary privilege, whilst special courts which has been crerted to defend the Tudor Pym thought that the main question of the king's right to monarchy, and the abandonment by the crown of its claim levy the duties without a parliamentary grant should be tolery customs without a parliamentary grant he bronght first attacked. He was beaten at the time, but his defeat the king under the obligation to govern according to law. was full of promise for the future. It is much in a mann Much, however, remained to be done. lym had to provide favour that he is ready to look a difficulty fully in the face. ainst the breach by force or fraud of the compact made, It is characteristic of Pym that nothing is heard of him and also to provide for the harmonious working of the exeeither during the riotous proceedings in which this parlia- cutive and legislative bodies. He proposed to attain these ment closed or during the eleven years which passed with ends liy demanding that the king's ininisters should be out a parliament at all. He had neither the virtues nor responsible to parliament. To ofert this it was neressary the failings which accompany excitability of temperament, that parliament should be uniter, and to obtain this end it

With the Short Parliament Pym's three and a half vears was neressary to solve the religious elitficulty. In the of authority begin. His speech of 17th April 1640 on antun of 1641 it appeared that a majority of the l'eers grievances lasted for two hours, a length of time without and a large minority of the Commons wished to maintain precedent in the parliaments of those days. It was not the worship of the Prayer Buk very nearly intact, whilst clouent in the sense in which Eliot's speeches were a minority of the leers and a majority of the Commons eloquent, but it summed up in a telling manner the griev- | wished to make very considerable alterations in it. 'To ances under which, in the opinion of the vast majority bind these two parties together against the king needed of thinking Englishmen, the commonwealth labourec. constructive statesmanship of the highest order, and this Refore the session closeul he showed his powers as a neither l'ym nor any one else in the 11011e showed signs parliamentary tacticinn by proposing to bring forward the 'of possessing. In the Cirand Remon-trance, instrad of inSrottish grievances and to make a peace with the Scots dicating terms of compromiso, he por opered to throw the the condition of the grant of supplies. This proposal lui regulation of the rourela on an asseinlily of divine's to live

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chosen by parliament,--that is to say, he combined the acquired a more definite meaning in its geometrical sense
terrors of a vague threat of impending change with the that it is desirable to employ it in that sense alone. A
entire absence of any security that those changes would pyramid therefore should be understood as meaning a
be moderate. From that moment there were two parties building bounded by a polygonal base and plane triangular
in the state neither of which would give way to the other. sides which meet in an apex. Such a form of architecture
Charles's attempt to arrest Pym and four other members is only known in Middle Egypt, and there only during the
on 4th January 1642 embittered but did not produce the period from the IVth to the XIIth Dynasty (before 2000
conflict. For some months there was much fencing be- B.C.)—having square bases and angles of about 50°. In
tween the two parties, and the Civil War was not begun other countries various modifications of the tumulus,
till Charles raised his standard at Nottingham.

barrow, or burial-heap have arisen which have come near
During the remaining months of Pym's life he was the to this type; but these when formed of earth are usually
most prominent leader of the war party in the House of circular, or, if square, have a flat top, and when built of
Commons. Peace may be made in two ways, by one side stone are always in steps or terraces. The imitations of
capitulating to the other, or by the discovery of a com- the true Egyptian pyramid at Abydos, Meroe, and else-
promise which may give effect to the better aims of both where are juny hybrids, being merely chambers with a
sides. Pym was resolutely set against a capitulation, and pyramidal outside and porticos attached ; and the struc-
he did not rise to the height of a mediator. His adver-tures found at Cenchreæ, or the monument of Caius Sestius
saries of the peace party, led by Holles and Maynard, had at Rome, are isolated and barren trials of a type which
as little idea of a compromise as he had, and they were never could be revived : it had run its course in a country
foolish enough to suppose it possible to obtain the assent and a civilization to which alone it was suitable.
of Charles and his supporters to the establishment of a In the earliest monuments of Egypt there are three
Puritan Church.

types, which were ruled by the external shape. For the
Pym's policy was at least coherent with itself. In 1621, temples (such as those of the kings of the IVth Dynasty
on his first prominent appearance in political life, he had at Gizeh) varied in shape according to their arrangements;
advocated the formation of an association against popery: but the pyramid, the obelisk, and the mastaba: are designs
The protestation of 1641 was an attempt to carry this plan whose importance was outward; and these types, which
into practice and to make it at the same time available started apparently at the same epoch (the earliest actually
against Royalist intrigues. The Parliamentary covenant dated examples of each being all within the two reigns of
promulgated after the discovery of Waller's plot in June Seneferu and Khufu), only lasted during the life of that
1613 was an enlargement of the same project, and the archaic system to which they belonged. The pyramid
Solemn League and Covenant in September 1643 embraced type faded out in the middle kingdom (XIIth Dynasty);
the three kingdoms. As long as he lived Pym was the the obelisk was adapted in later times to a different purpose,
soul of the Parliamentary resistance to the king, but it is as a member of bilateral temple decoration, instead of a
in the covenants and associations which he brought into solitary monument complete in itself and surrounded by an
existence that his permanent contribution to English | enclosure, as it was in the old kingdom ; and the mastaba
political development is to be found. Eliot hoped to save way to the rock-hewn chapel or the bastard pyramid.
rally parliament and the constituencies as a whole to the In considering the origin of the pyramid type there
cause which he maintained to be just. Strafford hoped are three theories to be dealt with—(1) that it is merely
to rouse the devotion of the nation as a whole to the king a higher and refined form of the tumulus ; (2) that it
whose crown was supported by his own masterful intellect. was derived from the mastaba ; (3) that it was a fresh
Pym was the founder of party government in England. idea, an invention de nouo. The objection to the first
He recognized from the first that there were differences view is that there is no graduated series of examples of
of religious opinion amongst his fellow-countrymen, and lesser sizes before the large ones, possibly not any before
he hoped to rally round a common purpose those who on the very largest, and that tumulus or mound burial is
the whole felt as he did himself, with such liberty of unknown in Egypt, ancient or modern ; and to accept this
opinion as was possible under such conditions. If the view we must suppose that all the carlier stages were
enterprise failed it was partly because he was assailed by wrought in another land, and that the pyramid-builders
intrigue as well as by fair opposition, and in his fierce migrated into Egypt when at the height of their architec-
struggle against intrigue learned to cling to doctrines tural power. But their history does not agree to this, and
which were not sufficiently expansive for the government in no other land can we find their training-ground. The
of a nation, partly because the limitations of government second view is strongly suggested by the facts before us
itself and the insufficiency of force to solve a complicated in Egypt. The only buildings that have been reasonably
religious and political problem were in his time very im- supposed to be earlier than the great Pyramid are the two
perfectly understood. At least Pym prepared the way so-called pyramids of Sakkara and Vedum. These struc-
for the immediate victory of his party by summoning tures are not and never were true pyramids ; they are
the Scots and by the financial measures which made the mastabas added to by successive accretions at various
campaigns of 1644 and 1615 possible.

times, again and again finished off with a polished casiny, He did not, however, live to reap the harvest which only to be afresh enlarged by coats of rough masonry and was due to his efforts. Worn out by the strain of con another fine casing on the outside, until they have been stant and agitating work, his health broke down, and on extended upwards and around into a great stepped mass of 8th December 16+3 he died. His body was followed by masonry (Petrie, Pyramids, dr., p. 147), the successive both Houses when it was carried to be interred in West- faces of which rise at the characteristic mastaba angle of minster Abbey.

(s. R. G.) 75° (or 1 on 1). These buildings then present the outline
PYRAMII). This name for a class of buildings, though of a pyramidal pile, broken by successive steps, and it is
first taken from a part of the structure, and mistakenly but one stage further to build in one smooth slope from
applied to the whole of it by the Greeks, has now so far base to top; such a form would readily be designed when

once it was intended to build a large mass complete at
1 The vertical height was named by the Egyptians pir-em-us (sco
E. Revillout, Rev. El., 2.1 year, 305-309), hence the Greek form . An oblong building with sloping sides and flat top, which con-
Promis, pl. pyramidles (IIerod.), usedl unaltered in the English of tained usually the funeral chapel and place of offerings, and covered
Sandy's (1015), from which the singular pyramiil was formail.

over the mouth of the sepulchral pit.

once on one uniform plan, as certainly was the case for as they have been called, but were of massive blocks, the largest pyramids. The third view has some support usually greater in thickness than in height, and in some in the absence of any datable pyramids before the largest cases (as at South Dahshur) reminding the observer of and the second largest that ever existed, and in the steady horizontal leaves with slopiný edges. deterioration of work that is known to have taken place. Inside of each pyramid, always low down, and usually Remembering also what bold steps architecture has taken below the ground level, was built a sepulchral chamber; occasionally in later times (as in the Pantheon and St this was reached in all cases by a passage from the north, Sophia) without a series of graduated examples, we should sometimes beginning in the pyramid face, sometiines denot condemn this view too readily by a priori reasoning. scending into the rock on which the pyramid was built

It is certain that the pyramids were each begun with a in front of the north side. This chamber, if not cut in definite design of their size and arrangement; at least the rock altogether (as in Menkaura’s), or a pit in the this is plainly seen in the two largest, where continuous rock roofed with stone (as in Khafra’s), was built between accretion (such as Lepsius and his followers propound) two immense walls which served for the east and west would be most likely to be met with. On looking at any sides, and between which the north and south sides and section of these buildings it will be seen how impossible it roofing stood merely in contact, but unbonded. The would have been for the passages to have belonged to a gable roofing of the chambers was formed by great sloping smaller structure (Petrie, 165). The supposition that the cantilevers of stone, projecting from the north and south designs were enlarged so long as the builder's life permitted walls, on which they rested without pressing on each other was drawn from the compound mastabas of Sakkara and along the central ridye ; thus there was no thrust, nor Medum; these are, however, quite distinct architecturally were there any forces to disturb the building; and it was from true pyramids, and appear to have been enlarged at only after the most brutal treatment, by which these great long intervals, being elaborately finished with fine casing masses of stone were cracked asinder, that the principle at the close of each addition.

of thrust came into play, though it had been provided for Around many of the pyramids peribolus walls may be in the sloping form of the roof, so as to delay as long as seen, and it is probable that some enclosure originally ex- possible the collapse of the chamber. This is best seen isted around each of them. At the pyramids of Gizeh the in the pyramid of Pepi (Petrie), opened from the top right temples attached to these mausolea may be still seen. through the roof. See also the Abusir pyramids (Howard As in the private tomb, the false door which represented | Vyse) and the king's and queen's chambers of the great the exit of the deceased person from this world, and to- pyramid (Howard V'yse, Piazzi Smyth, Petric). The roofwards which the offerings were made, was always on the ing is sometimes, perhaps usually, of more than one layer ; west wall in the chamber, so the pyramid was placed on in Pepi's pyramid it is of three layers of stone beams, cach the west of the temple in which the deceased king was deeper than their breadth, resting one on another, the worshipped. The temple being entered from the east (as thirty stones weighing more than 30 tons each. In the in the Jewish temples), the worshippers faced the west, king's chamber (Gizeh) successive horizontal roofs were inlooking toward the pyramid in which the king was buried. terposed between the chamber and the final gable roof, and Priests of the various pyramids are continually mentioned such may have been the case at Ibu Roash (Howard Vyse). during the old kingdom, and the religious endowments of The passages which led into the central chambers have many of the priesthoods of the early kings were revived usually some lesser chamber in their course, and are under the Egyptian renaissance of the XXVIth Dynasty blocked once or oftener with massive stone portcullises. and continued during Ptolemaic times. A list of the In all cases some part, and generally the greater part, of hicroglyphic names of nineteen of the pyramids which the passages slopes downwards, usually at an angle of have been found mentioned on monuments (mostly in about 26°, or 1 on 2. These passages appear to have been tombs of the priests) is given in Lieblein's Chronology, 1 closed externally with stone doors turning on a horizontal 32. The pyramid was never a family monument, but be pivot, as may be seen at South Dahshur, and as is delonged -- like all other Egyptian tombs-to one person, scribed by Strabo and others (Petrie). This suggests that members of the royal family having sometimes lesser the interiors of the pyramids were accessible to the priests, pyramids adjoining the king's (as at Khufu’s); the essen-probably for making offerings; the fact of many of them tial idea of the sole use of a tomb was so strong that the having been forcibly entered otherwise does not show that hill of Gizeh is riddled with deep tomb-shafts for separate no practicable entrance existed, but merely that it was burials, often running side by side 60 or 80 feet deep unknown, as, for instance, in the pyramids of Khufu and with only a thin wall of rock between ; and in one place Khafra, both of which were regularly entered in classical a previous shaft has been partially blocked with masonry: times

, but were forced by the ignorant Arabs. so that a later shaft could be cut partly into it, macled The pyramids of nearly all the kings of the Ilth, th, and \'Ith with it like a twin-crystal.

Dynasties are inentioned in inseriptions, and also a few of later Turning now to the architecture of the buildings, their times. The first which can be definitely attributeel is that of nsual construction is a mass of masonry composed of Gizeh. Ratatet, who appears next to Khufu in the lists, is unknown

Khufu (or Cheops), called "the glorious," the strat pyramid of horizontal layers of rough-hewn blocks, with a small in other monuments: he is perhaps the same as Khuumu-Khufu, amount of mortar; and this mass in the later forms apparently a co-remont of Khufu, who may have been buried in the became more and more rubbly, until in the VIth Dynasty the great pyramid, now known as the proud pyramid of (sizeh. it was merely a cellular system of retaining walls of rough Venkaura's prramid was callel" the upper," lming at the lighrat stones and mud, filled up with loose chips, and in the level on the hill of Girell. The lesser piramids of (sizeh, near the IIIth Dynasty the bulk was of mud bricks. Whatever great and third pyramils. Iulong reportively to the families of was the hidden material, however, there was always on Khufu anul Khafua : Howard 's The pyramid of a Monka'na the outside a casing of fine stone, elaborately finished, and Aseskaf, called “the cool," is unknown, so also in that of isskaf of very well jointed;

and the inner chambers were of simi- the 'th Dynasty, called the "holiest of buildings." Sahura larly good work. Indeed the construction was in all cases pyramid, the north one of Abusir, was named “the rising soul,"

far sound that, had it not been for the spite of enemies much as Neferkara's of unknown site' was namel “of the soul.” and the greed of later builders, it is probable that every mid of Abusir. The pramil of Menkaulior, called "the most pyramid would have been standing in good order at this divine buildling," is somewhere at Sakkara. 'Assa's pyramid is day. The casings were not a mere "veneer" or "film," | unidentitieel; it was "the beautiful." Unas not only built the

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