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Perhaps to the student there is no part of elementary temperature in a conducting solid, it gives (when mulmathematics so repulsive as is spherical trigonometry. Also, tiplied by the conductivity) the Aux of heat, &c. No everything relating to change of systems of axes, as for better testimony to the value of the quaternion method instance in the kinematics of a rigid system, where we could be desired than the constant use made of its notation have constantly to consider one set of rotations with by mathematicians like Clifford (in his Kinematic) and by regard to axes fixed in space, and another set with re- physicists like Clerk-Maxwell (in his Electricity and Maggard to axes fixed in the system, is a matter of trouble- netism). Neither of these men professed to employ the some complexity by the usual methods. But every calculus itself, but they recognized fully the extraordinary quaternion formula is a proposition in spherical (some- clearness of insight which is gained even by merely transtimes degrading to plane) trigonometry, and has the full lating the unwieldy Cartesian expressions met with in advantage of the symmetry of the method. And one of hydrokinetics and in electrodynamics into the pregnant Hamilton's earliest advances in the study of his system language of quaternions. (an advance independently made, only a few months later,

IVorks on the Subject. Of course the great works on this subby Cayley) was the interpretation of the singular operator ject are the two immense treatises by Hamilton himself. al 19, where q is a quaternion. Applied to any directed these the second (Elements of Quaternions, London, 1866) was line, this operator at once turns it, conically, through a

posthumous —incomplete in one short part of the original plan definite angle, about a definite axis.

only, but that a most important part, the theory and applications Thus rotation is

of v. These two works, along with Hamilton's other papers on now expressed in symbols at least as simply as it can be quaternions (in the Dublin Proceedings and Transactions, the Philoexhibited by means of a model. Had quaternions effected sophical Magazine, &c.), are storehouses of information, of which nothing more than this, they would still have inaugurated but a small portion has yet been extracted. A German translation one of the most necessary, and apparently impracticable,

of Hamilton's Elements has recently been published by Glan.

Other works on the subject, in order of date, are Allegret, Essai of reforms.

sur le Calcul des Quaternions (Paris, 1862); Tait, An Elementary The physical properties of a heterogeneous body (pro- Treatise on Quaternions (Oxford 1867, 2d ed. 1873 ; German vided they vary continuously from point to point) are

translation by v. Scherff1880, and French by Plarr, 1882–84) known to depend, in the neighbourhood of any one point ed. 1882); Iloiel, Éléments de la Théorie des Quaternions (Paris,

Kelland and Tait, Introduction to Quaternions (London, 1873, 21 of the body, on a quadric function of the coordinates with 1874); Únverzagt, Theorie der Quaternionen (Wiesbaden, 1876); reference to that point. The same is true of physical Laisant, Intrucluction à la Méthode des Quaternions (Paris, 1881); quantities such as potential, temperature, &c., throughout Graefe, Vorlesungen über die Theorie der Quaternionen (Leipsic,

1881). small regions in which their variations are continuous;

An excellent article on the “Principles" of the science, by Dillner, and also, without restriction of dimensions, of moments will be found in the Mathematische Anualcn, vol. xi., 1877. And of inertia, &c. Hence, in addition to its geometrical a very valuable article on the general question, Linear Associated applications to surfaces of the second order, the theory of Algebra, by the late Prof. Peirce, was unfortunately lithographed for quadric functions of position is of fundamental importance lished extensive contributions to the subject, including quaternions

private circulation only. Sylvester and others have recently pubin physics. Here the symmetry points at once to the under the general class matrix, and have developed much farther selection of the three principal axes as the directions for i, than Hamilton lived to do the solution of equations in quaternions. j, k; and it would appear at first sight as if quaternions Several of the works named above are little more than compilations, could not simplify, though they might improve in ele

and some of the French ones are painfully disfigured by an attempt

to introduce an improvement of Hamilton's notation; but the mere gance,

the solution of questions of this kind. But it is not fact that so many have already appeared shows the sure progress Even in Hamilton's earlier work it was shown that which the method is now making.

(P. G. T.) all such questions were reducible to the solution of linear QUATREMÈRE, ÉTIENNE MARC (1782-1857), one of equations in quaternions; and he proved that this, in turn, the most learned of modern Orientalists, came of an eminent depended on the determination of a certain operator, family of Parisian merchants. His father was a victim of which could be represented for purposes of calculation by the Revolution, his mother a pious woman devoted to works a single symbol. The method is essentially the same as

of charity and venerated after her death almost as a saint. that developed, under the name of “matrices” by Cayley in The son retained much of what was best in the old spirit 1858 ; but it has the peculiar advantage of the simplicity of the Parisian bourgeoisie—its industry, sobriety, and which is the natural consequence of entire freedom from independence of character, along with a certain narrowness conventional reference lines.

of view. He was sincerely religious, with strong Jansenist Sufficient has already been said to show the close con- and Gallican tendencies, a touch of rationalism, and a great nexion between quaternions and the theory of numbers. dislike of modern growths of Catholicism. His whole life But one most important connexion with modern physics was spent alone among his books, and his works always must be pointed out, as it is probably destined to be of display the most extensive and accurate erudition—in which great service in the immediato future. In the theory of indeed, and not in criticism or original ideas, his strength surfaces, in hydrokinetics, heat-conduction, potentials, &c., lay. Employed in 1807 in the manuscript department of we constantly meet with what is called Laplace's operator, the imperial library, he passed to the chair of Greek in

d2 d2 viz., lietdu2+ dee. We know that this is an invariant ; Rouen in 1809, entered the academy of inscriptions in

1815, taught IIebrew and Aramaic in the Collége de France i.e., it is independent of the particular directions chosen from 1819, and finally in 1827 became professor of Persian for the rectangular coordinate axes. Here, then, is a case in the School of Living Oriental Languages. specially adapted to the isotropy of the quaternion system; Quatremère's first work was Recherches sur la langue et la littera


d. ture de l'Égypte (1808), showing that the language of ancient Egypt and Hamilton easily saw that the expression i


+ d.c dy

cilat must be sought in Coptic. Flis Mém. sur les Nabatécns (1835) could be, like :c +jy +k2, effectively expressed by a single | Niskkizi's history of the Mameluke sultans in the article on that

has been mentioned under NABATAANS, and his translation of letter. He chose for this purpose o.

And we now sce

author. The valuable notes to the latter book show his erudition that the square of y is the negative of Laplace's operator ; at the best. Hle published also among other works a translation while y itself, when applied to any numerical quantity of Rashiil al-Din's Ilist. des Mongols de la Perse (1836); Mém. géog. conceived as having a definite value at each point of space,

et hist, sur l’Egypte (1810); the text of Ibn Khaldún's Prolegomena ; gives the direction and the rate of most rapid change of that and a vast number of useful memoirs in the Jour. As. His quantity. Thus, applied to a potential, it gives the direc- tioned. Quatremère made great lexicographie collections in Orition and magnitude of the force; to a distribution of ental languages, fragments of which appear in the notes to his

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various works. His MS. material for Syriac has been utilized in | Lawrence at Three Rivers, is over 400 miles long. It has Payne Smith's Thesaurus; of the slips he collected for a projected many tributaries, and drains an area of 21,000 square preface to Dozy, Supp. aux Dictt. Arabes. They are now in the miles. Twenty-four miles above Three Rivers is the fall of Munich library

Shawenegan, 150 feet high. The Batiscan river enters Plate II. QUEBEC, a province of Canada in British North the St Lawrence at Batiscan. Jacques Cartier, Ste Anne,

America, lying between 52° 30' and 45° N. lat., and be and Montmorency are all on the northern side of the St tween 57° 7' and 79° 33' 20" W. long., and bounded on the Lawrence. The Montmorency is famous for its fallsN. by Labrador and Hudson's Bay, on the E. by Labrador situated about 8 miles from Quebec city, 250 feet high and the Gulf of St Lawrence, on the S. by the Bay of —and the natural steps on its rocky bank, 1. miles above Chaleurs, New Brunswick, and the States of Maine, New the cataract. Near the falls is Haldimand House, once the Hampshire, Vermont, and New York, and on the S.W. residence of the duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria. and W. by the river Ottawa and the province of Ontario. The Saguenay, sometimes called the River of Death, is Its length, from Lake Temiscamingue to Anse au Sablon in one of the most remarkable bodies of water in the world. 2 the Straits of Belle Isle, is nearly 1000 miles on a due east It rises in Lake St John, and discharges into the St Lawand west course, and from Lake Temiscamingue to Cape rence at Tadousac, after a course of 100 miles. At its Gaspé it is 700 miles ; its breadth is 300 miles, and the mouth the Saguenay is 2! miles wide, and the depth exarea 188,694 square miles (120,764,651 acres). The sur ceeds 100 fathoms. The depth in other parts varies from face of the country is exceedingly varied and picturesque, 100 to 1000 feet. In the upper part of the river are many

embracing several ridges of mountains and lofty hills, pretty falls and rapids. The Saguenay is navigable for Moun- diversified by numerous rivers, lakes, and forests. There are large vessels as far as Chicoutimi, 98 miles from the mouth tains.

many islands of great fertility and beauty, cascades and falls of the river. Fifteen miles south of Chicoutimi there reof considerable height, and extensive tracts of cultivable cedes from the Saguenay IIa Ha Bay, at the head of which land, rendering the scenery everywhere bold and striking. is the village of St Alphonse. On the south side of the St Mountain ranges extend from south-west to north-cast Lawrence is the Richelieu river, which drains Lake Chamand run parallel to cach other. The Notre Dame or Green plain, and enters Lake St Peter at Sorel, and flows in a Mountains, which are a continuation of the Appalachian northerly direction for 75 miles. (Champlain sailed up range, extend along nearly the whole of the south side of this river in 1609. Other important streams are the St the St Lawrence, terminating at the gulf of the same Francis, rising in Lake Memphremagog; the C'haudière, the name, between the Bay of Chaleurs and Caspé Point, outlet of Lake Megantic, with its beautiful falls, 125 feet where they form an elevated table-land 1500 feet high. high, and situated 10 miles above Quebec; the ChateauTheir chief summits are Mount Logan and Mount Murray, guay, Yamaska, Etchemin, Loup, Assumption, Becancour, very nearly 4000 feet high. In the castern townships the and North. All these rivers are navigable

, and contain mountains of this range are capable of cultivation. The fish. Besides the rapids mentioned, there are situated a Laurentian range (called by Garncau the Laurentides) skirts short distance above Rigaud on the Ottawa the Carillon the northern bank of the St Lawrence, forming undulat- Falls, a series 12 miles in length. Near Ottawa city are ing ridges of 1000 feet in elevation, and extending from the Chaudière l'alls, or “boiling pot," less than 40 feet in Labrador to the vicinity of Quebec, where it leaves height, and extending over 6 miles. Les Chats, a series the river. Keeping nearly parallel with it until within of rapids 30 miles further up the ()ttawa, arc striking and 30 miles west of Montreal, it rounds the Ottawa for grand. At ('alumet there is another rapid. The Falls of 100 miles, crosses it, and curres in the direction of Ste Anne are on the north shore of the St Lawrence, 22 Kingston. From this point the range extends north- miles below Quebec; the Falls of St Fercol, the Long Sault, westward to the shores of Lakes Huron and Superior. Cedars, and Lachine Rapids by no means complete the list. The Mealy Mountains, stretching from 75' W. lat. to The principal lakes are Lake St John, which possesses Lakes. Sandwich Bay, are always covered with snow, and are an area of 360 square miles, Lake Temiscamingne, 126 about 1500 feet high. There are many rocky masses miles, St Peter, Metapedia, Kempt, Megantie, Memphremaconnected with the mountain chains lining the St Lawrence gog, l'ipmuakan, the northern part of Lako (hamplain, which form precipitous cliffs, often rising to a considerable Manouan, (rand Wayagamack, Asturayamicook, l'iscatonheight. Some of the hills of the Laurentian range are que, Kakebonga, Vijizowaja, keepawa, lapimonagace, 1300 feet high, and below the city of Quebec their Edward, Matawin, St Louis, Massawipi, l'amouscachiou, altitude is 3000 feet. They enclose numberless small (traves, (irand, St Francis, and hundreds of others of lesser lakes, many of which are still unexplored.

note, and all stocked with fish. The chief lays along the The whole country is exceptionally well watered, and coasts are (Chaleurs (in part), with its bull and precipitous abounds in numerous large rivers, bays, and lakes. The clitfx, Mallaie, Mille Vaches, Ha Ha, de Quebec's prinprincipal river is the St LawreNCE (7.1.), which flow's cipal islands are Anticosti, sturile and almost uninhabited, through the entire length of the province. A short dis- Bonaventure, an important fishing station to the cast of tance above Montreal it receives from the north-west the (aspié, and the Maylalen Islands, situated in the Gulf of Ottawa, an interesting and beautiful stream over 600 miles St Lawrence, about 50 miles north of l'rince Edward in length, with its tributaries the Gatineau, the Lièvre, Island. This group is inhabited by about 3200 persons, and the Rouge. The St Lawrence is navigable for ships mostly French ti hermen. Other islands are the island of of the line as far as Quebec, and for steamships of over Montreal, St Helen's, Jesus, the i land of Orleans, ?? 5000 tons to Montreal. Between Montreal and Lake miles dones, lielow Q1161ue', Girone IslIsle aux (ondres, Ontario the navigation is interrupted by rapids, the most Bar, Bir Island, all in the St Lawrence and the islands im[ortant of which are the ('edar and Lachine Rapids, the of Calumet and Illumette in the Ottawa river. latter about 9 miles abore Montreal. The total elevation

i Bayrl Taylo 1911"prilia nikit. between file mater and Lake Ontario is about 230 feet. Hunctions, lihit

!!! Ditola: Vanadi. Do...s..joft This is oreroome by cight canals, varying from mile to fos til 1 i . !.!.!!..!..!.:;-1;i:10--114 miles in length, in the aggregate only 11 miles of this lor, nihil. :"..., ....*

riw fruibile ,,!.';, ...: Libya!.....In canals, with locks 200 feet long lvetween the wate's, and

til sinertieri fam.15:. '- :::71.%.vn: 1:1:9 43 feet wide. The St Maurice, rising in Lake (skelanco huo il via t, 1.. ; al oss all baka pelo, near the Hudson's Bay Territory, and flowing into the St.Tartums."


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Geology Beginning with the oldest rocks, the more northern and driftage of thick ice-fields with local glaciers descendand

part of the province of Quebec is based on the Laurentian ing from the mountains. The prevalent directions of minerals.

system of Sir William Logan. This includes both the glacial striations is north-east and south-west or parallel
Laurentian proper and an overlying formation largely com to the course of the St Lawrence valley.
posed of Labrador and anorthite felspars, to which Sir In certain alluvial deposits in the vicinity of the St
William Logan gave the name Upper Laurentian, though Maurice river there occur workable deposits of bog iron
it is now more usually known by the name Norian, applied ore, which have been worked for many years.
to similar rocks in Scandinavia. This Upper Laurentian The climate of Quebec is variable. In winter the cold Climate.
formation occupies but limited areas, one of which is near is generally steady, and the atmosphere is clear and bracing.
Lake St John, and another to the east of St Jerome, not far The thermometer often registers 20° below zero. Snow
from Montreal. The Lower Laurentian of Logan, on the lies on the ground from the end of November until the
other hand, including the Ottawa or Trembling Mountain middle of April

, affording good sleighing for five months group and the Grenville series, extends from the Straits of of the year. The inhabitants enjoy with zest and spirit all Belle Isle to the Ottawa river in a continuous belt. It the out-door sports common to the country, such as skating, consists largely of gneiss and crystalline schists, and holds curling, tobogganing, snow-shoeing, coasting, and sliding. thick beds of limestone and beds of iron ore and veins of In Montreal winter carnivals are held which attract from all apatite. It is the chief seat of the iron and phosphate parts of Canada and the United States thousands of specmining industries, and contains also the principal deposits tators. Snow falls to a very great depth, and though the of graphite or plumbago. It is on this formation that the winds are often sharp they are not often raw or damp, nor remarkable forms, discovered by Dr Dawson (now Sir is there any fog. The summer is warm and pleasant, and William), known as Eozoon canadense, and supposed to be the extreme heat is indicated at 90°. The finest season of the earliest form of animal life, occur.

the year is the autumn, which lasts about six or eight weeks. The Laurentian formation is succeeded in the western Vegetation develops rapidly in Quebec. Much of the Agriculpart of the province by the Potsdam sandstone, a probable country is well adapted for agricultural purposes, the soil ture. equivalent in age of the Upper Cambrian of Britain. On being rich and loamy, and well suited for the growth of this rests a dolomitic limestone—the Calciferous formation, cereals, hay, and fruit crops, all of which ripen perfectly, —and on this the great and richly fossiliferous limestones Wheat, barley, oats, rye, flax, pulse, buckwheat, maize, of the Lower Silurian (Ordovician) age known as the Chazy potatoes, turnips, carrots, beets, parsnips, celery, and the and Trenton groups. These limestones afford the best various roots thrive well. The principal fruits are plums, building-stone of the province, while the Potsdam sand- apples, melons, grapes, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, stone also affords a good stone of construction. Above gooseberries, cranberries, currants, and cherries. Hay has the Trenton is the Utica shale, a dark-coloured argilla- always been considered a leading crop, and much of it is ceous deposit, rich in graptolites and trilobites, and on this exported to the United States, where it finds a ready is the Hudson River group, consisting largely of sandstones market. Farming is carried on extensively in the eastern and calcareous beds.

townships, and in all parts of the country agriculture is To the south-west of these rocks lie Upper Silurian and prosecuted with more or less activity. Devonian beds, the latter holding fossil plants and fishes, The amount of land under crops in 1881 was 4,147,984 acres, and and at the extreme south-eastern part of the province, on in pasture, 2,207,422 acres. The crops raised were-spring wheat, the Bay of Chaleurs, is the outlier of the Lower Carboni- 1,999,815 bushels; winter wheat, 19,189; barley, 1,751,539; oats,

19,990,205 ; rye, 430,242 ; pease and beans, 4,170,456 ; buckferous area of New Brunswick, It is not likely that any wheat, 2,041,670 ; maize, 888,169; potatoes, 14,873,287 ; turnips, true coal occurs in the province, though veins of hardened | 1,572, 476 ; other roots, 2,050, 904 bushels; hay, 1,614,906 tous ; bitumen are found locally in the beds next to be noticed. grass and clover seeds, 119,306 bushels. The number of horses From Quebec eastward along the St Lawrence occurs

in 1881 was 273,852 ; of working oxen, 49,237; of milch cows,

490,977 ; of other cattle, 490,119; of sheep, 889,833 ; of swine, a great series of argillaceous and arenaceous beds, the 329,199. In 1981 2,730,546 it of wool and 559,024 id of honey equivalents of the Upper Cambrian and Lower Silurian of were produced. the interior districts, but deposited under different con Dense forests cover enormous tracts of territory, and afford a Forests. ditions, and abounding in some peculiar forms of trilobites principal means of revenue

to the province, as well as a source of and graptolites. In their extension to the southward they spruce, ash, elm, beech, birch, maple, butternut, black walnut,

industry for the people. The chief trees are white and red pine, pass into the United States. Near the boundary they fir, poplar, cedar, oak, cherry, hickory, basswood, &c. Upwards begin to be associated with various crystalline rocks. of fourteen hundred varieties of plants may be found, of which These were regarded by Sir William Logan as altered two hundred possess medicinal virtues

. Lumbering is extensively Silurian beds of the Quebec group; but later observers carried on, and large quantities of dressed lumber and square timber

are annually shipped to England. (MacFarlane, Selwyn, and Hunt) have maintained that The total value of the forest products exported in 1882–83 was Exports they are, in part at least, of greater age. They contain $11,050,002; of the fisheries, $719,799 ; of the mines, $516,837; of and im several important economic minerals-gold, copper, and animals and their produce, $11,714,674 ; of agricultural products, ports. iron ores, chrysolite used as asbestos, chromic iron, and of the exports was $41,591,939, whereof produce of the province,

$7,795,427 ; of manufactures, $1,437,251. The grand total value serpentine; marble and roofing slates are found in asso- $33,339,549. Of late years an active trade has sprung up in the ciated beds believed to be of Silurian age.

exportation of beef and cattle to England. The imports in the A large part of the country, more especially on the

same year amounted to $12,166,729 dutiable goods, and $13,743,142 lower levels, is covered with Pleistocene deposits of the so

free goods; total $55,909,871.

Shipbuilding, onco a leading industry of the province, has Induscalled Glacial age. The lower part of these beds consists fallen off considerably, steamships and iron vessels having super- tries. of tile or boulder-clay with local and Laurentian boulders, seded wooden ships in the carrying trade. The number of vessels and in some places a few marine shells of northern species. built in Quebec during 1883 was 42, tonnage 6594. On the 31st On this rests a finer blue clay, in some places rich in fossil remaining on the registry books of the several ports

, vere 1733,

of December 1883, the vessels registered in the province, and shells, and known as the Leda clay. It affords a good tonnage 216,577. There were engaged in the coasting trade, material for the manufacture of bricks and tiles. Above including steamers and sailing vessels, 6943 craft, representing a the Leda clay are sands and gravels, often with travelled tonnage of 1,618,550. The number of saw and grist mills in the boulders, and named the Saxicava sand, from a shell found province in 1881 was 1729, employing 12,461 hands. There were

also 419 tanneries, employing 2968 hands. Other industries are very abundantly in some portions of their lower part. shingle-making, manufactures of wool and cloth, cheese and butter These superficial deposits appear to imply submergence making, iron-working, sash, door, and blind factories, sugar

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refining, boat-building, brewing and distilling, and the manufac The public revenue in 1883 amounted to $1,655,757, and the Finance.
ture of edge tools, india-rubber goods, and boots and shoes. In expenditure was $3,962,015. The principal source of revenue is the
1871 the amount invested in industries in the province was annual subsidy granted to the province, under the terms of the
$28,071,868 ; in 1881 it reached $59,216,992, when 85,673 men, B.N.A. Act of 1867, by the Dominion Government. This subsidy
women, and children were employed in the various industries, in 1883 amounted to $959, 252, and interest on trust funds in the
$18,333, 162 were paid out in wages, raw material to the value of hands of the Dominion Government, $55,459. The remainder of
$62,563,967 was consumed, and the value of the articles produced the revenue is derived from the crown domain and timber limits,
was $104,662,258.

licences, stamps on law and registration documents, and other misFish Quebec derives great importance from its fisheries, which are ex cellaneous receipts. The administration of justice cost in 1883 the eries. tensive and valuable, particularly those of the St Lawrence, which sum of $372,400.

consist principally of cod, haddock, holibut, salmon, mackerel, The judiciary consists of a Court of Queen's Bench, with a chief
shad, white fish, herrings, lobsters, and seals. In the lakes and justice and five assistants ; a superior court, with a chief justice and
rivers there are salmon, trout, and bass, and the sporting streams twenty-eight assistants; a court of review, with three judges forming
are among the best in the world. The right of fishing in inland a quorum ; a court of vice-admiralty ; courts of quarter sessions;
waters belongs to the owners of the lands in front of or through and courts for the summary trial of petty causes. The provincial
which such waters flow. The provincial government holds a large legislature meets at Quebec.
number of ungranted lands bordering on rivers and lakes, and The militia (military districts Nos. 5, 6, and 7, operating under Militia.
derives an income from the leasing of fishing privileges. A fish- the Canada Militia Act of 1883) consists of an active force by arms
broeding establishment is maintained by the Dominion Govern- of the following cavalry, officers and men, 448 ; field artillery,
ment at Tadousac, from which there are encouraging results. In 321 ; garrison artillery, 593 ; engineers, 87 ; infantry, 9885 ; rifles,
1881 there were 110 vessels and 801 men and 4779 boats and 6929 924 ; total, 12, 258. The number of active militia men authorized
men engaged in the fisheries. The product netted in 1882 was for annual drill during 1883 was 7965. Schools of cavalry and
$1,976,515; in 1883 it was $2,138,997.

gunnery, situated at Quebec, and one of infantry at St John's, have (lanie. Game is plentiful in Quebec (wild duck, teal, wild geeso, part- been established for the purpose of training oflicers and non-com

tridges, woodcocks, snipe, pigeons, plover, &c.). About 295 dif- missioned officers of the militia.
forent birds exist. Of wild animals the principal are bears, wolves, Education in Quebec is under the control of a superintendent Educa-
cariboo, deer, lynxes, foxes, inusk rats, minks, martens, squirrels, and a council of public instruction appointed by the Government. tion.
beavers, and hares.

The council is divided into two sections, called Roman Catholic and Mineral Gold, iron, and copper ores abound in notable quantities. The Protestant committees, who act independently, and, through the piro former is found chiefly on the banks of the Chaudière in the county superintendent, control the Roinan Catholic and Protestant instituduce. of Beauce. In 1881 the quantity produced was 3411 oz.; in 1883 tions respectively. The province is divided into school municipali

the product was 7902 oz., realizing $140, 262. Copper is obtained ties containing from one to twenty-five schools cach, under tivo
in the enstern townships, and iron of superior quality abounds commissioners elected by the people. As the school system includes
almost everywhere throughout the province. In 1881 the yield of religious instruction, the religious minority (Catholic or I'rotestant)
this ore was 11,326 tons; of iron, 92,001 ; pyrites, 2300"; peat, in any municipality may separate from the majority, and organize
14,597 ; plumbago, 270 ; mica, 4000 tons; building stone for dress- schools of their own, under three trustees, and receive their proper
ing, 1,674,362 cubic feet; roofing slate, 4593 squares. In some share of the Government grant. Every citizen pays a tax which is
sections small quantities of lead are found.

levied on his property for the support of primary schools. In ('on Good waggon roads intersect the province wherever there is a Montreal, Quebec, and Sherbrooke the Roman Catholics and I'romunics settlement. In 1883 the amount expended on colonization roads testants are entirely separate for educational purposes. Thirty-six tion. by the local government was $71,392. Telographic lines are inspectors visit the schools twice a year, and report to the Govern

established throughout the provinco, cach line of railway, besides ment, by whom they are appointed and paid. In 1883 there were
the great roads, having special wires. The postal facilities are in the province 1071 municipalities, including 4404 elementary
cxcellent, and regular mails penetrato every part. Railway com- schools

, 333 model schools, 216 academies, 31 colleges, 18 special
munication is ample and extensive, the chief lines being the Grand schools, 3 normal schools, and 3 universities, making a total of 50,38
Trunk, the Canadian Pacific, and the Intercolonial. In 1884 institutions, attended by 245, 225 pupils, under 6871 trachers. In
Quebec had 1942 miles of railways in operation, while other lines support of these schools, the local contributions amounted to
aru under construction and projected. The canal system is very $2,809,739, and the Government grant to $352,677. The two l'ro-
complete, and commerce is greatly helped by the several water testant universities are M'Gill University at Montreal, founded in
Ways in operation. These are tho Lachine Canal extending from 1821, and Bishop's ('ollege at Lennoxville, founded in 1843. The
Montreal to Lake St Louis ; the Beauharnois Canal, uniting Lakes Roman Catholic university (Laval) was founded loy the Quebec
St Francis and St Louis; the Chambly Canal uniting Lake Cham- seminary in 1852. It has a succursale at Montreal.
plain with the Richelieu river; and the Carillon and Grenville The public charitable institutions receiving ail froin the Govern- Charities,

ment are Beauport, St Ferilinand de Halifax, and St Jean de Dieu Poginla The prorince is divided into sixty-three counties, with a total lunatic asylums. Grants are annually made to about ninety other tion. area of 120,764,651 acres. Ľp to the 30th of June 1883 the total institutions, including industrial schools and reformatories, the total

superficies of disposable lanıls surveyed and subdivided into farm amount reaching in 1883 $:301,121. lots was 6,539,160 acres. The population was 1,191,516 in 1871; The capital is QUEBEC (9.2.). The largest and inost important Towns. in 1851 it was 1,350,0:27 (678,175 males and 680,852 females). The city is MONTREAL (7.2.). Other chief towns are Three Rivers, prevailing religion is that of the Roman Catholic Church, of which population 8670, so-called from the St Maurice, which here joins there are seven dioceses, viz., the archdiocese of Quebec, and the the St Lawrence by three mouths (it is one of the oldest cities, diverses of Montreal, Thrco Rivers, St Hyacinthe, Sherbrooke, and the seat of a large lumber and iron trade): St Hyacinthe Rimouski, and Chicoutimi. The Protestant dioceses are two in 5321; Levis, 7597, where the quarantine for cattle is situated; number-Qurbee and Montreal. According to the census of 1881 Sorel, 5791; St John's, 4314; St François, Beauce, 4111; Sherthe religious denominations in the provinco were as follows : brooke, 7227 ; Valley Fielul. 3906 ; Mallaie, 3014 : Baie St Paul, Church of Rome ............... 1,170,714 Adventists....

4,210 3791; St Henri, 6415; Hull, 6880 ; St Jean Baptistr. 5574.
Charch of England.
64,797 Other denominations.

5,647 The quarantine station is at Grosse I:le, an island in the river
1mahy terlans...
50,287 Of no religion.......

St Lawrence, 314 miles below Quebice. It is 2 miles long by 1
39,220 So creed stated.

8.8.53 Jews...

mile in width. Congregatinnallsts ............ 5,244

History.-Quebec was first visited by the French, unler Jarques l'airer alles...


Total.............. 1,359,027 C'artier, in 15:33, and a second time in 1536, though it is said that The greater portion of the population is composed of French Sebastian Cabot discovered the country in 1497. The regular smaking people, natives of the soil. There are also a good many settlement of the provincs, however, was nit maile until 100%,

Scotch, English, and Irish, and their descendants. The Indians, when Samuel de Champlain landel at the site nu cupied boy mostly of the Algonquin, Iroquois, Huron, Abenakis, and Micmac Quebec city. Here he established military anil trading posts, and trile number 7515, scattered in various parts of the prorince on it was not long before the new opon lucem the seat of the merrations which they cultivate with more or less assiduity. They Récollet and Jesuit missions, which were zalou-ly carriron wwer ar garrahly disposed, and live in harmony.

the most trying cireum-tahes for nearly a century and a luulf. The affairs of the province are administered by a lieutenant. The carly sritlers endure countless buroškins from its in ur-je-ns vernor and an executive council composed of sis members with of the Indians, and the frequent wars in which shop with furient portfolins, assisted by a legislativo assembly of sixty-five members, to engage with the Englihan Putih. In 1759 the marquis of ini a legislative council of twenty-four councillors. The latter hold i Montcalm was defeated at Qurber liv an English anns under their appointments for life, and the former are elected by the peoplo General Wolte. bear later the French urzenie send all their every five years. The lieutenant-gorernor is appointed by the important parts, and the colony pued unler Englii rule. In premnor-general in council. Quebec returns to the Dominion House 1763 the treaty of l'aris was sind ly thim terius of which, and of Commons sixty-five representatives, and twenty-four appointees the conditions laid down a few years later in the metalle to the Dominion Senate.

Quebec Act of 1774, the French wire guaranteed ly England their









Levis or

Plaurs of

Point Levi



Wet Dock



Pe Bizeau

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highest part of the headland R Se Charles

R St Charles

laws, language, and religion. In 1791 the province was divided taken down. There are three gates now, instead of five as
into Upper and Lower Canada, but in 1841, after a series of internal
dissensions, including the rebellion of 1837, and several political which is very handsome and massive. Among the principal

in former years, viz., St Louis, Kent, and St John's, each of
quarrels, the country was again united. In 1867 the provinces of
old Canaila, under the names of Ontario and Quebec, were erected

edifices are the parliamentary and departmental buildings, with New Brunswick and Nova Scotia into the Dominion of a stately pile situated on Grande Allée,—the new court Canada.

(G. ST.) house now building, the post office, custom-house, city QUEBEC, the ancient capital of Canada, and present hall, masonic hall, the Basilica, or Roman Catholic cathedral capital of the province of Quebec, is situated on the north- an irregular cut-stone building 216 feet long by 180 feet west bank of the river St Lawrence at its junction with the wide, and containing many fine oil paintings), the archiSt Charles, about 300 miles from the Gulf of St Lawrence episcopal palace, the Anglican cathedral (a plain structure and 180 miles below Montreal, in 46° 49'6" N. lat, and in the Roman style), the skating rink, and the hall of the 71° 13' 45" W. long. It is the most picturesque and most Young Men's Christian Association ; four large markets strongly fortified city on the continent. Quebec is built supply the people with meat and country produce. There on the northern extremity

are eight Roman Catholic churches, five Church of England, of an elevated table-land

two Presbyterian, one Methodist, one Baptist, one Lutheran, which forms the left bank

one Congregational, one Scandinavian, one French Proof the St Lawrence for a

testant, and a Jewish synagogue, which is situated in the distance of 8 miles. The

is Cape Diamond, 333 feet
above the level of the water,

and crowned by the citadel,
which covers

area of St Colombia
forty acres, and presents a
bold and precipitous front
on the south-east side, while

Environs of Quebec.
towards the north and west

the declivity is more sloping and gradual. The harbour
of Quebec is spacious and capable of accommodating ships
of the largest tonnage, and its docks and tidal basin,
when completed, will rank among the most perfect works
of the kind in the world. They are constructed of lime-
stone and iron, and, including the graving dock on the
Levis side of the river, will cost very nearly three millions
of dollars. The harbour is protected towards the north-
east by the island of Orleans, on either side of which
there is an approach. The spring tides rise and fall about
18 fect. Quebec is divided into upper and lower town,
access to the former being obtained by a steep and winding
street, several flights of narrow steps, and an elevator.
In the lower town are situated the principal banks,
merchants' offices, and wholesale and retail stores. The

strects, with one or two exceptions, are narrow and

irregular. In the upper town, where the streets are wider
and well-paved, are the better class of dwelling houses,
the public buildings, most of the churches, the public walks
and gardens, retail stores and small shops. To the west
are the suburbs of St John, St Louis, and St Roche. The
latter occupies the lower plain, and is rapidly becoming a
place of commercial importance. The other two suburbs
are on the same level with the upper town. South-west

Plan of Quebec.
of St John stretch the historic Plains of Abraham. On
this battle-ground a column 40 feet high has been erected Masonic Hall. Laval University, which derives its name
to mark the spot where General Wolfe in 1759 died from the first bishop of Quebec, who founded in 1663 tlie
victorious. In the governor's garden, which overlooks the seminary for the training of priests, is the principal
St Lawrence, is a stately monument 65 feet in height, educational establishment of the Roman Catholics. It
which is dedicated to the memory of Wolfe and Montcalm. was instituted in 1852 by a royal charter from Queen
An iron pillar surmounted by a bronze statue, the gift Victoria and a charter from Pope Pius IX. The building
of Prince Napoleon Bonaparte, stands on St Foye road, is large and spacious, and the university, which is held in
and commemorates the achievements of the British and high esteem, is well equipped with apparatus, a library of
French troops in 1760. Four martello towers occupy over 85,000 volumes, a museum, geological specimens, and
commanding positions. A point of interest in the upper a picture gallery. Laval has a strong staff of professors,
town is Dufferin Terrace, a magnificent promenade 1400 lay and clerical, and the faculties are theology, law,
feet long and 200 feet above the level of the river. medicine, and arts. In connexion with this institution
Part of this terrace occupies the site of the old Château are the grand seminary founded in 1663, where theology
St Louis, which was destroyed by fire in 1834. The view is taught, and the minor seminary for literature and
from the platform is very striking and beautiful. The philosophy. Laval Normal and Model School, the Ursuline
Grand Battery also affords a fine prospect. Quebec was Convent, a very large establishment for the education of
once the walled city of the north, but several of its ancient young ladies, founded in 1641,—the Convent of the Good
fortifications have been dismantled, and the old gates Shepherd, and several nunneries complete the list of

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