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Climate.

Soil. Soil. —According to the most recent official returns, about 29 per moors of Westphalia and Hanover are of comparatively little value cent. of the soil of Prussia consists of good loam or clay, 32 per in this respect. The accompanying table shows the yield in tons cent, is mediocre or of loam and sand mixed, 31 per cent. is pre- of the principal crops in 1883, in which year, however, the returns dominantly sandy, and 6 per cent. is occupied by bogs and marshes. were rather below the average:– The north-eastern provinces contain a high proportion of poor soil, t and in the north-west occur large tracts of '''. and moor. The I’rovince. Rye. Wheat. Barley. Oats. | Potatoes. Hay. reclaimed marshlands in both districts, as well as the soil in the to possi, I.T., Tssos, Floss' onio's soo' goool! immediate neighbourhood of the rivers, are usually very fertile, W. To a 119.710 $38,953; 820,984 and admirable tracts of fruitful ground are found in the valleys of Brandenburg to 689,151 the Ithine and its affluents and in the plain around Magdeburg. orania §: Patient and long-continued effort has, however, done much to . o Foo equalize production, and large crops are now grown in some of the Saxony . 3.3%, 224, SOS 424,477 most unpromising parts of the kingdom. Prussia contains a greater | Schleswig 1S1,793 196,731 224,869; ** proportion of tilled land than any of the countries of south Germany, m Hon. - - - | 450,780 177,401 | 1,003,765' 715,734 while it is surpassed in this respect by Saxony, Hesse-Darmstadt, Woia 264,358 116,435 | 714,4S6 333,83: and the Thuringian states. The most fertile Prussian province is ... ilios' to: , H2,30: 3so,781 Saxony, while the least productive are East and West Prussia. oil of *:::::: **śi o The following table shows the distribution of the cultivable area in Holmenzollern | _**|_* _*: the different provinces and in the country as a whole:– Total.... 3,898,617 1,257,71 25,435||14,233,211 9,101,12 l Province. Area. Ao Land, Mol Forests, About one-half of the cultivable soil is in the possession of owners 50 per cent soot. *||with proporties excoding, 180 acres in extent and averaging 860 - - - - - — acres, while one-half of the total number of owners occupy only East Prussia . . . . . . . . so so **śī; lo, one-fortieth of the entire area. The manner of distribution varies West I’rt 9,850 3. i.iji'ss; - greatly in different parts of the kingdom, large properties prevailing Brandenbur 15,410 4, 1,487,872 in the less fertile regions in the east and leasant-holdings in the Fo łło. : lo west. In the district of Stralsund the average number of land. Silesia .. ... iść 5. 1,0}} is owners for each German square mile is 100, while in the district Saxony . . . . . . . .....! 0,750 3, 826,352 of Wiesbaden it is ten times as high. In Silesia and Posen lati$olleswig-Holstein. 7.3% 2, lo 3.97 || fundia occupy nearly half the total area, though this disproportion Woo. . . . . . . . . . *::::: ; §§ łoś is gradually disappearing there as elsewhere. As a general rule the Hesse-Nassa §oo i. ,- * * * * * best crops seem to be raised on the holdings of intermediate size. Rhenish Prussia ..... 10,420 3, 13 Lire Stock. —According to an enumeration made in 1883, Prussia Live Hohenzollern ...... 10 || 1: --- - - - - contains 2,417,641 horses, 8,737,367 cattle, 14,752,328 sheep, stock. Total.... 134,490 || 43,566,510 17,782,944 20,311,200 5,819,136 pigs, and 1,680,686 goats. The province of East Prussia, - --- - with the principal Government stud of Trakehnen, is the headPrussia contains a greater proportion of woodland than any other quarters of horse-rearing, and contains the greatest number of large country in the south or west of Europe (France 17 per cent, horses both relatively (1 per 5 inhabitants) and absolutely (383,555). Italy 12 per cent, Great Britain 3 per cent.), though not so large | The horses bred there are generally suitable for the lighter kind of a proportion as Russia, Austria, and some of the minor German work only, and are in great request for military purposes. Horses states. The most extensive forests are in East and West Prussia, of a stouter type are bred in §... and on the Rhine, Silesia, and Brandenburg, where coniferous trees prevail, and in but heavy draught horses have to be imported from France, Holland, the Rhenish and Hessian districts, where oaks and beeches are the Belgium, and Denmark. The best cattle are reared in the maritime most prominent growths. The north-west is almost entirely desti- provinces, and the highest proportion (65 per 100 inhabitants) is tute of timber, and peat is there used universally as fuel. The found in Schleswig-Holstein, No. as well as from the marshy Government forests cover about 6,000,000 acres, or upwards of one- lowlands of Hanover, large numbers are exported to England. fourth of the whole, and are admirably managed, bringing in an | As a rule, however, the south German states are richer in cattle annual revenue of 14 millions sterling. The state also controls the than Prussia. Prussia is one of the leading sheep-breeding countries management of forests in private possession, and exerts itself to of Europe, and much has been done to improve the race and increase secure the planting of waste lands. the value of the flesh and wool. In Pomerania there are 170 sheep Products. for every 100 inhabitants, and West Prussia and l’osen also contain

Ruhr, and there are also extensive coal-fields in Silesia. With the
exception of the Danube Prussia is traversed by all the chief rivers
of Germany, comprising almost the entire course of the Oder and
the Weser. Nearly the whole of the German coast-line belongs to
Prussia, and it possesses all the important seaports except the two
most important of all, Hamburg and Bremen.
Climate. —The climate of Prussia is rendered more uniform than
it would otherwise be by the fact that the average elevation in-
creases from north to south. The greatest extremes of temperature
are found between the east and west, the mean annual warmth in
the bleak and exposed provinces of the north-east being about 44°
Fahr., while that of the sheltered valley of the Rhine is 6° higher.
The difference is greatest in winter, when the respective means are
26° and 35°; in summer the difference is not above 2° to 4°. In
Prussia as a whole the thermometer ranges from 100° to -30°, but
these extremes are rarely reached. The average annual rainfall is
about 21 inches; it is highest in the hilly district on the west (34
inches) and on the north-west coast (30 to 32 inches), and lowest (16
inches) in the inland parts of the eastern provinces.

Hanover, while hops are raised chiefly in Posen and Saxony. The cultivation of rape-seed for oil has fallen off since the use of petroleum has become general. The tobacco of Silesia, Brandenburg, Hanover, and the Rhine province is inferior to that of southern Germany; the annual value of Prussian-grown tobacco is about £500,000, or one-fourth of the total produce of the empire. Only a comparatively small part of the Rhenish wine district falls within Prussia, which does not claim more than a sixth (200,000,000 gallons, value £400,000) of the annual produce of Germany; but this includes many of the choicest varieties, such as Steinberger, Johannisberger, and Rüdesheimer. The best vineyards of the Moselle also belong to Prussia, and inferior kinds of wine are produced in Saxony and Lower Silesia. Great quantities of apples, cherries, and plums are raised on the Rhine, in Saxony, and other districts, while market-gardening on an extensive scale is practised near Erfurt and some other large towns. The hay-meadows of the tastern provinces are the largest, but those in the west bear heavier crops. The richest pasture is afforded by the marshlands along the North Sea and by the plain of the lower Rhine, while the large

Products.-The principal crop in Prussia is rye, of which the ordinary bread of lo. country is made ; it grows in all parts of the kingdom, especially in the north and east, and occupies about onefourth of the . tilled surface. Oats occupy an area equal to about half that devoted to rye, and are also grown most extensively in the north-eastern districts. Wheat, which is chiesly cultivated in the south and west, does not cover more than a fourth as much ground as rye, Barley is most largely grown in Saxony and Silesia. Öthor grain o are spelt (chiefly on the Rhine), buckwheat (Hanover and Schleswig-Holstein), and millet; maize is grown for fodder in some districts. The produce of grain scarcely covers the consumption and is supplemented by imports of rye and other cereals from Russia and |. Potatoes, used both as food and for the distillation of spirits, are cultivated over nearly as large an area as rye and are especially predominant in the eastern provinces. The common beet is extensively grown for the production of sugar in Saxony, Hanover, Silesia, Pomerania, and Brandenburg. Flax and hemp occupy considerable areas in East Prussia, Silesia, and

a high proportion. The total number of sheep in Prussia is, how-
ever, diminishing owing to the spread of agriculture and the in-
creased importation of wool; in 1861 it was nearly 21 millions.
Swine abound in the central provinces, and hams and sausages are
largely exported from Westphalia, Hanover, and Saxony. Huge
flocks of geese are reared in Pomerania, and bee-keeping is a profit-
able industry in Hanover, East and West Prussia, and the province
of the Rhine.
Fisheries.—The fishery on the Baltic Sea and its has's employs
about 15,000 men, and that on the North Sea about 2000 more.
In the former the take consists mainly of herrings, flat fish, salmon,
mackerel, and eels, while the chief objects of the latter are cod and
oysters. Inland fishery has been encouraged by the foundation of
numerous piscicultural establishments and by the enactment of
close-time laws. Carp, perch, pike, and salmon, the latter especi-
ally in the Rhine, are the principal varieties; sturgeon are taken
in the Elbe and () der, and the lakes of East Prussia swarm with

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m all Su... • - - - - Il Su bream and lampreys. Game of various kinds abounds in different

l er- . to. - parts of Prussia, and the lakes are frequented by large flocks of oil. . water-fowl.

Minerals. Minerals.-Although it is obvious that the recent formations of the north German plain can boast of little or no mineral wealth, Prussia still takes rank among the great mining states. Its produce of coal and iron exceeds that of any country in Europe, except Great Britain ; in the production of zinc it is the foremost country in the world; and its stores of salt are very considerable. In 1882 the total value of the mineral produce of Prussia was about 173 millions sterling. About 370,000 persons are employed in its mines, the larger part of whom are engaged in the production of coal. For § ses of administration and supervision the entire country is ivided into five mining districts (Oberbergamtsbezirke), the headquarters of which are Breslau, Halle, Klausthal (in the Harz), Dortmund, and Bonn. The two great deposits of coal are in the basin of the Ruhr on the west, where about 20 million tons are raised annually, and in Upper Silesia, where the beds are still more extensive but the coal .." somewhat inferior quality. The greater part of the smaller but valuable coal-field of the Saar also belongs to Prussia, and other important beds occur in Lower Silesia, near Halle, and near Aix-laChapelle. In 1882 Prussia produced upwards of 47 million tons of coal, equal to 90 per cent of the total yield of Germany, and ". . . . . . . double the output ois. Nearly three-fourths of this amount came from the western coal-fields and upwards of one-fourth from the coal-measures of Silesia. The total value was £11,636,250. Brown coal or lignite is found throughout the whole of Prussia, except in the extreme north-east and north-west, but occurs most plentifully in Saxony, Brandenburg, and north Silesia. In 1882 the produce was nearly 11 million tons, value 1 millions sterling. Peat is cut in large quantities in Hanover, where 15 per cent. of the surface consists of moorland. Iron is found in all parts of Prussia, occurring in the form of bog-iron ore even in the northern lowlands. The richest districts are those of Coblentz in the province - of the Rhine, Arnsberg in Westphalia, Oppeln in Silesia, and ; : Wiesbaden. A valuable bell of magnetic-iron ore occurs in the - Harz. In 1882 fully 4,000,000 tons of iron ore were raised in - Prussia, valued at £1,415,950 and forming 70 per cent. of the total yiell of Germany. The quantity of pig-iron smelted from these and from imported ores was 2,467,500 tons and its value 47,490,000. - Prussia proluces nearly the whole of the zinc of Germany, and Silesia do. of that of Prussia; in 1882 the amount was 113,300 tons, valued at £1,795,000. The produce of lead in the * - . same year was 88,300 tons, valued at £1,200,000 and sound mainly | " -" in the valley of the Lahn near Coblentz, in Silesia, in the Harz, and in Hesse-Nassau. Copper was produced to the extent of 15,400 tons and the value of £1,025,000; five-sevenths were raised in | | . . Saxony, which includes some of the productive mines of the Harz. - Silver and gold are extracted from the copper ore of Mansfeld in . . ." Savony, and silver also from the lead ores of Silesia, Aix-la, . Chapelle, Wiesbalen, and Arnsberg. In 1882 the value of the -- silver smelted out was £1,214,700, of gold only £9050. Salt also - ranks high in importance among the mineral treasures of Prussia. ... ; In 1852 the total yield included 252,300 tons of boiled salt, 210,100 " tons of rock-salt, and 85, 100 tons of other salts, with a total value ! . . of £719,600. Brine springs occur throughout almost the whole ** * kinglom, but by far the most productive provinces are Saxony - and Hanover. Rock-salt is mined at Stassfurt in the province of - Saxony, and in Posen. Chloride of potash and potassium salts are also extensively found in Saxony. The other mineral products in lule manganese, nickel, pyrites, cobalt, quicksilver, alum, gypsum, and sulphuric acid. Good building-stone is common throughout the country, marble is found in Silesia, and roosing slutes in the Ilevonian formations of the Rhine and the Harz. Ull ilk pits and cliffs abound in the Island of Rugen. The auber of the Baltic coast is picked up on the beach after a storm, and is also found by oligoing and dredging. About 3000 persons are enployel in the search, and in favourable seasons 3000 to 4000 cwts. - are collected Mineral springs are numerous among the mountains of Silesia, the Taunus, and the Eifel. The most generally known are those in the district of Wiesbaden, including Wiesbaden itself, Ems, Homburg. Schlangenbad, and Schwalbach. !-- : *- Illustries –Prussia now takes a high place among the manufae- * * * turing states of Europe, though the o of its industrial in|- rtance cannot be dated farther back than the reign of the Great olotor 1640–88). As a general rule, apart from a few of the larger towns, the busiest manufacturing centres are found on the lower slopes and outskirts of the mountainous distriots, such as the Rhenish valevs, Lusatia, and the vicinity of the Silesian coalfiells. Al-out 35 per cent of the population are o ly industrial pursuits. The district of Dusseldorf is the busiest in Trusia, and Berlin and Elberfeld-Barmen are among the chief hives of industry on the continent, the principal manufactured products are woollen, linen, cotton, silk, and iron goods. . . The metallic industries, as might to exported. tourish hio in the neighbourhood of the coal-fields and have reached their highest

development in the district of the Ruhr. Steel is made most extensively in the districts of Arnsberg (Westphalia) and Düsseldorf; at Essen in the latter is Krupp's celebrated cannon-foundry, with 20,000 workmen. Small iron and steel goods also come chiefly from the Westphalian and Rhenish districts; and the cutlery of Solingen, the tools of Remscheid, and the needles of Aix-laChapelle enjoy a widespread reputation. Berlin is the chief seat of the manufacture of machinery and locomotives. Small arms are made at Suhl, Spandau, Potsdam, and Sömmerda (Erfurt). Articles in bronze, brass, and electro-plate are largely made at and exported from 13erlin, Frankfort-on-the-Main, Iserlohn, and Altena, while gold and silver goods are produced chiefly at Berlin and Hanau. The textile industries of Prussia are also important, employing 400,000 workpeople, though they do not rank in extent with those of Great Britain. Until recently the chief textile manufacture was linen, which was largely made by hand in Silesia, Westphalia, and Saxony. The domestic mode of manufacture has now to a great extent disappeared, but Westphalian and Silesian linens still maintain their reputation. The manufacture covers the home demand, but about one-third of the necessary flax and hemp has to be imported. Jute is made at Bielefeld and Bonn. The manufacture of cotton has of late made great progress, though it is not so important in Prussia as in the kingdom of Saxony and in Alsace. The chief centres of this branch of industry are Düsseldorf, Münster, Elberfeld-Barmen, Hanover, Breslau, and Liegnitz. About 65 per cent. of the woollen yarn of Germany is made in Prussia, and woollen cloth of good quality is produced in the province of the Rhine, Silesia, 13randenburg, and Saxony. The spinning and weaving of worsted and woollen cloth are also still carried on throughout the country as domestic industries, but not to such an extent as formerly. Wool and worsted yarn are imported from England and other countries, but the cloth manufactured is much in excess of the home demand and forms an important article of export. Carpets are made at Berlin and at Düren in the Rhine province. Silk is manufactured at Crefeld, Elberfeld-Barmen, and other places near the Rhine. Though hardly reaching the high standard of that of Lyons, Rhenish silk commands a good price, and is exported to England, America, Russia, and Austria. Tobacco and cigars are largely manufactured at Berlin and numerous other towns, and to some extent wherever the tobacco plant is cultivated. The annual consumption of tobacco amounts to about 4 lb per head of population, or nearly thrice as much as in Great Britain ; but the revenue derived from the tobacco excise, owing to the small impost on home-made tobacco, is not more than Gl. a head as compared with 5s. per head in England. A comparatively modern but very important branch of industry is the manufacture of sugar from the common beet. The great centre of this industry is the province of Saxony, which in 1882-83 contained nearly half the 280 sugar-works in the kingdom, the remainder being chiefly in Hanover and Silesia. Upwards of 600,000 tons of law sugar and 160,000 tons of molasses are produced annually." About 320 million gallons of beer are brewed in l'russia per annum and about 35 million more are imported from Bavaria and Bohemia ; the consumption per head, amounting from 65 to 70 quants, is about half of the English and one - fourth of the Bavarian rate. Wine-making, as already mentioned, is an important industry on the Rhine, and large quantities of spirits are distilled from potatoes in Brandenburg and the eastern o The remaining industrial products of Prussia include chemicals, chiefly made in Saxony, Silesia, and the Rhenish province : dyes, at Elberfeld-1}al men and Clefeld; paper, in the districts of Aix-la-Chapelle, Ainsberg, and Liegnitz; glass “loohemian glass", in Sil, sia ; pianos, at loorlin, |}reslau, ( 'assel, and Erful t , and so intific instruments, at 13t-rlin and Halle. The artistic furniture and loor claim of Berlin are char acteristic specialities. In nearly every deputinent there has been in recent years a steady advan, o both in quantity and quality. Trail.-The commerce of I'russia is greatly suilitat lly its entral Trade. lo which enables it to carry on a very extensive transit trade; out, as the returns are not separated from those of the othor memlors of the Zollverein, it is impossible to do more than guess at its annual value. According to the .1/manor, hol, southa, the total value of the exports and imports of the German Customs Union in 1883 amounted to upwards of £330,000,000 and, to judge from the oustonias receilis, about three-fifths of this amount must loot, litol to I'mussia. The chief imports aro tea, , offer, sugar, and otho colonial products, grain, wine, to stile faloris, fruit. lotrol, um, and manufactur, l articles of various kinds. Among the loin, ilal exworts are grain, attle, wine, potatoes, woollen and linen goods, |. and leather, chemi, als, iron and steel wares, l, all, and zinc. The export of grain to Fran: , and England has fallen oss greatly of recent years, owing to the in roasing demand at home. Th: inland trade is fost, rod by numerous fairs, the most important of which take place at the two Frankforts, Breslau, and Magdeburg The money-markets of Berlin and Frankfort-on the Main air amon: the most influ, ntial in Fulopo. - - - - joi by over-prot, c. evoortation. It lucol a > *- : risis in the to

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Communication.

Population.

In 1883 Prussia possessed upwards of three-fifths of the merchant ships of Germany, including 2586 sailing vessels and 229 steamers, manned by 17,315 men. Their burden, however, amounting to 449,391 tons, was little more than one-third of the whole, and was exceeded by that of Bremen and Hamburg taken together. None of the Prussian seaports vies with either Hamburg or Bremen; the largest is Stettin, which possesses a fleet of 40 steamers and 280 sailing ships. In 1881 the Prussian harbours were entered by 38,054 vessels of 3,483,545 tons burden, and cleared by 38,005 of 3,518,098 tons burden. The best seamen are furnished by the fishing population of Friesland or Frisia.

Communication.—With most internal means of communication Prussia is well provided. Almost none of its excellent highroads existed in the time of Frederick the Great, and many of them date from the Napoleonic era. The first Prussian railway was laid in 1838, but the railway system did not receive its full development until the events of 1866 removed the obstacles placed in the way by Hanover. Most of the lines were easy of construction, and absorbed comparatively little capital. The great majority were laid by private companies, and the Government confined itself to establishing lines in districts not likely to attract private capital. In 1879, however, a measure was passed authorizing the acquisition by the state of the private railways, and in 1884, nine-tenths of the 13,800 miles of railway in Prussia were in the hands of Government. The proportion of railway mileage in Prussia (5 miles per 10,000 inhabitants) is nearly as high as in Great Britain, but the traffic is much less. Thus in 1880-81 the Prussian railways carried only 124 million passengers, while the British lines conveyed 622 millions. The expenses swallowed up 56 per cent. of the gross receipts, or 4 per cent more than those of England in the same year; but in the matter of railway accidents the comparison is more favourable to the Prussian railways, on which only 235 persons lost their lives as compared with about four times as many in Great Britain. The passenger traffic has not increased in proportion to the extension of the railway system and the growth of population, but the goods traffic has steadily advanced. The canal o of Prussia is little beyond its infancy, the total length of all the canals in the kingdom being only 1200 miles, a very small number as compared with either England or France. Among the most important are those uniting the Pregel with the Memel, and the Vistula with the Oder (via the Netze), and those bringing the Spree and Havel into communication with the Elbe on the one side and the Oder on the other. Canals uniting the Ems and the Rhine, the Ems and the Weser, and the Weser and the Elbe are still desiderata. On the other hand, Prussia has a large supply of navigable rivers.

Population.—The last census of Prussia was taken in 1880, and the accompanying table summarizes the principal results then ascertained. The total population amounts to about 60 per cent of that of the German empire.

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vinces and the losses in the Franco-German War. The rate of increase in the latter part of the period 1867-84 has, however, been considerably more rapid than in the first half. The increase is entirely due to the surplus of births over deaths, as emigration is very much in excess of immigration. With the exception of Saxony and some of the smallest states, Prussia is increasing more rapidly in population than any other member of the German empire. Its rate of increase is fully twice that of France and about the same as that of the United Kingdom. The highest rate of increase in 1875-80 took place in Berlin (2.92 per annum) and Westphalia (139), the lowest in Hohenzollern (0-35) and East Prussia (0-82). The birth-rate, which for the entire country is 40 per 1000, is highest in West Prussia, Posen, and Westphalia and lowest in Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, and Hesse-Nassau. The death-rate for the whole monarchy is about 27 per 1000, considerably higher than that of Great Britain, which is about 20 per 1000. Pomerania is remarkable for its low death-rate, West Prussia and Silesia for a high one. Both the birth-rate and the death-rate show a tendency to diminish. Of the births in 1882 8: 11 per cent. were illegitimate, the proportion varying from 2.92 per cent in Westphalia to 11 per cent in Pomerania, and nearly 15 per cent. in Berlin. Between 1872 and 1880 the number of marriages diminished with almost unvarying steadiness; since 1880 it has risen again and now amounts to about 8 per 1000 inhabitants. An interesting feature is the large proportion of mixed confessional marriages, amounting as a rule to about 7 per cent. of the whole. Between 1871 and 1881, the annual emigration from Prussia amounted to 1.8 per 1000 inhabitants; in 1882 no fewer than 129,894, and in 1883. 104,167 omigrants left the country by the German ports and Antwerp. The highest proportion of emigrants comes from Pomerania (5-6) and Posen (4-3), the lowest from Silesia, the Rhineland, and Saxony. A study of the figures in the table given above will show that as a rule the density of population increases from north to south and from east to west. As might be expected, the thickest population is found in the mining and manufacturing district of the Rhine, which is closely followed by the coal-regions of Silesia and parts of Saxony and Westphalia. The proportion for the whole kingdom is about 200 per square mile, but in the district of Düsseldorf this figure rises to 750 and in the moorlands of Hanover it sinks to less than 50. According to the census of 1880, 57.4 per cent of the population is rural, and 42.6 per cent, urban, i.e., lives in communities of more than 2000 inhabitants. The relative proportions vary greatly in the different provinces, as much as 62 per cent. of the population living in towns in the Rhineland, and as little as 23 or 24 per cent. in East Prussia and Posen. About 17 per cent. of the population is absorbed by towns each with 20,000 inhabitants and upwards, while in Great Britain half the population is massed in the large towns and from 65 to 70 per cent, is urban. In Prussia also there is observable a strong movement towards concentration in towns, the annual rate of increase in the urban population being six times as great as that in the rural communities. In 1880 Prussia contained 24 towns each with upwards of 50,000 inhabitants, and 7 with upwards of 100,000 inhabitants, the corresponding numbers in Great Britain being 59 and 26. The following are the towns with upwards of 100,000 inhabitants each :

Berlin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,122,330 Königsberg . . . . . . . . . . 140,909 Breslau . 272,012 Frankfort-on-the-Main ... 136,819 Hanover . . 145,22 Dantsic ................ 108,551 Cologne . . . . . . . . . . 144,772

Elberfeld and Barmen practically form one town with a population of 189,479; and Magdeburg, Düsseldorf, Stettin, and Altona are all above 90,000. The annual rate of suicides in Prussia is 18 to 20 per 100,000 inhabitants, a proportion seldom exceeded among European states. Divided according to nationalities, the present (1885) population of Prussia consists roughly of 24,000,000 Germans, 2,800,000 Poles in the eastern provinces, 150,000 Lithuanians in the north-east, 180,000 Danes in Schleswig-Holstein, 90,000 Wends in Brandenburg and Silesia, 60,000 Czechs in Silesia, and 12,000 Walloons near the Belgian frontier. In the rural districts of Posen and in parts of Silesia the Poles form the predominant element of the population.

In 1882 a census of occupations was taken in the German empire, the main results of which, so far as they relate to Prussia, are summarized in the following table. The figures include the wives, families, and other dependants of those actually engaged in the several occupations. The actual workers are about 11 millions in number and their dependants 16 millions.

r Percentage Occupations. Number of per- of total

pa sons supported. |non. 1. Agriculture, forestry, and fishing . . . . . . . . 11,904,407 43 2. orial pursuits.” floo ić 3. (16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2,725,344 l 4. Domestic servants (and general labourers) '600's 3 2-4 5. Official, military, and professional classes 1,305,657 5 6. Persons not returned under any occupation 1,207,810 4-6

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Religion.

Religious Statistics.-According to the census returns of 1880 (see table, p. 16), 64-64 per cent. of the population of Prussia were Protestants, 34 per cent. Roman Catholics, and 1:33 Jews. A glance at a confessional map of Prussia shows that the centre of the kingdom issolidly Protestant, the proportion of Roman Catholics increasing as the eye travels east or west and reaching its maximum on the Rhine and in the Slavonic provinces. East Prussia, however, with the exception of Erinland, is Protestant. The Roman Catholics outnumber the Protestants in the provinces of the Rhine (3 to 1), Posen, Silesia, and West Prussia. All religious bodies are granted freedom of worship, and civil rights are not conditional upon religious confession. The Evangelical or Protestant State Church of Prussia consists as it now stands of a union of the Lutherans and Calvinists, effected under royal pressure in 1817. According to the king this was not a fusion of two faiths but an external union for mutual admission to the Eucharist and for the convenience of using the same liturgy, repared under the royal superintendence. Those who were unable }. conscientious scruples to join the union became Separatist or Old Lutherans and Old Calvinists, but their numbers were and are insignificant. The king is “summus episcopus,” or supreme pontist of the church, and is represented in the exercise of his ecclesiastical functions by the minister of public worship and instruction. The highest no for the ordinary management of the church is the “Oberkirchenrath,” or supreme church council at Berlin, which nets through provincial consistories and superintendents appointed by the crown. Recent legislation has made an ellort to encourage self-government and give a congregational character to the church by the granting of a presbyterial constitution, with parish, diocesan, provincial, and general synods. The clergy, of whom there were 91 s6 in 1880, are appointed by the crown, by the consistories, by private or municipal patronage, or by congregational election. The hierarchy of the Roman Catholic Church in Prussia consists of two archbishops (Cologne, Gnesen-Posen) and ten bishops. The prince-bishop of Breslau and the bishops of Ermland, Hildesheim, and Osnabrück are directly under the pope, and the bishoprics of Fulda and Limburg are in the archiepiscopal diocese of Freiburg in lovden. The higher ecclesiastics receive payment from the state, and the annual appropriation appealing in the budget for the Roman Catholic ('hurch is as high as that made for the State Church. All the Roman Catholic religious orders in l'russia have been suppressed except those mainly or wholly occupied with attendance on the sick. The relations of the state with the dissenting Christian sects, such as the laptists, Mennonites, and Moravian Brethren, are praetically confined to granting them charters of incorporation which unsure them toleration. The Mennonites were formerly allowed to loy an extra tax in lieu of military service, which is inconsistent with their belief, but this privilege has been withdrawn. The Oil Catholics number about 30,000, but do not seem to be increasing. The Jews belong mainly to the urban population and form 20 to *0 or cent. of the inhabitants in some of the towns in the Slavonic Provinces. They are especially prominent in commerce, finance, and on the stage, and also exercise great influence on the press. l'oh to the actual majority of newspaper editors and proprietors are of Jewish blood. The wave of social persecution to which they were *ted from 1876 onwards, especially in Berlin and l'omerania, has to some extent at least, subsided. **on, -lu Prussia education is looked upon as the province and the general level attained is very high. All , Public and private, are under state supervision, and no one “l to exercise the profession of teacher until he has given tory proof of his qualifications. At the head of the admion stands the minister of public instruction, to whom the

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“Analphabeti,” or men unable to read or write, among the recruits levied was only 2 per cent., the rate varying from 975 per cent. in Posen to 0.03 in Schleswig-Holstein, where there was only one illiterate recruit among 3662. The teachers for the elementary schools are trained in normal seminaries or colleges established and supervised by the state, and much has been done of late years to improve their position. In most of the larger towns the elementary schools are supplemented by middle schools (1,iirgerschul, n, Stadtschulen), which carry on the pupil to a somewhat more advanced stage, and are partly intended to draw off the unsuitable elements from the higher schools. The secondary schools of Prussia may be roughly divided into classical and modern, though there are comparatively few in which Latin is quite omitted. The classical schools proper consist of (#ymnasia and I’rosymnasia, the latter being simply gymnasia wanting the higher classes. In these boys are prepared for the universities and the learned professions, and the full course lasts for nine years. In the modern schools, which are divided in the same way into locals/mnasia and Realprosymnasia, and also have a nine years' course, Latin is taught, but not Greek, and greater stress is laid upon modern languages, mathematics, and natural science. The three lower classes are practically identical with those of the gymnasia, while in the upper classes the thoroughness of training is assimilated as closely as possible to that of the classical schools, though the subjects are somewhat altered. Ranking with the realgymnasia are the Oberrealschulen, which differ only in the fact that Latin is entirely omitted, and the time thus gained devoted to modern languages. The Hoh, re (or upper) lirterschul, n, in which the course is six years, rank with the middle schools above mentioned, and are intended mainly for those boys who wish to enter business life immediately on leaving school. All these secondary schools possess the right of granting certificates entitling the holders, who must have attained a certain standing in the school, to serve in the army as one-year volunteers. The gymnasial “certificate of ripeness” (J/aturitats:rusmiss", indicating that the holder has passed satisfactorily through the highest class, enables a student to enroll himself in any faculty at the university, but that of the realgymnasium qualilies only for the general or “ philosophical" faculty, and does not open the way to medicine, the church, or the bar. Considerable efforts are, however, now being made to have the realgymnasium certificate recognized as a sullicient qualification for the study of medicine at least. At any of these schools a thoroughly good education may be obtained at a cost seldom exceeding, in the high st classes, £5 per annum. The teachers are men of scholarship and ability, who "... pass il stringent Government examinations and been submitted to a year of probation. The great majority of the secondary schools have been established and endowed by municipal corporations. In 1881 Prussia contained 251 gymnasia, (; 1 progymnasia, SS realgymnasia, 1. oborrealschulen, 27 reals hulon, 17 holie o lot, gels, hulen, and 276 //oh, re. To hos, rs, howl, n, or higher so hools (or gills. 13, sil, s these there ale, of ourse, numerous commercial, tellinical, illustrial, and other special schools. Piussia possesses ten of the twenty German universities, attendel ly 12,800 students, or at the rate of one stud, it for 2125 inhalitonts. The largest Prussian university is that of Berlin, attended by more than 1000 students, whil, loreslau, loun, Gottingen, and Hallo have a h upwards of 1000. The oldest is the university of G1 isswall. souni, 'l in 1155. Like the schools the universities are state in tutions, and the plose--ols are appoint, l and lotil by Govell, in which ilso inal |*||alotus and quijon, 1st. The full ol,i ouls over thic", and in th: case of in li in looti yo." S. It is, v. 1, not unusual for 1. onmedical students also to spond sour years at the univ. -i \, al...! there is an 13t 1:io, to inal, this ol, oil-cly. Stition'- 1:1...ifying to a l'oussi in Goo on, it a to into it or 1. Tui, 1 to slo n, at le ist throw to ims of li i}!-v als at a l'in-- ", !!!...iv., 1-ity. lo.inking with the univo is; 1. - a the . . . . ...-...t 13, in, II in v or, and \i v... 13, in and R.1:1-il 1, 1:l t a'id Monion. 1), put monts to thos: to to in in y o :lo univer -, 1 - Mu-1 i-t tli , h, -t is now n of w lin, h as " at l; * -on and 1.: “I :--| 1 |

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constitution affirms the legal equality of all citizens in the eye of the law, provides for universal military service, and guarantees the personal liberty of the subject, the security of property, immunity from domiciliary visits, the inviolability of letters, toleration of religious sects, freedom of the press, the right of association and public meetings, and liberty of migration. The monarchy is hereditary in the male line of the house of Hohenzollern, and follows the custom of primogeniture. The king alone exercises the executive power, but shares the legislative power with his parliament. He appoints and discharges the ministers and other officials of the crown, summons and dissolves parliament, possesses the right of pardon and mitigation of punishment, declares war and concludes peace, and grants orders and titles. He is held to be irresponsible for his public actions, and his decrees require the countersign of a minister, whose responsibility, however, is not very clearly defined. The national tradition and feeling lend the crown considerable power not formulated in the constitution, and the king is permitted to bring his personal influence to bear upon parliament in a way quite at variance with the English conception of a constitutional monarch. The annual civil list of the king of Prussia amounts to £600,000. The legislative assembly consists of two chambers, which are convoked annually at the same time but meet separately. The right of proposing new measures belongs equally to the king and each of the chambers, but the consent of all three estates is necessary before a measure can pass into law. The chambers have control of the finances and possess the right of voting or refusing taxes. Financial questions are first discussed in the lower house, and the upper house can accept or reject the annual budget only en bloc. All measures are passed by an absolute majority, but those affecting the constitution must be submitted to a second vote after an interval of at least twenty-one days. Members may not be called to account for their parliamentary utterances except by the chamber in which they sit. No one may at the same time be a member of both chambers. The ministers of the crown have access to both chambers and may speak at any time, but they do not vote unless they are actually members. The general scheme of government, though constitutional, is not exactly “parliamentary" in the English sense of the word, as the ministers are independent of |. and need not necessarily represent the opinions of the pariamentary majority. The Herrenhaus, or house of peers, contains two classes of members, the hereditary and non-hereditary. The former consists of the adult princes of the house of Hohenzollern, the mediatized princes and counts of the old io nobility, and the heads of the great territorial nobility. The non-hereditary members Soft peers chosen by the king from the ranks of the rich landowners, manufacturers, and men of general eminence, and representatives “presented” for the king's approval by the landowners of the nine old provinces, by the larger towns, and by the universities. The Abgeordnetenhaus, or chamber of deputies, consists of 433 members, elected for periods of three years by indirect suffrage, exercised by all male citizens who have reached the age of twenty-five and have not forfeited their communal rights. The original clectors are arranged in three classes, according to the rate of taxes paid by them, in such a way that the gross amount of taxation is equal in each class. The country is accordingly divided into ol districts, with the electors grouped in three categories, each of which selects a JVahlmann or electoral proxy, who exercises the direct suffrage. Members of the lower house must be thirty years old and in full possession of their civic rights. They receive a daily allowance (Disilen) during the sitting of the house. The king exercises his executive functions through an irresponsible Staatsrath, or privy council, revived in 1884 after thirty years of inactivity, and by a nominally responsible cabinet or council of ministers (Staats-Ministerium). The latter consists at present of the minister-president and of the ministers of foreign affairs, war, justice, finance, the interior, public worship and instruction, industry and commerce, public works, agriculture, domains, and forests. Ministers conduct the affairs of their special departments independently, but meet in council for the discussion of general questions. They represent the executive in the houses of parliament and introduce the measures proposed by the crown, but do not need to belong to either chamber. The assairs of the royal household and privy purse are entrusted to a special minister, who is not a member of the cabinet. The Prussian governmental system is somewhat complicated by its relation to that of the empire. The king of Prussia is at the same time German emperor, and his prime minister is also the imperial chancellor. The ministries of war and foreign affairs practically coincide with those of the empire, and the customs-dues and the postal and telegraph service have also been transferred to the imperial Government. Prussia has only seventeen votes in the federal council, or less than a third of the total number, but its influence is practically assured by the fact that the small northern states almost invariably vote with it. To the reichstag Prussia sends more than half the members. The double parliamentary

system works in some respects inconveniently, as the reichstag and Prussian landtag are often in session at the same time and many persons are members of both. Where imperial and Prussian legislation come into conflict the latter must give way. For administrative purposes Prussia is divided into Provinzen or provinces, Regierungsbezirke or governmental departments, A reise or circles, and Gemeinden or communes. The city of Berlin and the district of Hohenzollern are not included in any province, and the larger towns usually form at once a commune and a circle (Stadtkreis). Recent legislation has aimed at the encouragement of local government and the decentralization of administrative authority by admitting lay or popularly elected members to a share in the administration alongside of the Government officials. Certain branches of administration, such as the care of roads and the poor, have been handed over entirely to local authorities, while a share is allowed them in all. As a general result it may be stated that the Prussian administrative system intervenes between the strongly centralized government of France and the liberty of local government enjoyed in England. In the province the Government is represented by the Oberpräsident, whose jurisdiction extends over all matters affecting more than one department. He is assisted by a council (Provincial rath), consisting, besides himself as chairman, of one member appointed by Government and five members elected by the provincial committee (Provincialausschuss). The latter forms the permanent executive of the provincial diet (Provincial-Landtag), which consists of deputies elected by the kreise or circles, and forms the chief provincial organ of local government. The regierungsbezirk is solely a Government division and is only indirectly represented in the scheme of local administration. The Government authorities are the Regierungs-Präsident, who is at the head of the general internal administration of the department, and the Regierung, or Government board, which supervises ecclesiastical and educational affairs and exercises the function of the state in regard to the direct taxes and the domains and forests. The departmental president is also assisted by a Bezirksrath or district council, consisting of one official member and four others selected from inhabitants of the department by the provincial committee.* The governmental official in the kreis (county, circle) is the Landrath, an office which existed in the Mark of Brandenburg as early as the 16th century. He is aided by the Kreissausschuss, or executive committee of the Kreistag (the diet of the circle), the members of which are elected by the rural and urban communes. The kreis is the smallest state division ; the communes, divided into urban and rural, are left almost entirely to local government, though the chief officials must obtain the sanction of the central authority. In the rural communes the head magistrate, called a Schulze or Dorfrichter, is elected for six years and is assisted by assessors called Schöffen. The regulations for the government of towns still rest in great measure on the liberal reforms effected by Stein at the beginning of the century. The chief power rests in the hands of the Stadtrath, which consists of Stadtrerordneten, or town deputies elected by the citizens for six years. The practical executive is entrusted to the magistracy (JMagistrat), which usually consists of a burgomaster, a deputy burgomaster (both paid officials), several unpaid members, and, where necessary, a few other paid members. The unpaid members hold office for six years; the paid members are elected for twelve years, and their election requires ratification from the state. The administrative system above described applies as yet in its full extent to about three-fourths of the provinces only, but is to be extended to the others in due course. Though in some respects rather cumbrous in its machinery, the system is on the whole found to work well and with economy. In the seven eastern provinces, Westphalia, and part of the Rhenish province the common law of Prussia (Landrecht), codified in 1794, is in force, while the common law of the German empire, formed by an amalgamation of Roman, canon, and German law, prevails in the three new provinces and part of Pomerania. The Code Napoléon, however, still exists in the greater part of the Rhine district, and the commercial law has been consolidated in the German commercial code of 1861. A new penal code, promulgated in 1850, did away with the old patrimonial or seigniorial jurisdiction, and the administration of justice is now wholly in the hands of Government. The courts of lowest instance are the Amtsserichte, in which sits a single judge, accompanied in penal cases by two Schöffen or lay assessors (a kind of jurymen, who vote with the judge). Cases of more importance are decided by the Landgerichte or county courts, in which the usual number of judges is three, while in important criminal cases a jury of twelve persons is generally empanelled. From the landgerichte appeals may be made to the Oberlandesgerichte or provincial courts. The oberlandesgericht at Berlin is named the Kammergericht and forms the final instance for summary convictions in Prussia, while all other cases may be taken to the supreme imperial court at Leipsic. The judges (Itichter) are appointed and paid by the state, and hold office for life. After finishing his university career the student of law who wishes to become a judge or to practise as qualified counsel (Rechtsanwall, barrister and solicitor in one) passes a Government examina

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