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Roman Catholic educational institutions. Morrin College (Presbyterian) was founded by Dr Morrin, and is affiliated with M'Gill University. Other Protestant schools are the boys' high school, the girls' high school, a number of academies, and public and private schools, all in a state of efficiency. In 1881 the number of children attending the various schools in Quebec was 98.89, of whom half were girls. There is no free public library in the city, but the Literary and Historical Society,+the oldest chartered institution of the kind in Canada, founded by Lord Dalhousie in 1824,-the Canadian Institute, the Geographical Society, the Young Men's Christian Association, the Advocates' Library, and the Parliamentary Library have valuable collections of books. The principal benevolent institutions are the marine hospital, the Hôtel Dieu, founded in 1639 by the duchess of Aiguillon, the general hospital (1693), the Finlay Asylum, the Jeffrey Hale Hospital, the Church of England Female Orphans' Asylum, the Ladies' Protestant Home, St Bridget's Asylum, Grey Nunnery, and the lunatic asylum at Beauport. Nine daily newspapers are published at Quebec, six of which are in the French language. A good supply of water is afforded from Lake St Charles, but the city has suffered so severely from devastating fires in the past that in 1883 the common council ordered an additional pipe to be laid at a cost of half a million of dollars. Quebec is well lighted with gas and the electric light. Connexion is had with all parts of Canada and the United States by several railway lines, and the city is at the head of ocean steamship navigation to Europe. There are two lines of street cars. The head offices of three banks are situated in Quebec, viz., the Quebec Bank, the Union Bank of Lower Canada, and La Banque Nationale. Besides these there are two savings banks, the Post Office Savings Bank, and the agencies of the Bank of Montreal, the Bank of British North America, and the Merchants' Bank. The population of the city in 1871 was 59,699 ; in 1881, 62,446 (28,923 males and 33,523 females),-6200 being Protestants.
Shipbuilding was formerly one of the chief industries of Quebec, but of late years very few wooden ships have been built. In 1883 the number was twenty-five, representing a total tonnage of 4596 tons. Manufacturing is carried on to some extent, the principal manufactures being iron castings, machinery, cutlery, nails, leather, musical instruments, boots and shoes, paper, india-rubber goods, roles, tobacco, steel, &c.
Quebee's staple export is timber, the greater portion of the shipments reaching town from the Ottawa and St Maurice districts. The rafts floating down the river are collected in the coves, and fastened by booms are moored along the banks. These coves extend along the river for upwards of 6 miles above the city. On the right bank of the stream, not far from Quebec, are extensive sawmills. The port is one of the leading emporiums of the export trade between Canada and Great Britain. The number, tonnage, and crows of the vessels entered and cleared at Quebec for several years is as follows:–
Large quantities of timber—especially white pine 10,427,000 feet in 1853), wak, and red pine—are exported from Quebec. The total value of exports in 18-3 was $9,268,983; of imports $4,976,713, and of import duty received SS23,213.63. The value of the real estate is set down at $24,000,000.
The city returns three members to the Canadian House of Commons, and three to the provincial House of Assembly. It is governel by a mayor, eight aldermen, and sixteen councillors, who hold their offices for two years. Quebec is the seat of the Roman Catholic archbishop, arol the see of the bishop of the Church of Englansl.
Quebec was first visited by the French navigator Jacques ('artier in 1535, when it consisted of a sparsely-settled Indian village called
Stadacona. In July 1608 the city was founded by Champlain, who bestowed on it its present name. Its growth was slow, and the numerous wars with the Indians and the English rendered the work of colonization and settlement precarious and difficult. In 1629 the English captured it, but three years later it was restored to the French. In 1663 the colony was created a royal government, and Quebec became the cio In 1690 Sir William Phips with a numerous fleet attempted to reconquer it, but the French governor, Count de Frontenac, destroyed many of his vessels and forced the English to fly. The French held possession until 1759, when it fell into the hands of the British under Wolfe, and it was finally ceded to Britain by the treaty of Paris in 1763. In 1775 General Montgomery with an American force attacked the city, but he perished before its walls and his troops were dispersed. Since then its capture has not been again attempted. (G. S.T.) QUEDAH or KEDAH. See MALAY PENINsulA, vol. xv. p. 322. QUEDLINBURG, an ancient town of Prussian Saxony, in the district of Magdeburg, is pleasantly situated on the Bode, near the north-west base of the Harz Mountains. It is still partly surrounded by a turreted wall. On the west it is commanded by the old chateau of the imperial abbesses of Quedlinburg, with the interesting abbey church, the body of which was erected in the 11th century. In the crypt, dating from the 10th century, are interred Henry the Fowler and his wife Matilda. The Late Gothic town-house, with additions of the 18th century, contains a good collection of local antiquities. The town also possesses several other churches and numerous schools and charitable foundations. Quedlinburg is famous for its nurseries and market-gardens, and exports vegetable and flower seeds to all parts of Europe and America. It supplies most of the sced used for the cultivation of beetroot for sugar in Silesia, Austria, and Poland. It also carries on manufactures of cloth, iron, and chemicals, and a trade in grain and cattle. The poet Klopstock was a native of Quedlinburg. The population in 1880 was 18,437, almost all Protestants. The town of Quedlinburg, which was founded by Henry the Fowler about the year 930, on the site of the old village of Quitlingen, became a favourite residence of the Saxon emperors, and was the scene of several diets and assemblies of princes. It afterwards joined the Hanseatic League, and attained its greatest prosperity in the 13th or 14th century. The convent was established a few years after the town, and was also richly endowed with lands and privileges. The ablesses, who were frequently members of the imperial house, ranked among the independent princes of the Gorman empire and had no rolesiastical superior except the pope. The town at first strove zealously to maintain its independence against the abbess, and to this end called in the aid of the bishops of Haiberstadt. In 1477, however, the abbess Hedwig, aided by her brothers Ernst and Albert of Saxony, forced the bishops to renounce their claims; and for the next two centuries both town and abbey remained under the protection of the electors of Saxony. In 1539 the loformation was embravel, and the nunn ry was convert, l into a l'uotestant sisterhood. In 1697 the octor of Saxony sold his rights over Quedlinburg to the elector of Iorandonburo, whose troops forthwith enter, d the town. The allosses retained their light of olivate jurisdiction, and the disputes between them and the Prussian Government were not finally settled till the solarization of the abbey in 1s 8. The last two allos, s wore the I'line, ss Anna .\milia 1755 1787, sist, r of Frol, lick the Great, and the l'iincess Sophia Albortina, daughter of King Adolphus Fred risk of Swed, n. QUEEN ANNE'S ROUNTY is the name applied to a perpetual fund of first-fruits and tenths granted by a charter of Queen Anne, and confirmed by statute in 1703 (2 & 3 Anne, c. 11), for the augmentation of the livings of the poorer Anglican clergy. First-fruits (annot's) and tenths (d.ci.nor) formed originally part of the revenue paid by the clergy to the papal exchequer. The former consist of the first whole year's profit of all spiritual preferments, the latter of one-tenth of their annual profits after the first year. Benefices under the annual value of £50 are now exempt from the tax. The income derived from
first-fruits and tenths was annexed to the revenue of the
until 1703. Since that date there has been a large mass of legislation dealing with Queen Anne's Bounty, the effect of which it is impossible to deal with fully in this place. The governors consist of the archbishops and bishops, some of the principal officers of the Government, and the chief legal and judicial authorities. The augmentation proceeds on the principle of assisting the smallest benefices first. All the cures not exceeding £10 per annum must have received £200 before the governors can proceed to assist those not exceeding £20 per annum. In order to encourage benefactions, the governors may give £200 to cures not exceeding £45 a year, where any person will give the same or a greater sum. The average income from first-fruits and tenths is a little more than £14,000 a year. In 1883 the trust funds in the hands of the governors amounted to £4,306,717. The grants in 1883 amounted to £15,400, the benefactions to £20,195. The accounts are laid annually before the queen in council and the Houses of Parliament. The duties of the governors are not confined to the augmentation of benefices. They may in addition lend money for the repair and rebuilding of residences and for the execution of works required by the Ecclesiastical Dilapidations Acts, and may receive and apply compensation money in respect of the enfranchisement of copyholds on any benefice. The governors are unpaid ; the treasurer and secretary receives a salary of 4:1000 a year. He is appointed by patent under the great seal, and holds office during the pleasure of the crown. QUEEN CHARLOTTE ISLANDS, a group of islands lying off the west coast of British Columbia, to which they belong. They were so called by Captain Dixon, who visited them in the “Queen Charlotte’ in 1787, and spent more than a month on their coasts. They are composed of two chief islands, Graham Island to the north and Moresby Island to the south, separated by a very narrow channel; but around these, especially in the south, are innumerable smaller islands. The whole group has the form of a wedge with the point towards the south. The extreme length is about 180 miles, and the greatest breadth 60 miles. The total area cannot be determined, as the longitude of the west coast has not yet been definitely ascertained. See vol. iv. Pl. XXXV. The islands are mountainous, and appear to be a partially submerged continuation of the mountain chain traversing Vancouver's Island, which lies to the south, separated from the group by Queen Charlotte Sound. The mountains are situated more particularly in the southern island, which is little more than a skeleton of mountains washed at their base by the waters of numerous inlets. Many summits here rise above 5000 feet in height. The larger island to the north, which has a length of about 77 miles and a breadth equal to the maximum breadth of the group, is in general lower, though here also there are hills rising to between 2000 and 3000 feet. Both the mountains and lowlands are well wooded, but in general the timber is not found in accessible spots in sufficient quantity to encourage attempts to develop the lumber trade. At present the principal commercial resources of the islands are derived from the fish that frequent these shores. Immense shoals of dog-fish visit the north and north-east, and they are utilized for their oil by a company established on Skidegate Inlet on the east side of Moresby Island. Holibut, herring, salmon, cod, and coalfish or “skil" (this last also rich in oil and a valuable food-fish) are likewise abundant. The climate is extremely moist, especially on the west side of the watershed. Geologically the group appears to be composed mainly of Triassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary strata, with intrusive masses here and there of granite and other igneous rocks. The Triassic deposits occupy almost the whole of the
southern part of the group, and it is uncertain whether some Palaeozoic rocks may not be exposed at certain points, as they are in corresponding situations on the mainland of British Columbia. The Cretaceous deposits lie uncon
formably on those of Triassic age on both sides of Skide-
gate Inlet and Channel (in the south of Graham Island and north-east of Moresby Island), and are interesting geologically from containing a bed of anthracitic coal. These deposits are again unconformably oyerlaid by those of Tertiary age extending over the greater part of Graham Island; and the unconformity in this case is accompanied by evidence of great disturbance, indicating that this was the chief period of mountain-making in the group. The islands are inhabited by an interesting race of Indians called the Haidas, who are chiefly found on the coasts, where they support themselves by fishing, partly also by the cultivation of the potato, which was probably introduced among them by some of the early voyagers. They tattoo their bodies, sometimes paint their faces, and have many singular customs; but their greatest peculiarity consists in their habit of erecting great numbers of carved posts as ornaments in front of their dwellings. Their number is rapidly decreasing, and in the last official report on the exploration of this group (Victoria, 1884), it is estimated at only eight hundred. The fullest account of the Queen Charlotte Islands and their inhabitants is to be found in the report of George M. Dawson in the Report of Progress for 1878–79 of the Geological Survey of Canada. QUEENSBERRY, JAMEs Douglas, SECOND DURE OF (1662–1711), was the eldest son of William, third earl and first duke, high treasurer of Scotland, and Isabel Douglas, sixth daughter of William, first marquis of Douglas. He was born at Sanquhar Castle 18th December 1662, and educated at the university of Glasgow, after which he spent some time in foreign travel. He sided with the prince of Orange at the Revolution, and was appointed a privy councillor, and colonel of the Scotch troop of horse guards. On the death of his father in 1695 he succeeded him as extraordinary lord of session, and was also appointed keeper of the privy seal. In 1702 and 1703 he was appointed by Queen Anne secretary of state, and commissioner to the parliament of Scotland. In the latter year he was deprived of his offices, but he was again restored in 1705, and in the following year was constituted high commissioner on the part of Scotland for carrying out the Treaty of Union between the two kingdoms, which, chiefly owing to his influence and skill, was completed in 1707. In recognition of his services he received a pension of £3000 per annum, and on the 26th May 1708 was created a British peer by the title of duke of Dover. On 9th February 1709 he was appointed third secretary of state. He died 6th July 1711. QUEEN'S COUNTY, an inland county in the province of Leinster, Ireland, is bounded N.W. and N. by King's County, E. by Kildare and a detached portion of King's County, S. by Carlow and Kilkenny, and W. by Tipperary. Its greatest length from east to west is about 35 miles, and its greatest breadth from north to south about 30 miles. The area is 424,854 acres, or about 663 square miles. The surface is for the most part level or gently undulating, but in the north-west rises into the elevations of the Slieve Bloom Mountains, the highest summit being Ardern, 1733 feet. Like the level country, they belong to the limestone formation, but are wrapped round with folds of Old Red Sandstone. In the central part of the county there is a large extent of bog. The south-east portion is included in the Leinster coal-field. Iron ore, copper, and manganese are found in small quantities. Potter's clay is plentiful; and slate, sandstone, and marble are quarried in some places. Nearly the whole of the county is drained either by the Barrow, which has its source in the Slieve Bloom Mountains, and forms at various points the boundary with King's County, Kildare, and Carlow, or by the Nore, which enters the county from Tipperary near Borris-in-Ossory, and flows east and then south till it reaches Kilkenny. The lakes are few and small, the largest being Lough Anaghmore on the northwestern boundary. The Grand Canal enters the county at Portarlington, and runs southwards to the Barrow in Kildare, a branch passing westwards 12 miles to Mountmellick. Agriculture.—The climate is dry and salubrious. Originally a t extent of the surface was occupied with bog, but by draining much of it has been converted into good land. For the most part it is very fertile except in the hilly districts towards the north, and there is some remarkably rich land in the south-east. The total extent under crops in 1884 was 129,617 acres, of which 73,536 acres were under tillage and 56,081 acres under meadow and clover. Of the 42,755 acres under corn crops 639 acres were under wheat, 24,467 acres under oats and 17,639 acres under barley. Of the 30,601 acres under green crops, 15,888 were under potatoes, and 13,077 under turnips. Dairy farming is extensively carried on. The total number of cattle in 1883 was 78,496, of which 20,421 were milch cows. There were 70,530 sheep, 33,834 pigs, 5433 goats, and 249,619 poultry. Horses and mules numbered 14,494, and asses 5742. Agriculture forms the chief occupation, but the manufacture of wo and cotton goods is carried on to a small extent. Railways.-The Great Southern and Western Railway crosses the country from north-east to south-west with stations at Portarlington, Maryborough, Mountrath, and o At Portarlington a branch passes westward to Mountmellick; there is also a branch passing southward from Maryborough, and another passing westward from Ballybrophy. "...". county is divided into eleven baronies, and contains 53 parishes and 1156 townlands. Ecclesiastically it is in the dioceses of Leighlin and Ossory, with portions in those of Kildare, Killaloe, and Dublin. Judicially it is in the home circuit. Assizes are held at Maryborough, the county town, and quarter sessions at Abbeyleix, Borris-in-Ossory, Carlow-Graigue, Maryborough, Mountmellick, and Stradbally. . There are lifteen petty sessions districts. The poor-law unions of Abbeyleix and Donaghmore are wholly within the county, and o of those of Athy, Carlow, Mountmellick, and Roscrea. The county is included in the Dublin military district, and there is a barrack station at Maryborough. Population.—Within the last forty years, the population has diminished by more than one-half. In 1841 it numbered 153,930, which in 1871 had diminished to 79,765, and in 1881 to 73,121. The following were the largest towns:—Mountinellick(3126), Mary: borough (2872), Portarlington (partly in King's County) (2357), and Mountrath (1865). History.—Anciently the territory now included in Queen's County was divided between the districts of Leix, Offaly, Clammaliere, and Osory. In the reign of Philip and Mary, it was made shire ground under the name of Queen's County, in honour of the sovereign, the place chosen for the county, town being named Maryborough. Three miles south of Stradbally is Dun of Clapook; an ancient dun or fort occupying the whole extent of the hill, and there is another large fort at Lugacurren. Aghaboe, where there are the ruins of the abbey, was formerly the seat of the bishoprie of Osory. There are no remains of the Abbey of Timahoe founded by st Mochua in the 6th century, but in the neighbourhood of the site there is a fine round tower. Among the principal old castles are the fortress of the O'Moores in ruins occupying the precipitous rock of Dunamase, three miles east of Maryborough, Borris-in
tory on the Nore, and Lea castle on the Barrow, 2 miles below
Portarlington, erected by the Fitzgeralds in 1250, burnt by Edward Ionice in 1315. in rebuilt, and in 1650 laid in ruins by the soldiers of Cromwell. QUEENSLAND, a British colony, the north-eastern portion of Australia, is situated between New South Wales and Torres Strait, and between the Pacific Ocean and the Northern Territory of South Australia. Its southern
from 29 to 26° S. lat., and 138° E, thence to the Gulf of Carpentaria; its northern is about 9° S. including the Torres Straits islands. In extreme length it is 1400 miles: in breadth, 1000. about 54 times that of the United Kingdom. The population is under 300,000.
Its area is 669,520 square miles, or
With a seaboard of over 2500 miles, it is well favoured with ports on the Pacific side. Moreton Bay receives the Brisbane river, on whose banks Brisbane, the capital, stands. Maryborough port is on the Mary, which flows into Wide Bay; Bundaberg, on the Burnett; Gladstone, on Port Curtis; Rockhampton, up the Fitzroy (Keppel Bay); Mackay, on the Pioneer; Bowen, on Port Denison; Townsville, on Cleveland Bay. Cairns and Port Douglas are near Trinity Bay; Cardwell is on Rockingham Bay; Cooktown, on the Endeavour; Thursday Island port, near Cape York; and Normanton, near the Gulf of Carpentaria. The new gulf port is at Point Parker. The quiet Inner Passage, between the shore and the Great Barrier Reef, 1200 miles long, favours the north-eastern Queensland ports. Ipswich, Toowoomba, Oxley, Beenleigh, Maryborough, and Mackay are farming centres; Warwick, Roma, Clermont, Blackall, Aramac, Hughenden, and Mitchell are pastoral ones. Gympie, Charters Towers, IRavenswood, and Palmerville are gold-mining towns; while Stanthorpe and Herberton have tin mines. Townships are laid out by Government as occasion requires. There are fifteen large districts, viz., Moreton, Darling Downs, Wide Bay, Burnett, Maranoa, Warrego, and South Gregory, southward ; Port Curtis, Leichhardt, South Kennedy, Mitchell, and North Gregory, central; North Kennedy, Iłurke, and Cook, northward. Cape York Peninsula is the northern limit. A few persons were sent to the Brisbane in 1826; but the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales was thrown open to colonization in 1842. It was named “Queensland" on its separation from the mother colony in 1859. A natural but unfounded prejudice against its supposed warmer position retarded its progress, or confined its few inhabitants to pastoral pursuits. The discovery of abundant wealth in minerals and sugar-lands, with the growing conviction of its singular salubrity, greatly advanced the immigration prospects of the colony. A broad plateau, of from 2000 to 5000 feet in height, extends from north to south, at from 20 to 100 miles from the coast, forming the Main Range. This region is the seat of mining, and will be of agriculture. The Coast IRange is less elevated. A plateau goes westward from the Great Dividing Range, throwing most of its waters northward to the gulf. The Main Range sends numerous but short streams to the 'acific, and a few long ones south-westward, lost in earth or shallow lakes, unless feeding the river I)arling. Going northward, the leading rivers, in order, are the Logan, Brisbane, Mary, Burnett, Fitzroy, Burdekin, Herbert, Johnstone, and Endeavour. The Fitzroy receives the Mackenzie and I)awson ; the Burdekin is supplied by the Cape, Belyando, and Suttor. The chief gulf streams are the Mitchell, Flinders, Leichhardt, and Albert. The great dry western plains have the Barcoo, Diamantina, Georgina, Warrego, Maranoa, and ('ondamine. There are few lakes. A succession of elevated and nearly treeless downs of remarkable fertility contrasts with the heavily timbered country favoured by the rains. Cape York Peninsula is an epitome of Queensland. There is good land alternating with bad. The hills are rich in gold, silver, copper, tin, and coal. The forests are valuable, and the scrub is dense. Flats near the mouths of the many streams are admirable for sugarcane and rice, while rising slopes suit coffee trees. West of the range dividing the gulf waters from the Pacific is a sandy grassless r <ion who re the only Suillonly the travell, r
Hughenden, a garden land loside the Flinders. Farther north-west is the charmin: I. ichhardt river district, and the marvellous mineral Cloncurry hi-hland. Southward of that again is the country of the loiamantina and Georgina, with little rain, but having vast tracts of good black soil threaded by slight ridges of barren sandstone. Droughts are there followed by floods from thunder showers. The south-western portion is inferior to all, having heavy sand-rises between the grassy belts. Still the pastoral settlers are taking up areas there. All that dry warm west is remarkably healthy for man and beast. The productive and better-watered part between the Main Range and the Pacific has the principal population. Climate.—The coast-lands, with an annual rainfall of from 40 to 130 inches, are favoured by the south-east trade-winds and the summer north-west monsoons. During 1882 there fell at Johnstone river, 17° S., nearly 160 inches on one hundred and ninety-seven days. Northern Queensland, up to the ranges, is well watered. Central and southern districts are not so aided by the monsoons. The highlands have on their eastern side from 30 to 70 inches, but on their western only from 15 to 30. The gulf region has from 30 to 60. The southern hills have far less rain than the northern ones. The arid western area depends on occasional thunderstorms, though nature provides a grass that long resists the drought. The low south-west basin, trending to the depressed lake region of South Australia, has repeatedly seasons of intense dryness. In temperature, Brisbane has a mean of 69*—between 34° and 105°. The hilly districts, even in the tropics, have slight frosts in winter, but a high barometer in the dry warm weather. North Queensland has less heat than its latitude would seem to threaten. Tropical ports show a lower summer thermometer than may sometimes be seen in Sydney, Adelaide, and Melbourne. The western heat is stimulating in its dryness and electrical condition. The oppression on the northern coast is felt during the rainy season, though the showers cool the air. The prevalence of south-east winds off the sea mitigates the trials of summer. The dreaded “hot wind,” brought southward by the usual course from central Australian deserts, descends upon the southern colonies, avoiding Queensland. Still the ordinary western breeze, passing over so great an expanse of land, while positively cold on winter nights, is sufficiently hot during the summer. In a recent year the colonial registrar-general gave the death-rate of Brisbane municipality at 13 in the thousand, Toowoomba 17, and Rockhampton 15. In the tropics it was 12 at Charters Towers and Cooktown, 15 at Townsville, but 29 at Mackay, where the sickly Polynesians abound. The prevalent diseases are rather from disordered liver and bowels than lungs and throat. Low fevers, seldom fatal, continue for a time in all newly opened-up country throughout Australia, as in America. Female mortality, even in the tropical ports, is considerably less than that of males. Infants, as a rule, thrive better in the colony, according to numbers, than in England. Cooktown, in lat. 16° S., is regarded by some as the sanatorium of the future. Queensland can give invalids any climate they may desire—moist and equable, dry and exhilarating, warm days and cool nights, soft coast airs for bronchial affections, and more bracing ones for other consumptives. Geology.—Queensland is geologically connected with New South Wales and Victoria by the great chain of hills continued through the castern portion of Australia, from Cape York to Bass's Strait. That immense range consists largely of Palaeozoic formations with igneous rocks. The granites, porphyries, and basalts have greatly tilted and metamorphosed the sedimentary deposits of Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, and Oolitic ages. The width of this elevated and mineral part of the colony varies from 50 to 400 miles. Ancient formations, however, rise in the broad western plains, and everywhere indicate metallic
treasures. Nearer the eastern coast gramite and porphyritic rocks appear in greater force than in the Dividing Range, and the voyager rarely loses sight of them all the way from Moreton Bay to Cape York. They add much to the attractiveness of the scenery, especially in WhitSunday Passage. The old sedimentary strata consist of sandstones, limestones, conglomerates, and slates of various kinds. The Carboniferous beds are of great extent, occupying thousands of square miles (perhaps as many as 100,000), on the highlands, and on both sides of the Main Chain. It is in north and central Queensland that the mineral is found of the true Palaeozoic character, bearing the distinctive floral features of the English and New South Wales Newcastle formation, The Jurassic and Liassic rocks of the southern hilly districts are rich in cannel coal. The Wollumbilla beds are similar to the Upper Wiannamatta ones of New South Wales. The Mesozoic or Secondary formations prevail largely to the westward. Ammonites, belemnites, and ichthyosauri declare the same condition of things as once existed in the English midlands. The Cretaceous and Oolitic series on the western plains occupy nearly a third of Queensland, and their grassy surface is being rapidly covered with flocks of sheep. A descent below the ocean level produced the Tertiary beds. The so-called “desert sandstone” may have once covered nearly the whole of the colony, though suffering great denudation afterwards, to the decided satisfaction of settlers. It still stretches over much of the extensive plateau and both slopes. In some places it is hundreds of feet thick. The favourite Downs have got free from this arid incubus. Tertiary freshwater beds, not marine ones, are seen towards the coast. The volcanic element is very distinguishable, and is a source of the large area of fertile soil. Throughout the ranges, and over many of the downs, basalts and lavas abound. Though no eruptive cone appears, there are hundreds of well-defined extinct craters, some being 4000 feet above sea-level, surrounded by sheets of lava and masses of volcanic ashes. The Great Barrier Reef, following the line of the north-east coast for 1200 miles, preserves the memory of an ancient shore; the coral animalculae built on the gradually sinking cliffs. The reefs approach the coast-line within five miles northward and one hundred southward, having an area of 30,000 square miles, and protecting eastern Queensland from the violence of Pacific storms. A narrow deep trough in the sea-bottom extends from Moreton Bay to Fiji. Within 100 miles of Cape Moreton the water is 16,000 feet in depth. While the alluvial gold and tin-workings are among the Tertiary and post-Tertiary formations, the veins and lodes of gold, silver, copper, tin, and other metals are in the solid granite, or in the ancient sedimentary rocks, particularly in association with dioritic and other igneous intrusions. Greenstone has there some of the richest of copper lodes. The celebrated tin mines of Tinaroo are in granite mountains 3000 feet high, where Englishmen work without discomfort within the tropics. Some of the tropical coal-fields are also at a considerable elevation, though nowhere are they situated in an insalubrious locality. The more southern coal seams are in districts as healthful as they are beautiful. The Queensland fossils greatly resemble those of other parts of the world. Those, however, of the more recent Tertiary times indicate the presence of animals akin to existing marsupials, though some of the kangaroo order stood a dozen feet in height, and had the bulk of a hippopotamus. The diprotodon, 16 feet in length, may have pulled down branches or young trees for its support. The rise of land would have diminished water-supply in the interior, and caused the gradual disappearance of the gigantic marsupials. A monster bird, like the New Zealand moa, twice as large as the existing emu, once strode over Queensland plains. An ichthyosaurus, computed nearly thirty feet in length, was found on the surface of the Flinders river downs. The Secondary fossils have less resemblance than those of Western Australia to the European species. Near the Condamine a fossil monitor twenty feet long was unearthed. The northern coal-fields display the Glossopteris, Sigillaria, and Lepidodendron. The northern beds exhibit the mesozoic Thinnfeldia odontopterodes, Alethopteris australis, and Podozomites distans. Some existing Queensland fish, as the ceratodus, are allied to those of the Carboniferous age in Great Britain. Minerals.-Gold is found in alluvial deposits and in quartz veins. The most important of the former were near the northern I’almer river, but auriferous quartz now almost monopolizes the digger's attention. The recognized gold workings are over 7000 square miles. While there were 3454 Europeans, early in 1883, engaged in quartz mining, only 280 were on alluvial ground; in the same year 2046 Chinese worked alluvial claims. Charters Towers in the north and Gympie in the south are the chief gold centres; but Mount Morgan, south of Rockhampton, is the richest mine yet discovered. The gold export, realized £1,498,433 in 1875, but only £829,655 in 1882. The decrease is owing to the greater dependence of the miners on blasting rock." Gold is often found mixed with silver, copper, or lead. One lode had to the ton 75 to 120 ounces of silver and from , oz. to 4 oz of gold. Silver ore is being worked to great advantage now near Ravenswood, Star river, and Sellheim river. Copper has been long so low-priced in England that its extraction in the colony, with high-rated labour, has been seriously checked. The cupriferous area is very large there. Mount Perry, Peak Downs, Herberton, and Cloncurry are the leading .." sites. The “Australian" mine of Cloncurry, 200 miles south of the gulf, is very rich. In one place a lode, 80 to 120 feet wide, showed 30 per cent. of bismuth and 40 of copper to the ton. Tin streams were first opened at Stanthorpe, near the southern border. Tin lodes of astonishing richness exist in the Wild river district about 19° S. lat. There are single claims of tin stream, or on tin lodes, besides tin land leases, at Tate river, Wild river, and other localities. The Tinaroo yield in the five years has been £383,350. Called the Cornwall of Australia, this tin district shows gold, silver, copper, and antimony. The tin export of the colony during 1883 was
£298,845. Iron ores abound, but with no present prospect of being utilized. Bismuth, graphite, antimony, nickel, cinnabar, and
other metals are known. Precious stones are gathered from gold and tin workings. Building stones are plentiful in variety, and good in quality. Granite, porphyry, basalt, sandstone, and marbles are wrought. The coal is, after all, the most important and useful of the minerals. Already steamers, foundries, and railways are being supplied from Queensland pits. Several beds are known near Moreton Bay. About Ipswich and Darling Downs the coal is clean to the touch. Some specimens cake, others do not. All are good for gas and steam purposes. The Darling Downs beds an in an ancient lake, and are valuable for fuel and oil. On 100 th of that coal being burnt, 529 lb of water were evaporated to 505 from Newcastle coal, leaving 16 lb of ash to 7 for the other. That cannel is of Lias age. Much rests under the Eolian san-latone and basalt of the west. The Burrum mineral, between Miryhorough and Bundaberg, is true coal, yielding, at the first opening. 3·100 tons a month. One seam would give 5,000,000 tons. The Dawson, Bowen, and Mackenzie river basins, of vast **tent, arc Talaozoic, as in the Irummond range, and westward over the main chain. Coal is found in the York peninsula. On the civil of Queensland the distinguished Australian geologist, the Rev. J. Tenison Wools, expresses himself thus:– “The fact that the coal formations cover so vast an extent of the territory, and so in any valuable coal-fields having been discovered, makes me contident in predicting that its resources in coal are enormous, are volulul, if not superior, to any other colony, and will raise her shores to be in the end the grand coal emporium of the southern hemisphere."
tables, sweet potatoes, melons, cassava, cocoa, indigo, arrowroot, ginger, coffee, rice, tobacco, cotton, spices, cinchona, cocoa-nut, bread-fruit, and sugar-cane, with the fruits of England, India, and China. Lucerne is much grown for stud stock, where winter food is needed. Bauanas, oranges, grapes, pine-apples, mangoes, guavas, tamarinds, and dates thrive well. Collee is being extensively produced. Many Ceylon planters have recently settled in the colony. Cotton Jods, tended mostly in Moreton district, are now a paying crop. The mulberry success is paving the way for silk culture. The Roma grapes and oranges are much esteemed. Bananas grow on any coast-lands. Arrowroot and tobacco are profitable. Sweet }. are extensively used. Itice will be a crop of the future. 'armers in the southern hills raise corn and English fruits. Dairy farming belongs more to a cooler latitude. Wheat can be successfully produced, when labour is cheaper, over an area of 60,000 square miles. Stanthorpe wheat gave 67 lb to the bushel. Maize is a more certain crop. But sugar-cane is now the Queensland farmer's chief resource. From the southern border up to Cape York, if near the coast, it can be raised. All round Moreton Bay, and in the Maryborough and Bundaberg neighbourhood, it does well; but in the more northern parts, as at the Mackay, Cairns, Burdekin, Johnstone, and Herbert fields, the yield is greater, and the plant comes earlier to maturity. In the Mackay sugar district, döring 1884, there were 22,000 acres in cane. Coast Queensland has not only warmth, and rich alluvial or scrub soil, but abundance of rain when growth requires it, with fine weather at cane ripening for manufacturing sugar. Some planters have their own appliances for the extraction of juice and the manufacture of sugar, but the small farmers combine to have machinery in their district, or else dispose of cane or juice for cash to the neighbouring sugar-maker. Polynesians or Kanakas have been used for the sugar-house, though Europeans do all the work of growth and manufacture in South Queensland. Chinese merchants are establishing came grounds, worked by their own countrymen ; and Germans and Scandinavians have extensively embarked in this industry. 'astoral farming is still the leading industry of the colony, and is rapidly extending over all districts. An occasional check to its prosperity comes by drought in the dry western interior. But a few o seasons, in that healthy wilderness, enable the sheepmaster to recoup himself, especially as, in the remoter parts, he has a securer tenure and a very small rental. In “settled districts,” and within 30 miles of the coast, a “run” is subject to resumption by the state, at six months' notice, should any part be required to be cut up for farms. In the more distant unsettled district” a lease of twentyone years is fairly secure. The rent advances every seven years of the term from about half a farthing to a penny an acre. In the dry parts, where grass is insullicient, cattle and sheep thrive well on the salt bush and other shrubs. The only really unavailable pastoral region is that portion of the north-western slope of the Main Range already referred to. The spear-grass sometimes sends its barbed tufts into the flesh of sheep. Will dogs, floods, and droughts have to be encountered, though the animals to be tended are unaffected by ailments plaguing locks and holds in Iritain. The western plains, dry but fertile, are best for sheep; the hills and moist coast-lands for attle and horses. The melino sheep yields excellent wool on tropical pastures, contrary to former expectations. The sheep had increased from 3,000,000 to 12,000,000 lo tween 1st:0 and 1883; and cattle, from 4:30,000 to 4,320,000. To meet future droughts, subterranean streams have been found by antesian wells in the most arid wastes, and the storage of water after floods will furnish a supply in dry weather. Flora.-The Queensland flora comprehends most of the forms wouliar to Australia, with the addition of about five hundred slo is |. to the ladian and Malayan rigions. The east, rim portion of New Holland may have a vegetation of a som, what diffei, ut type from that of the western, but both have older to presentatives than those found in the contral zone from the gulf to the Southern Ocean. The palms in the north-east of Quo, msland ii., oude the ('u, as and the screw or Poulous. The pines take an important position in the colony.− as the Moreton Bay pine (Arooroo Cunninahonii), the Burnett bunya bunya i-tratoria I; or, 11.), the kauri or dundathu Iommitro rousto , and the she pine lowloorpus , luto). The Corris or cypress family like poor soil. The cedar forests are luried in scrub towards the mouth- of “astorm rivers. Coast-lands are crowded with tries, though blizalow-s, rul, with the silv, rol. iv. l tops, prevails far inland. Th., to are tr. s rising alove 300 f it. One monster. no at the Johnston; river. was soon SS foot in girth at 55 s, , t from the ground, and 1:1, at the list. The Moreton Bay fig-tro las immonso The bott!... or ; uty stem tro of th: 1: alli, d to the i. in lono-il. Flow, n a low-tool f or it: "s. Q:1. n-, or l is 1. st wo, s. lolish, wore - n: to a r. . . at . Ah of some, patti, ularly lar and line, is r and Port Curtis. Woods to to are in use for to: