صور الصفحة

furniture, dyeing, shipbuilding, coachbuilding, hoops and staves, turnery, gunstocks, veneering, &c. Among the Eucalypti are those known as Moreton Bay ash, mahogany, yellow box, blackbutt, ironbark, turpentine, bloodwood, messmate, with the blue, red, grey, forest, swamp, scented, and spotted gum trees. The ironwood, brigalow, and myall are of the Acacia genera. Among the Casuarinae are the he, she, swamp, forest, and river oaks. Names are found oddly given by colonists. Their red cedar is the Cedrela Goona; white cedar, the Melia composita; pencil cedar, the Dysoxylon Muelleri ; white wood, the Alstonia ; light yellow wood, the F/indersia orleyana; dark yellow wood, the Rhus ; beech, the Gmelina Leichhardtii; coachwood, the Ceratopetalum ; ebony, the Malba ; musk, the Marles ; Leichhardt's tree, the Sarcocephalus cordatus; mahogany, the Tristania; tulip, the Stenocarpus sinuatus; honeysuckle, the Banksia ; pea-tree, the Melaleuca ; bottlebrush, the Callistenon lanceolatus ; beefwood, the Banksia ; satinwood, the Xanthoxylum brachyacanthum ; coral tree, the Erythrina ; apple, the Angophora subvelutina ; teak, the Dissilaria baloghioides ; feverbark, the Alstonia constricta ; sandalwood, the Eremophila Mitchelli ; lignum vita, the Vitca: ; silky oak, the Grevillea robusta. Among the so-called native fruits, the plum and apple are the Owenia; orange and lime are the Citrus; cumquatis is the Atalantia; cherry, the Exocarpus ; pomegranate, the Capparis mobilis; olive, the Olea ; chestnut, the Cantharospermum australe; pear, the Xylomelum pyriforme; quandong, the Fusanus; nut, the Macadamia termifolia; tamarind, the Diploglottis Cunninghamii. The nonda, a native fruit, grows up to 60 feet. The nut of the bunya bunya, so prized by the blacks, is reserved over a district 30 miles by 12. Other trees are also protected by Government. The native grasses are nearly a hundred in number. The desert drought-resisting Mitchell grass is Danthonia pectinata ; the weeping Polly is Poa caespitosa ; the dogtooth, Chloris divaricata ; the blue star, Chloris ventricosa ; the barcoo or Landesborough, Anthistiria membranacea ; the kangaroo, Anthistiria australis; another kangaroo, Andropogon refractus ; the rat-tail, Andropogon mervosus; the oat, Anthistiria venacea ; another perennial oat, Microlaena stipoides; the umbrella, Aristida cramosa and Panicum virgatum. The native carrot is Daucus brachiatus ; the native plantain, Plantago varia ; the sorghum or rice, Aryza sativa ; and the bamboo, Stipa ramosissima. The salt-bush (Atriplex, Rhagodia, Chenopodium, &c.) is found useful in the absence of grasses. The danthonia and sporobolus strike deep roots. The Burdekin cane is relished by stock. The seeds of Panicum laevinode are used as food by the natives. Among plants poisonous to animals are the poison pea, fuchsia, scab-lily, indigo, thorn-apple, box, mistletoe, and nutgrass. Many English and foreign varieties of fodder are being now introduced. . Useful fibres are of a number of kinds. Ferns are plentiful on the eastern side. Climbing ferns abound. Grammitis ampla has leaves a yard long. A Rockingham Bay fern, one foot high, has the habit of a tree fern. The epiphytes, growing on trees, are often very beautiful in tropical scrubs. Elk's horn, Platycerium alcicorne, as well as the large stag's horn, are in much esteem. Forest ferns are similar to those in neighbouring colonies, excepting some tufted Lindswa. The Australian bracken is peculiar to the southern hemisphere. Rock ferns are very graceful. The North Queensland Asplenium laserpitifolium is greatly admired. A tropical Aspidium, with leaves 6 feet long, throws out runners. The Grammitis Muelleri, with scaly hairs, is peculiar to North Queensland. Swamp ferns are mostly seen to the northeast. Tree ferns attain magnificent proportions, rising 20 and 30 feet. Fauna. —The Queensland fauna is much like that described under NEw South WALEs. But forms are now living there whose allies are elsewhere recognized as Tertiary Fossils. The marsupials constitute a prominent family. The platypus or water mole is duck-billed and web-footed. The dingo is a howling, nocturnal dog. Queensland birds are very beautiful. One is something like the New Guinea bird of paradise. Other species of the feathered order are kindred to some in the Asiatic islands. Bower birds have a satin plumage, and indulge in play-bowers, adorned with shells and stones. The regent bird and risle bird are peculiarly attractive in colours. Mound builders lay their eggs in sand heaps. The wild turkey and other game may be easily obtained. North Queensland has a fine cassowary. Reptiles consist of alligators, lizards, and snakes ; few of the last, particularly of larger species, are hurtful to man. Fisheries.—The sperm whale has become rare of late in North Australian seas. Deep-sea fishing is unknown in Queensland. About the coasts are the usual edible Australian forms, as whiting, rock cod, bream, flathead, schnapper, guardfish, &c. Sharks and alligators are there. The shell-grinder, Cestracion, is similar to a shark found as fossil in Europe. Sword fish grow to a great size. Some Queensland fish resemble varieties in Indian seas. The Chinese are the best fishermen in Australian waters. The huge dugong, or sea cow, feeding on bay grasses, has a delicate flesh, of the flavour of veal, and furnishes an oil with the qualities of codliver oil. The fishery of the trepang, béche-de-mer, or sea slug employs a considerable number of boats about the coral reefs.

Boiled, smoke-dried, and packed in bags, the trepang sells for exportation to China, though its agreeable and most nourishing soup is relished by Australian invalids. At Cooktown and Port Douglas more than £100 per ton may be had for the produce. The pearl fishery is a prosperous and progressive one in or near Torres Straits. A licence is paid, and the traffic is under Government supervision. Thursday Island is the chief seat of this industry. The shells are procured by diving, and fetch from £120 to £200 a ton. Mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell constitute important exports of the colony, capable of great expansion. Oysters are as fine flavoured as they are abundant. Turtles are caught to the northward. Commerce.—So extensive a coast-line, and so much of that protected by the Barrier Reef, cannot but be favourable to commerce. The Torres Strait mail service has opened up increased opportunities for trade with China, India, Java, &c. Contiguity to New Caledonia and the Pacific Isles will conduce to mercantile relations. There are several lines of coasting steamers. The great development of the mining, pastoral, and sugar industries, the rapid growth of railways, an easy tariff, and the settlements of York Peninsula are giving a great impetus to commerce. The exports for 1882 were £3,534,452; of which wool brought £1,329,019; gold £829,655; tin £269,904; stock £280,466; sugar É153,188; tallow £129,549; preserved meats £119,343; pearls £105,869; hides £88,359; beche-de-mer £25,032. The imports for that year were £6,318,463. Among these imports some items may be cited: —for manufactured cotton, silk, and woollen goods £839,352, unmanufactured £194,489; for metal goods and hardware £910,029; flour and grain, £453,307; oilman's stores, £376,987; spirits, wines, and beer, £320,925; books and stationery, £113,798; tea, £109,286. Few of these articles are yet re-exported. The exports for 1883 advanced to £4,652,880, to which wool contributed £2,277,878, and sugar É538,785. The shipping exceeds 1,500,000 tons. Dock conveniences, ships, and colonial-made steam dredgers exercise the state care. The development of coal mines is aiding both shipping and railway extension. With the establishment of British rule in New Guinea, a serious danger to Queensland interests will be averted, and a happy opportunity offered for the enlargement of its commerce. Manufactures.—The colony is too young, its population too scattered, its resources in raw material too extensive, for any great advance at present in the industrial stage. Yet already large foundries are established, in which agricultural instruments, mining machinery, sugar appliances, steam engines, and locomotives are constructed. Tanneries, breweries, sugar-mills, distilleries, tobaccofactories, cotton-ginning, woollen factories, wine-making, meatpreserving, boot-factories, &c., are being carried on. The sawmills near Maryborough are, perhaps, equal to anything in the southern hemisphere, relays of men working at night by electric light. Roads and Railways.-Nearly ninety divisional boards, throughout the colony, raise means by rates for highway improvements, Government supplementing their revenue, as in the case of municipalities, by special grants in aid. Coaches travel inland 700 miles from the capital. At the end of 1884, besides several hundreds of miles of railway in process of construction, the lines opened to traffic were 1201 miles. The western line is from Brisbane, over Darling Downs, through Roma. The south-west will be reached by Cunnamnulla. From Rockhampton westward the railway has gone 350 miles on towards the downs of the Barcoo. The line from Townsville, parallel to the last, after passing Charters Towers, will go on to Hughenden and the Flinders river region. The three great lines will be hereafter connected, and the Cloncurry and gulf country united with the western ports. Maryborough is thus connected with Gympie and Burrum, Bundaberg with Mount Perry, Brisbane with Warwick, and Brisbane with several suburbs. The heavy loans of the colony are mainly devoted to the construction of railways. Administration.—The governor is appointed by the Queen. The executive council has 8 members, the legislative council 33, and the assembly 55. The term of parliament is five years. There were in January 1884 42 electorates, 18 municipalities, 4 boroughs, 85 divisional boards, 49 police districts. Excepting very occasional difficulties with blacks in remote and scrubby districts, order is thoroughly observed. Numerous religious and temperance organizations are of assistance in securing respect for law. Among official departments are those of the colonial secretary, treasurer, auditor-general, poli, works and mines, public lands, customs, administration of justice, post office, police, immigration, and medical board. Revenue.—Of a revenue of £2,102,095 in 1881–2, £806,719 came from taxation. For the year ending June 30, 1884, the total was £2,566,358. Of this, the customs gave £866,475; excise, £34,441; land sales, £365,536; pastoral rents, £246,103; railways, £581,642; lo and telegraph, £155,996. The expenditure was £2,317,674. n the settled districts, during 1883, 304 runs had an area of 11,162 square miles, at a rental of £21,419. In the unsettled districts 8939 runs had 475,601 square miles, paying £216,638, averaging less than a farthing an acre. Expired and renewed leases realize in


creasing rates. The absolute public debt in 1884 was £16,570,850. Of that amount the outlay on railways was about 12 millions; immigration, 2.; harbours, 1}. Roads and telegraph lines took other sums. Education.—Queensland led the way among the Australian colonies, in the establishment of a system of public instruction free, unsectarian, and compulsory. At the same time, however, the parliament declined to grant further state aid to the clergy and religious edifices of Protestant Episcopalians, Presbyterians, Wesleyans, and Roman Catholics, formerly drawing from the treasury. State or provisional schools are formed wherever there is a sufficient gathering of children. The annual public cost was £2, 17s. er ..i. here are, however, self-supporting private schools. Masters and mistresses of state schools are paid by the Government according to their own educational status, the number of children, and the proficiency of instruction. Excellent training schools for teachers are established. Five superior grammar schools are partly supported by the state; the municipal councils have voluntarily .. those institutions, and offered scholarships to their pupils. The Government gives free education in grammar schools to successful scholars in state schools, besides three years' exhibitions to universities to a certain number passing a high examination. State aid is also rendered to schools of art, schools of design, free libraries, and technical schools. Population.—The estimated population in January 1884 was 290,000, of whom three-fifths were males. Polynesian labourers, imported for three years, are about 8000. The Chinese, now restricted by a heavy poll tax, may be 18,000. The Aborigines, very fast dying out, mainly by contact with civilization, may be from 10,000 to 12,000. IIistory.—The Portuguese may have known the northern shore nearly a century before Torres, in 1605, sailed through the strait since called after him, or before the Dutch landed in the Gulf of Carpentaria. Captain Cook passed along the eastern coast in 1770, taking possession of the country as New South Wales. Flinders .# §. Bay in 1802. Oxley was on the Brisbane in 1823, and Allan Cunningham on Darling Downs in 1827. Sir T. L. Mitchell in 1846–7 made known the Maranoa, Warrego, and Barcoo districts. Leichhardt in 1845–47 traversed the coast country, going round the gulf to Port Essington, but was lost in his third great journey. Kennedy followed down the Barcoo, but was killed by the {. while exploring York Peninsula. Burke and Wills crossed western Queensland in 1860. Landesborough, Walker, M'Kinlay, Hann, Jack, Hodgkinson, and Favence continued the researches. Squatters and miners have opened new regions. Before its separation in 1859 the country was known as the Moreton Bay district of New South Wales. A desire to form fresh penal depôts led to the discovery of Brisbane river in December 1823, and the proclamation of a penal settlement there in August 1826. The convict population was gradually withdrawn again to Sydney, and the place was declared open to free persons only in 1842. The first land sale in Brisbane was on August 9, 1843. An attempt was made in 1846, under the ministry of Sir James Graham and Mr Gladstone, to establish at Gladstone on Port Curtis the colony of North Australia for ticket-of-leave men from Britain and Van Diemen's Land. Earl Frey's Government under strong colonial o arrested this policy, and broke up the convict settlement. In 1841 there were 176 males and 24 females; in 1844, 540 in all ; in 1846, 1867. In 1834 the governor and the English rulers thought it necessary to abandon Moreton Bay altogether, but the order was withheld. The first stock ... "...i. to the colonial Government, but flocks and herds of settlers came on the Darling Downs in 1841. In 1844 there were 17 squatting stations round Moreton Bay and 25 in Darling Downs, having 13,295 cattle and 184,651 sheep. In 1849 there were 2812 horses, 72,096 cattle, and 1,077,983 sheep. But there were few persons in Brisbane and Ipswich. The Rev. Dr Lang then began his agitation in England on behalf of this northern district. Some settlers, who sought a separation from New South Wales, offered to accept British convicts if the ministry grantel independence. In answer to their memorial a shipload of ticket-of-leave men was sent in 1850. In spite of the objection of Sydney, the Moreton Bay district was proclaimed the colony of Queensland on December 10, 1859. e population was then about 20,000, and the revenue £6475. Little trade, no manufactures, wretched roals, defective wharfage, struggling townships, and poor schools marked that epoch. Political liberty occasioned a general advance. The first parliament, with the ministry of Mr now Sir R. G. W.) Herbert, organized a good school system, carriesl an effective land bill, and established real religious equality. while the pastoral interest rapidly grew, the agricultural and trading classes got firm footing. The revelation of gold and copper treasures increased the prosperity. But a reaction followed; wool prices fell, o: ceased, early sugar-cane efforts failed, and trouble succeeded excessive speculation in land and mines. A steady application to legitimate pursuits, however, soon restored confidence; and the colony, as its resources have gradually developed, has continued to advance and prosper. (J. B0.)


QUEENSTOWN, formerly Cove of CoRK, a market town and seaport in the county of Cork, Ireland, is picturesquely situated, 13 miles east-south-east of Cork, on the south side of Great Island, on the slope of an eminence rising somewhat abruptly above the inner Cork harbour. It consists chiefly of terraces, rising above each other, and inhabited by the wealthier classes. On account of the mildness of the climate it is much frequented by valetudinarians in winter. Previous to the American War the Cove of Cork was a very small fishing village, but within the last fifty years it has rapidly increased. It received its present name on the occasion of the visit of Queen Victoria in 1849. The harbour, which is 4 miles long by 2 broad, and is defended by the Carlisle and Camden Forts at its entrance, and by Fort Westmoreland on Spike Island, can afford shelter to a very large fleet of vessels. The port is the calling station for the American mail steamers. Among the principal buildings are the new Catholic cathedral for the diocese of Cloyne, and the Protestant Episcopal church for the united parishes of Clonmel and Temple Robin. A fine promenade, over a mile in length, connects Queenstown with Rushbrook, a favourite The population of Queenstown in 1871 was 10,334, and in 1881 it was 97.55.

QUERCITRON is a yellow dye-stuff obtained from the bark of the quercitron oak, Quercus tinctoria (see vol. xvii. p. 693). The tree is a native of the United States, but is now also cultivated in France and South Germany. The dye-stuff is prepared by grinding the bark in mills after it has been freed from its black epidermal layer, and sifting the product to separate the fibrous matter, the fine yellow powder which remains forming the quercitron of commerce. The ruddy-orange decoction of quercitron contains quercitannic acid (vol. xvii. p. 692) and an active dyeing principle, quercitrin, CoalTao Oly. The latter substance is a glucoside, and in aqueous solution under the influence of sulphuric acid it splits up into a rich tinctorial principle, querectin, Co-HisOis, and a variety of sugar called isodulcite, C.H.I.O.'. The reaction may be thus formulated

C.H. On 4 II.O = C.HisOis 4 C.H.O.

Quercetin precipitates in the form of a crystalline powder of a brilliant citron yellow colour, entirely insoluble in cold and dissolving only sparingly in hot water, but quite soluble in alcohol. Either by itself or in some form of its glucoside quercitrin, quercetin is found in several vegetable substances, among others in cutch, in Persian berries (Rhamnus catharticus), buckwheat leaves (Polygonum Pagopyrum), Zante fustic wood (Rhus Cotinus), and in rose petals, &c. Quercitron was first introduced as a yellow dye in 1775. For many years it has been used principally in the form of FLAvix (s.v.). Flavin is prepared by boiling quercitron in water and precipitating the tinctorial principle by sulphuric acid. By one method soda crystals are added in preparing the solution. The yellow precipitate is washed to free it from acid, pressed, and dried. From 100 parts of quercitron about 85 of flavin are obtained, having a tinctorial power more than twice that of the original bark. Quercitron and its industrial derivatives are principally employed in calicoprinting. With alumina (red liquor mordant) they yield a bright canary colour, with tin salt a fine clear yellow, with iron liquor grey, olive, or black according to the strength of the mordant, and with mixed alumina and iron liquor an orange tint.

QUERETARO, a city of Mexico, capital of the state of the same name, lies on a plateau 5900 feet above the sea, 1523 miles north-west of Mexico by the Central Mexican Railway. It is a well-built place with a beautiful tree-planted alameda, a cathedral, and several handsome churches and convents (Santa Clara, worthy of special note), a hospital, and other public buildings; and it is supplied with excellent water from the mountains by a great stone aqueduct erected at the expense of the Marquis de Villar del Aquila whose statue adorns one of the squares. In manufactures it occupies a high place, producing cotton and woollen goods, leather, soap, and wood-carvings. The great Hercules cotton-factory, about 2 miles by rail from the town, is enclosed by a high loop-holed wall and defended by a small company of soldiers; in this way the proprietors have maintained their position since 1840 in spite of all the revolutions that have swept over the country. About 1400 operatives (all Mexicans) are employed, and work is carried on both day and might. Unbleached cotton is the staple product. The population of the city was stated at 38,000 in 1882. Querétaro was captured by the Spaniards in 1536, and made a city in 1655. In 1848 it was the seat of a congress by which peace between Mexico and the United States was ratified, and in 1867 the emperor Maximilian, unable to hold it against the republicans

under Escobedo, was made prisoner and shot on the Cerro de las Campanas to the north of the town.

QUERN. See FLOUR, vol. ix. p. 343–4.

QUESNAY, FRANÇois (1694–1774), was one of the most eminent economists of the 18th century. He was born at Mérey, near the village of Montfort l'Amaury, about 28 miles from Paris, on the 4th of June, 1694, a year memorable also for the birth of Voltaire. He was the son of a worthy advocate, who had the reputation of ruining his own practice by reconciling the parties who came to consult him about their suits. The modest resources of the family were derived principally from the cultivation of a small landed estate, Quesnay's mother in particular busying herself much with the details of its management, which she thoroughly understood. Isis boyish years were thus spent amidst country scenes and the occupations of the farm, and he retained to the end a strong predilection for rural life and a special interest in the welfare of the agricultural population. Little attention was given to his early literary instruction; it is said that he could not read till he was eleven years of age, when he was taught partly by the family gardener, who used as the text book the Maison Rustique of Jean Liébault, a work “wherein” (to quote the words of its old English translator, Richard Surflet, 1606) “is conteined whatever can be required for the building or good ordering of a husbandman's house or countrey farme.” This book Quesnay is said to have studied with such assiduity as to have almost known it by heart. He learned Greek and Latin and the elements of several sciences with scarcely any aid from masters. He was possessed with an ardent and untiring desire for knowledge, and we are told that more than once he walked to Paris for a book, which he read on his way back the same day, thus travelling twenty leagues on foot.

At the age of sixteen he became apprentice to a surgeon in the neighbourhood of Mérey, who was not able to teach him much, and he soon went to Paris to continue his professional education. He there devoted himself with great ardour for five or six years to the study of medicine and surgery, diligently attending the hospitals, and following the courses of anatomy, chemistry, and botany; he also learned drawing and engraving, in which he acquired considerable skill, and gave some attention to metaphysics, to which he had been attracted by the reading of Malebranche's Recherche de la Vérité. About 1718 he established himself at Mantes, and soon obtained a distinguished clientèle. He became known to the Maréchal de Noailles, who conceived a high esteem for him, and persuaded the queen, whenever she came to Maintenon, which was not very far from Mantes, to consult no physician but Quesnay. A celebrated practi

tioner of the time, named Silva, having published a treatise on bleeding, which, though of little merit, was loudly applauded by his friends, Quesnay wrote a refutation of it, founded on the principles of hydrostatics, which brought his name much into notice. When La Peyronnie had procured about 1730 the foundation of an academy of surgery with the view of elevating that profession, he selected Quesnay for the post of perpetual secretary. Coming to Paris to fill it, he obtained through La Peyronnie's influence the office of surgeon in ordinary to the king. He was the author of the remarkable preface which was prefixed to the first volume of the Mémoires of the academy. He was for a long time much occupied with the controversies between the faculty of medicine and the college of surgery concerning the respective limits of the two professions, and wrote most of the pieces in which the claims of the latter were asserted. Finding that frequent attacks of the gout were rendering him incapable of performing manual operations, he procured in 1744 the degree of doctor of medicine from the university of Pontà-Mousson; but, though thus changing the nature of his practice, he continued to defend the rights of the surgical profession. He soon after purchased the reversion to the office of physician in ordinary to the king, and afterwards became his first consulting physician; in this capacity he was installed in the palace of Versailles, occupying apartments near those of Madame de Pompadour. Louis XV. esteemed Quesnay much, and used to call him his thinker; when he ennobled him, he gave him for arms three flowers of the pansy (pensée), with the motto Propter excogitationem mentis. He now devoted himself principally to economic studies, taking no part in the court intrigues which were perpetually going on around him. About the year 1750 he became acquainted with M. de Gournay, who was also an earnest inquirer in the economic field; and round these two distinguished men was gradually formed the philosophic sect of the Economistes, or, as for distinction's sake they were afterwards called, the Physiocrates. The most remarkable men in this group of disciples were the elder Mirabeau (author of L'Ami des Hommes, 1756–60, and Philosophie Rurale, 1763), the Abbé Baudeau (Introduction a la Philosophie Economique, 1771), Le Trosme (De l'Ordre Social, 1777), Morellet (best known by his controversy with Galiani on the freedom of the corn trade), Mercier Ilarivière, and Dupont de Nemours. Of the writings of the last two, as well as of the general doctrine of the physiocrats, some account has been given in the article PoliticAL EcoxoMY (see vol. xix. pp. 359 sq.). The principal economic work of Quesnay himself was the Tableau Economique, which Laharpe called "Alcoran des Economistes. A small 6dition de lure of this work, with other pieces, was printed in 1758 in the palace of Versailles under the king's immediate supervision, some of the sheets, it is said, having been pulled by the royal hand. Already in 1767 the book had disappeared from circulation, and no copy of it is now procurable; but the substance of it is has been preserved in the Ami des IIommes of Mirabeau, and the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours. In Quesnay's Marimes Générales du Gouvernement Economique d'un Royaume Agricole, which was put forward as an Ertrait des Economies Royales de Sully, and was printed along with the Tableau in 1758, besides stating his economic doctrines, he expresses his opinion in favour of a legal despotism as the best form of government. “Let the sovereign authority be single, and superior to all the individuals of society and all the unjust enterprises of private interest. The system of counter-forces in a government is a harmful one, which produces only discord among the great and the oppression of the weak.” He had contributed to the Encyclopédie in

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1756 the articles “Fermiers” and “Grains,” which contained the earliest announcement of his principles through the press; and he published a number of minor pieces in the Journal de l'Agriculture, du Commerce, et des Finances, and in the Ephémérides du Citoyen. His Droit Naturel, which was included in the Physiocratie of Dupont de Nemours, is especially noteworthy as showing the philosophic foundation of his economic system in the theory of the jus naturae. Interesting notices of Quesnay's character and habits have been preserved to us in the Mémoires of Marmontel and those of Mme. du Hausset, femme de chambre to Mme. de Pompadour.” His probity and disinterested zeal for the public good did not suffer from the atmosphere of the court; he never abused his credit with the sovereign or the favourite for any selfish end. To raise the national agriculture from the decay into which it had fallen and to improve the condition of the working population were the great aims he kept steadily in view. His conversation was piquant, humorous, and suggestive, often taking the form of moral and political apologues. Some of his weighty sayings are quoted by contemporary writers. Here is one of them. Having met in Madame de Pompadour's salon an official person who, in recommending violent measures for the purpose of terminating the vexatious disputes between the clergy and the parliament, used the words, “C'est la hallebarde qui měne un royaume,” Quesnay replied, “Et qu'est ce qui mêne la hallebarde?" adding, after a pause, “C'est l'opinion; c'est donc sur l'opinion qu'il faut travailler.” Diderot, D'Alembert, Duclos, Helvetius, Buffon, Turgot, Marmontel, used to meet in his rooms in the palace, and also several of the physiocrats above named; and Madame de Pompadour, who affected the patronage of philosophy and science, sometimes came to join them and converse with them. Amongst them, when they were alone, subjects were sometimes discussed in a tone which would not have pleased the royal car. Thus, one day, Mirabeau having said, “The nation is in a deplorable state," Larivière replied in prophetic words, “It can only be regenerated by a conquest like that of China, or by some great internal convulsion; but woe to those who live to see that ' The French people do not do things by halves | " Adam Smith, during his stay on the Continent with the young duke of Buccleuch in 1764–66, spent some time in Paris, where he made the acquaintance of Quesnay and some of his followers; he paid a high tribute to their scientific services in his Wealth of Nations, and would have dedicated that work to Quesnay, had the latter been alive at the time of its publication. At the age of seventy Quesnay went back to the study of mathematics. He thought, we are told, that he had discovered the quadrature of the circle, and was not prevented by the remonstrances of his friends from printing his supposed solution of the problem. He died in 1774, having lived long enough to see his great pupil, Turgot, in office as minister of finance. Quesnay had married in 1718, and had a son and a daughter; his grandson by the former was a member of the first Legislative Assembly. The economic writings of Quesnay are collected in the 2d vol. of the Princip-mur Economistra, published by Guillaumin, with preface and notes by Eugène Daire. His writings on medicine and surgery have now only an historic interest. They were as follows:– 1 torrestions sur los offets de la signer, 1730 and 1750; 2. Essai physique sur reconomic animal, arre Tart or on, rir or la saiano, 1736 and 17 17: 3. Rocherrhos critiques of historiques sur Toriorine,

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les divers 6tats, ct les progrès de la chirurgic en France (said to have been the joint work of Quesnay and Louis), 1744, and, with slightly altered title, 1749; 4. Traité de la suppuration, 1749; 5. Traité de la gangrène, 1749; 6. Traité des fièvres continues, 1753; 7. Observations sur la conservation de la vie (said to have been printed at Versailles along with the Tableau Economique), 1758. His other writings were the article “Evidence” in the Encyclopédie, and Ifecherches sur l'évidence des verités géométriques, with a Projet de nouveaux éléments de géométric, 1773. Quesnay's Eloge was pronounced in the Academy of Sciences by Grandjean de Fouchy (see the Irecueil of that Academy, 1774, p. 134). There is a good portrait of him, engraved by J. Ch. François, which is reproduced in the Dictionnaire d’Economic Politique of Coquelin and Guillaumin. (J. K. I.)

QUESNEL, PASQUIER (1634–1719), Roman Catholic theologian, was born in Paris on July 14, 1634, and, after graduating in the Sorbonne with distinction in 1653, joined the Congregation of the Fathers of the Oratory in 1657, receiving priest's orders in 1659. In 1675 he published an edition of the works of Leo the Great, in the notes to which the Gallican liberties were defended. The work was consequently put upon the Inder in the following year, and Quesnel's relations with his ecclesiastical superiors became so strained that in 16S1 he had to retire to Orleans. Four years later, finding himself unable to sign a document imposed on all members of the Oratory in condemnation of Jansenism, he fled to Brussels, where he was intimately associated with Arnauld, and where, encouraged by him, he published in 1694–95 a complete edition of the Ioflexions Morales sur le Vouveau Testament, a work of edification on which he had first begun to engage himself shortly after joining the Oratory, and a part of which had appeared as early as about 1671. The nature of its contents, and still more the known sympathics of its author, made the book an object of unwearying Jesuit hostility; Quesnel was imprisoned for a short time in the palace of the archbishop of Mechlin in 1703, but happily succeeded in escaping into Holland; his papers, however (compromising, it is said, to many persons), fell into the hands of the enemy, and long were to the l'ère La Chaise his “pot au noir” (as he called it) by means of which he was able to darken the prospects of his adversaries as he chose. The bull I missemitus, in which no fewer than 101 sentences from the Josh rions Morals were condemned as heretical, was obtained from Clement IX. in September 8, 1713 (see vol. xiii. p. 567). Quesnel died at Amsterdam on December 2, 1719. A complete list of his works is given by Moreri.

QUETELET, LAMBERT Adolph E.JAcquirs (1796–1874), astronomer, meteorologist, and statistician, was born at Ghent, February 22, 1796, and educated at the lyceum of that town. In 1819 he was appointed professor of mathematics at the athenæum of Brussels: in 1828 he became lecturer at the newly created museum of science and literature, and he continued to hold that post until the museum was absorbed in the free university in 1834. In 1828 he was appointed director of the new royal observatory which it had been decided to found, chiefly at his instigation. The building was finished in 1832, and the instruments were ready for work in 1835, from which date the observations were published in 4 to volumes (.1 mals d. "Olis, rrrrtoire Royal d. Joru.c. 11, s), but Quetelet chiefly devoted himself to meteorology and statistics. From 1834 he was perpetual secretary of the lorussels Academy, and published a vast number of articles in its /ou// tin, as also in his journal (orrosjendano, Moth, writion, of Physjou, (11 vols., 1825–39). He died on February 17, 1874.”

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meteorological observations, and in 1839 he started regular observations of the periodical phenomena of vegetation, especially the flowering of plants. The results are given in various memoirs published by the Brussels Academy and in his works Sur le Climat de la Belgique and Sur la Physique du Globe (the latter forms vol. xiii. of the Annales, 1861). He is, however, chiefly known by the statistical investigations which occupied him from 1823 onward. In 1835 he published his principal work, Sur l'Homme et le Développement de ses Facultés, ou Essai de Physique Sociale (2d ed. 1869), containing a résumé of his statistical researches on the development of the physical and intellectual qualities of man, and on the “average man,” both physically and intellectually considered. In 1846 he brought out his Lettres à S. A. R. le Duc regnant de SaweCoburg el Gotha sur la théoric des probabilités appliquée aur sciences morules et politiques (of which Sir J. Herschel wrote a full account in the Edinburgh Review), and in 1848 Du Système Social et des Lois qui le régissent (dedicated to the prince consort). In these works he shows how the numbers representing the individual qualities of man are grouped round the numbers referring to the “average man" in a manner exactly corresponding to that in which single results of observation are grouped round the mean result, so that the principles of the theory of probabilities may be applied to

statistical researches on the subjects. These ideas are further

developed in various papers in the Bulletin and in his L'Anthropométrie, ou Mesure des différentes Facultés de l'Homme (1871), in which he lays great stress on the universal applicability of the binomial law, according to which the number of cases in which, for instance, a certain height occurs among a large number of individuals is represented by an ordinate of a curve (the binomial) symmetrically situated with regard to the ordinate representing the mean result (average height). A detailed Essai sur la Vie et les Traraur de L. A.J. Quetelet, by his pupil and assistant E. Mailly, was published at Brussels in 1875.

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the north ; but in many parts the soil is rich and good, yielding wheat, rice, madder, tobacco, and lucerne, besides numerous grasses. The district has abundant orchards, furnishing grapes, apples, pears, pomegranates, figs, &c.; melons and all kinds of English vegetables are also largely cultivated. The valley is watered by the Lora stream. Wild sheep, goats, and hogs abound in the hills of the district. The climate appears to be healthy and the temperature moderate, ranging from 30° Fahr, in the winter to about 80° in the summer. Since 1876 Quetta has been the seat of a British political officer. Its occupation secures the Pishin valley, holds in check border tribes, and keeps open the roads of the Kojak and Gwaja passes over the Khwaja Amran range leading to Kandahar. During the Afghan compaigns of 1878–80 Quetta formed the base of operations of the southern column. In 1879 a railway was commenced to Quetta, with a view to its being pushed on to Kandahar. The line starts from the Sind railway system at Sukkur and runs via Jacobabad to Sibi, and is now in course of construction to Quetta; it is to be termed the Sind-Pishin railway. Quetta (or Shal, meaning “the fort” or “kot”), the capital, is situated at the northern extremity of the valley, near the head of the Bolan Pass and close to the Pishin valley, at an elevation of 5900 feet above the level of the sea. The town is surrounded by a mud wall; in its centre, on an artificial mound, is a fort which commands a very fine and extensive view of the neighbouring valley.

QUEVEijoviii.EGAS, FRANcisco (1580–1645), the

greatest satiric writer of Spain, was born in 1580 at Madrid, where his father, who came from the mountains of Burgos, was secretary to Anne of Austria, fourth wife of Philip II. Early left an orphan and without other protection than that of his guardian, D. Agustin de Villanueva, protonotary of Aragon, the young man educated himself and chose his own career. Full of zeal to conquer all knowledge, he betook himself to Alcala, the nearest university to Madrid,

where in a few years he covered a vast field of study, acquiring a knowledge of classical and modern tongues—of Italian and French, Hebrew and Arabic, of philosophy (or what passed by that name), theology, civil law, and economics. His masters were astounded at his erudition, and his fame reached beyond Spain; at twenty-one he was in correspondence with Justus Lipsius on questions of Greek and Latin literature, and the great scholar loaded him with praises and treated him as an equal. These years of study left a great and permanent influence on Quevedo's style; to them are due the pedantic traits and mania for quotations which strike and offend us in most of his works. The licentiate of Alcala next betook himself to the court and mingled with the corrupt society that surrounded Philip III., or rather the duke of Lerma, then the real ruler of Spain. The cynical greed of the ministers, the meanness of their flatterers, the corruption of all the royal officers, the financial scandals, the shamelessness of the women, brutalized by the low place given to them in family life and by the practices of a purely formalist religion, formed a spectacle which soon awoke in Quevedo his talent as a painter of manners. At Madrid or at Valladolid, where the court resided from 1601 to 1605, he mingled freely with these intrigues and disorders, and soon lost the purity of his morals, but not his independence, his uprightness and integrity. From this period date his first Dreams (Sueños), satirical fantasies in which the spirit and manner of Lucian and Dante are combined. “Dream of Skulls,” “The Possessed Alguazil,” “The Stables of Pluto,” “The Madhouse of Love,” such are the titles of these earliest writings composed in 1607–8, which in some degree recall the “Dances of Death " of the later Middle Ages; the author is transported in sleep to hell, where he assists at the long and lamentable procession of men of all conditions, professions, and trades who move toward their punishment, clad in their most characteristic vices and absurdities. The series was continued from 1612 to 1622 by “The World as it is" and the “Review of Witticisms.” With the Dreams may be associated certain works of similar scope and tone, e.g., To every one according to his Works, and Portune made Reasonable, where Jupiter in concert with Fortune, whom he has caused to stop her wheel, orders all kinds of men instantly to resume their true nature and the condition they deserve : thus the physician becomes a hangman, the accused a judge, the painted lady a duenna and witch, and so forth. In 1609 Quevedo entered into relations with the famous D. Pedro Tellez Giron, duke of Osuna, with whom his fortunes were linked for more than ten years. The duke, celebrated for his bold enterprises of war against the Queen of the Adriatic, for his share in the conspiracy of Venice in 1618, for the luxurious splendour of his viceregal rule in Sicily and Naples, and finally for his terrible disgrace, recognized Quevedo's unusual merits and made him his secretary. Thus between 1611 and 1620 he learned | politics, the one science which he had perhaps till then neglected,—initiated himself into the questions that divided Europe, and penetrated the designs and ambitions of the neighbours of Spain as well as the secret history of the guilty intriguers protected by the favour of Philip III. The result was that he wrote several political works, particularly a lengthy treatise, The Policy of God and the Government of Christ, in which he lays down the duties of kings by displaying to them how Christ has governed His church. The disgrace of the duke of Osuna (1620) reached Quevedo, who was arrested and exiled to La Torre de Juan Abad in New Castile, where he possessed lands and of which he afterwards became seignior. Quevedo, though involved in the process against the

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