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duke, remained faithful to him in his misfortunes, and bore exile and prison with resignation. On the death of Philip III. (31st March 1621), he recommended himself to the first minister of the new king by celebrating his accession to power and saluting him as the vindicator of public morality in an elegant epistle, in the style of Juvenal, on The Present Isabits of the Spaniards. Olivares recalled him from his exile and gave him a charge in the palace, and from this time Quevedo resided almost constantly at court, where he acquired a position of great weight, only comparable to that of Voltaire in the France of last century. Like Voltaire, he became a sort of oracle, and exercised in Spain a kind of political and literary jurisdiction due to his varied relations and knowledge, but especially to his biting and unbridled wit, which had no respect of persons and laid bare every sore. General politics, social economy, war, finance, literary and religious questions, all fell under his dissecting knife, and he had a dissertation, a pamphlet, or a song for everything. One day he is defending St James, the sole patron of Spain, against a powerful coterie that wished to associate St Teresa with him, and meeting these antagonists with the vehemence of a warrm patriot and the learning of a professional theologian ; next day he is writing against the duke of Savoy, the hidden enemy of Spain, or against the measures taken to change the value of the currency; or once more he is engaged with the literary school of Gongora, whose affectations and designed obscurity of style seem to him to sin against the genius of the Castilian tongue. And in the midst of this incessant controversy on every possible subject he finds time to compose a comic romance, Don Pablo of Segovia (1626), a masterpiece of sparkling verve and fun, which admirably continues the series of Lazarillo de Tormes and Gusman de Alfarache, to pen a dissertation on The Constancy and Patience of Job (1631), to translate St Francis de Sales and Seneca, to compose thousands of verses, and to correspond with Spanish and foreign scholars,

But Quevedo was not to maintain unscathed the high position won by his knowledge, talent, and biting wit. The government of Olivares, which he had welcomed as the dawn of a political and social regeneration, made things worse instead of better, committed fault upon fault, and led the country to ruin. Quevedo saw this and could not hold his peace. An anonymous petition in verse enumerating to the king in strong terms the grievances of his subjects was found in the early part of December 1639 under the very napkin of Philip IV. It was shown to Olivares, who exclaimed, “I am ruined "; but before his fall he sought vengeance on the libeller. His suspicions fell on Quevedo, who had enemies glad to confirm them. Quevedo was arrested on December 7, and carried under a strong escort to the neighbouring convent of Leon, where he was kept in rigorous confinement till the fall of the minister

23d January 1643) restored him to light and freedom,

but not to the health which he had lost in his dungeon.

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Qu, vol., was of millle height, with black, somewhat crisp hair. a v, ry fair complexion, a broad forehend, and very sharp ey's always o with spectacles. The upper part of his holy was well built but the lower part deformed ; he limped, and his foot turn, l inwarls. Though of very dissolute manners, he lov, l study most, and lived surroundel by looks. He had a table on wheels for ruling in hel and a stand that enabled him to real at table. His conversation, as one might guess from his books, was starkling. full of unexpected turns and slyness, and many bon-nints are a-ribed to him. A few days before his death, as he was about to dictate his last will, the curate who attested it invited him to assign a sum for music at his funeral. “Music." said the dying inan: “let those who hear it pay for that."

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As a satirist and humorist Quevedo stands in the first rank of Spanish writers; his other literary work does not count for much. I. I. Chillet, in a letter of February 2, 1629, calls him “a very learned man to be a Spaniard,” and indeed his erudition was of a solid kind, but he merits attention not as a humanist, philosopher, and moralist, but as the keen polemic writer, the pitiless mocker, the profound observer of all that is wicked and absurd in human nature, and at the same time as a finished master of style and of all the secrets of the Spanish tongue. His style indeed is not absolutely pure, and already belongs to the period of decadence. Quevedo, who ridiculed so well the bad taste of “cultism,” fell himself into another fault and created the style called “conceptism,” which hunts after ambiguous expressions and “double entendres.” But, though involved and overcharged with ideas, his style is of singular force and originality; after Cervantes he is the greatest Spanish writer of the 17th century.

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QUEZAL, or QUESAL, the Spanish-American name for one of the most beautiful of birds, abbreviated from the Aztec or Maya (Quetzal-totots, the last part of the compound word meaning fowl, and the first, also written Cuetza/, the long feathers of rich green with which it is adorned." The Quezal is one of the TrogoNs (q.v.), and was originally described by Hernandez (//istoria, p. 13), whose account was faithfully copied by Willughby. Yet the bird remained practically unknown to ornithologists until figured in 1825, from a specimen belonging to Leadbeater,” by Temminck (17. col., 372) who, however, mistakenly thought it was the same as the Trogon pavoninus, a congeneric but quite distinct species from Brazil, that had just been described by Spix. The scientific determination of the Quetzal-bird of Central America seems to have been first made by Bonaparte in 1826, as Trogon paradiseus, according to his statement in the Zoological Society's Proc. */in/s for 1837 (p. 101); but it is not known whether the fact was ever published. In 1832 the softstro Trimestro, a literary and scientific journal printed at Mexico, of which few copies can exist in Europe, contained a communication by Dr Pablo de la Llave, describing this species (with which he first became acquainted prior to 1810, from examining more than a dozen specimens obtained by the natural-history expedition to New Spain and kept in the palace of the Retiro near Madrid) under the name by which it is now commonly known, Pharomaterus marino.” These facts, however, being almost unknown to the rest of the world, Gould, in the Zoological Procodings for 1835 (p. 29), while pointing out Temminck's error, gave the species the name of Trosson r, sp/, no, ns, which it bore for some time. Yet little or nothing was generally known about the bird until 1)clattre sent an account of his meeting with it to the Echo du Mond, Sarant for IS 13, which was reprinted in the R, rue Zoolonism, for that year (pp. 163–165). In 1860 the midification of the species, about which strange stories had been toll to the naturalist last named, was determined, and its eggs, of a pale bluish-green, were procured

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by Mr Robert Owen (P. Z. S., 1860, p. 374; Ibis, 1861, p. 66, pl. ii. fig. 1); while further and fuller details of its habits (of which want of space forbids even an abstract here) were made known by Mr Salvin (Ibis, 1861, pp. 138–149) from his own observation of this very local and remarkable species. Its chief home is in the mountains near Coban in Vera Paz, but it also inhabits forests in other parts of Guatemala at an elevation of from 6000 to 9000 feet. The Quezal is hardly so big as a Turtle-Dove. The

Quezal, male and female.

cock has a fine yellow bill and a head bearing a rounded crest of filamentous feathers; lanceolate scapulars overhang the wings, and from the rump spring the long slowing plumes which are so characteristic of the species, and were so highly prized by the natives prior to the Spanish conquest that no one was allowed to kill the bird when taken, but only to divest it of its feathers, which were to be worn by the chiefs alone. These plumes, the middle and longest of which may measure from three feet to three feet and a

half, with the upper surface, the throat, and chest, are of a resplendent golden-green," while the lower parts are of a vivid scarlet. The middle feathers of the tail, ordinarily concealed, as are those of the Peacock, by the uropygials, are black, and the outer white with a black base. In the hen the bill is black, the crest more round and not filamentous, the uropygials scarcely elongated, and the vent only scarlet. The eyes are of a yellowish-brown. Southern examples from Costa Rica and Veragua have the tail-coverts much narrower, and have been needlessly considered to form a distinct species under the name of P. costaricensis. There are, however, some good congeneric species, P. antisianus, P. fulgidus, P. auriceps, and P. pavoninus, from various parts of South America, and, though all are beautiful birds, none possess the wonderful singularity of the Quezal. (A. N.) QUEZALTENANGO, a city of Guatemala, capital of the province of its own name, lies on the Siguila in a fertile district about 25 or 30 miles to the west of Lake Atitlan, on the high road between the city of Guatemala and the Mexican province of Chiapas. It has a cathedral and other public buildings, carries on the manufacture of cotton and wool, and contains from 20,000 to 30,000 inhabitants, mostly Indians. In the days of the Quiché power Quezaltenango, or, as it was then called, Xelahuh, was one of the largest and most flourishing cities in the country. The Spanish city was founded by Alvarado in 1524. QUIETISM, a peculiar form of MYSTICISM (q.v.) within the modern Catholic Church, mainly associated with the names of Madame GUYoN and MIGUEL DE MoLINos (qq.v.). See also FENELON. QUILIMANE, or KILIMANE (the former being the Portuguese spelling), a Portuguese town on the east coast of Africa, at the head of a district of the province of Mozambique, lies 12 miles inland from the mouth of the river Quilimane or Qua Qua, which, an independent stream during the rest of the year, during the rainy season becomes a deltaic branch of the Zambesi, with which it is connected by Mutu, a cross channel or ditch. The town lies on the north bank of the river at a point where it is still about a mile broad, and as many as fifty coasting vessels may be seen at a time in the harbour. Large steamers are obliged to lie off the river mouth till high tide. Almost all the European merchants live in one long acacia-shaded street or boulevard skirting the river, while the Indian merchants or Banyans occupy another street running at right angles. The natives have their hut-clusters hid among the tropical vegetation which begins at the very end of the street and rapidly passes off into the uninvaded swamp-forest. The whole site is low and unhealthy, and the Portuguese have done next to nothing to improve it. The total population is between 6000 and 7000. Quilimane, at one time the capital of the Arab kingdom of Angoza, was seized by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and became in the 18th and the early part of the 19th the chief slave mart on the east coast of Africa. In modern times it has been the starting point of several exploring expeditions—notably of Livingstone's up the Zambesi to Lake Nyassa in 1861. QUILL. See FEATHERs and PEN. QUILLOTA, a town of Chili, at the head of a district in the province of Valparaiso, lies 30 miles by rail northeast of Valparaiso, on the south or left bank of the Aconcagua, about 20 miles from its mouth. It is one of the oldest towns in the country, and since the opening of the railway in 1863 it has grown so that in population

| Preserved specimens, is exposed to the light, lose much of their beauty in a few years, the original glorious colour becoming a dingy greenish-blue.

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(11,369 in 1875) it is exceeded only by the capital and six other towns. It is famous for the quality of its chirimoyas (Anona Cherimolia) and lucumas; and in the neighbourhood there are rich copper mines. In 1822 and 1851 it suffered from earthquakes. QUILON, a seaport town in Quilon district, Travancore state, Madras presidency, India, between the towns of Trevandrum and Aleppi, in 8° 54 N. lat, and 76° 37' E. long. It is a healthy town, and contained in 1881 a population of 13,588. It enjoys great facilities of water communication, and has an active export trade in timber, cocoa-nuts, ginger, pepper, &c. The outer point of the town (Tangacheri) is slightly elevated above the adjoining ground, and contains high cocoa-nut trees. Besides being a very projecting point, Quilon is rendered still more unsafe to approach by the bank of hard ground called the Tangacheri reef which extends some distance to the southwest and west of the point and along the coast to the northward. There is, however, good anchorage in a bight about 3 miles from the fort. Quilon is one of the oldest towns on the Malabar coast, and continued to be a place of considerable importance down to the beginning of the 16th century. It was garrisoned by a strong British force from 1803 to 1830; but the subsidiary force has since been reduced to one native regiment, whose cantonments lie to the east of the town. The town is 385 miles south-west of Madras. QU IMPER, or QUIMPER-CoRENTIN, a town of France, formerly the capital of the county of Cornouailles, and now the chief town of the department of Finistère, is situated 158 miles north-west of Nantes and 68 miles southeast of Brest on the railway between those towns. The delightful valley in which it lies is surrounded by high hills and traversed by the Steir and the Odet, which, meeting above the town, form a navigable channel for vessels of 150 tons during the rest of their journey to the sea (11 miles). With its communal population of 15,288, Quimper ranks in Finistère next to Brest and Morlaix. The only articles in which it has any considerable trade are fish and marine manures; and in 1882 the total movement of the port was 31 vessels (2976 tons) entering and 36 vessels (3352 tons) clearing. The real interest of the town lies in its old churches and its historic associations. Of the old town-walls a few portions are still preserved in the terrace of the episcopal palace and in the neighbourhood of the college. Quimper is the seat of a bishop belonging to the province of Rennes. The cathedral, dedicated to the patron saint St Corentin and erected between 1239 and 1515, has a fine façade, the pediment of which is crowned by an equestrian statue of King Grallon, and adorned (like several other external parts of the building) with heraldic devices cut in granite. Two lateral towers with modern spires (1854–56) and turrets reach a height of 247 feet. The total length of the building is 303 feet and its width 52, the length of the transept lls feet and the height 66. The nave and the transept are in the style of the 15th century, and the central boss boars the arms of Anne of Brittany (1476–1511). The terminal chapel of the apse dates from the 13th century. ln the side chapels are the tombs of several early bishops. Th high altar, tabernacle, and ciborium are costly works of contemporary art. The pulpit panels represent episodes in the life of St ('orentin. Of the other churches may be mentioned St Matthieu, rebuilt at the beginning of the 16th century, with a fine belfry; the church of Locmaria, latin: from the llth century ; and the college chapel, in the “Jesuit " style. The old seminary is now used as a |-orhouse, and there is also a lunatic asylum in the town. The public library in the town hall possesses 25,000 volumes. The museum built in 1869–70 contains archae

ological collections and about 1300 paintings and drawings. In 1868 a bronze statue of Laennec the inventor of the stethoscope (born at Quimper in 1781) was erected in Place St Corentin. Quimper, or at least its suburb Loemaria (which lies below the town on the left bank of the Odet), was occupied in the time of the Romans, and numerous traces of the ancient foundations still exist. At a later period Quimper became the capital of Cornouailles and the residence of its kings or hereditary counts. It is said to have been Grallon Meur (i.e., the Great) who brought the name of Cornouailles from Great Britain and founded the bishopric, which was first held by St Corentin about 495. Ho cl, count of Cornouailles, marrying the sister and heiress of Duke Conan in 1066, united the countship with the duchy of Brittany. Quimper was surrounded by walls in the course of the 13th century. It suffered greatly in the local wars of succession. In 1344 it was savagely sacked by Charles of Blois. Monfort did not succeed in his attempt to take the town by storm on August 11, 1345, but it opened its gates to his son John IV. in 1364 after the victory at Auray. At a later period it sided with the League. Besides Laennec, already mentioned, it has given birth to Kerguélen the navigator, Fréron the critic, Hardouin the antiquary, and Count Louis de Carne. Doubtless on account of its distance from the capital, Quimper, like Carpentras and Landerneau, has undeservedly been made a frequent butt of French popular wit.

QUINAULT, PHILIPPE (1635–1688), a dramatist of merit, and the only European writer who has made the opera libretto a work of literature (so much so that the popularity of opera may be said to be not a little due to him), was born at Paris on June 3, 1635. He was educated by the liberality of Tristan, the author of Jsarianne. His first play was produced at the Hôtel de Bourgogne in 1653 when Quinault was only eighteen. It is said that it was the occasion of an important innovation in dramatic history. Tristan had offered it and it had been accepted as his own at the price of a hundred crowns, which, though little enough, was twice the regular price of a few years before. When Tristan told the actors that it was the work of a novice they wished to throw up their bargain and only held to it on the terms of a ninth part of the receipts. The piece succeeded and Quinault followed it up, but he also read for the bar; and in 1660, when he married a widow with money, he bought himself a place in the Cour des Comptes. Then he tried tragedies (A/ri/pa, &c.) with more success than desert. He received one of the literary pensions then recently established, and was elected to the Academy in 1670.

Up to this time he had written some sixteen or seventeen comedies, tragedies, and tragi-comedies, of which the tragedies were mostly of very small value and the tragicomedies not of much more. But his comedies--especially his first piece Los Rival, s, L'Amant Indiscret (1654) (which has some likeness to Molière's Etourdi, and was with it used to make up Newcastle's and 1)ryden's Sir Jsortin Mur-all), Le Fantôm, Amour, ur (1659), and La Jsore Cou, to (1665), perhaps the best—are much better. None of these styles, however, made Quinault worthy of a place here. In 1671 he contributed to the singular miscellany of Psycho, in which Corneille and Molière also had a hand, and which was set to the music of Lulli. Here he showed a remarkable faculty for lyrical drama, and from this time till just before his death he confined himself to composing libretti for Lulli's work. This was not only very profitable (for he is said to have received four thousand livres for each, which was much more than was usually paid even for tragedy), but it established Quinault's reputation as the master of a new style.—so much so that even Boileau, who had loreviously attack, d and satirized his dramatic work, was converted, le -- to the opera, which he did not like, than to Quinault's romarkably in-senious and artist liko work in it. His libretti are among the very fow wh: h are r idor with 1:t the music, and which are yet ar, fully adopt d to it. They certainly

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But they are quite free from the ludicrous doggerel which (not merely in English) has made the name libretto a byword, and at the same time they have quite enough dramatic merit to carry the reader, much more the spectator, along with them. It is not an exaggeration to say that Quinault, coming at the exact time when opera became fashionable out of Italy, had very much to do with establishing it as a permanent European genre. His first piece after Psyche was a kind of classical masque, The Feast of Love and Bacchus (1672). Then came Cadmus (1674), then in the same year and the three following Alceste, Thésée, Atys (one of his best-liked pieces), and Isis. All these, it may be observed, were classical in subject, and so was Proserpine (1680), which was superior to any of them. The Triumph of Love (1681) is a mere ballet, but in Persée and Phaeton Quinault returned to the classical opera. Then he finally deserted it for romantic subjects, in which he was even more successful. Amadis (1684), Roland (1685), and Armide (1686) are his masterpieces, the last being the most famous and the best of all. It should perhaps be observed that the very artificiality of the French lyric of the later 17th century and its resemblance to alexandrines cut into lengths were aids to Quinault in arranging lyrical dialogue. Lulli died in 1687, and Quinault, his occupation gone (for the two had now worked together for more than fifteen years, and it would probably have been difficult to find another composer equally well suited to his librettist), became devout, began a poem called the “Destruction of Heresy,” and died on November 26, 1688. The best edition of his works is that of 1739 (Paris, 5 vols.). QUINCE. Among botanists there is a difference of opinion whether or not the quince is entitled to take rank as a distinct genus or as a section of the genus Pyrus. It is not a matter of much importance whether we call the quince 1’yrus Cydonia or Cydonia vulgaris. For practical purposes it is perhaps better to consider it as distinct from Pyrus, differing from that genus in the twisted manner in which the petals are arranged in the bud, and in the many-celled ovary, in which the numerous ovules are disposed horizontally, not vertically as in the pears. The quinces are much-branched shrubs or small trees with entire leaves, small stipules, large solitary white or pink flowers like those of a pear or apple, but with leafy calyxlobes, and a many-celled ovary, in each cell of which are numerous horizontal ovules. The common quince is a native of Persia and Anatolia, and perhaps also of Greece and the Crimea, but in these latter localities it is doubtful whether or not the plant is not a relic of former cultivation. By Franchet and Savatier P. Cydonia is given as a native of Japan with the native name of “marounerou." It is certain that the Greeks knew a common variety upon which they engrafted scions of a better variety which they called Kvöövtov, from Cydon in Crete, whence it was obtained, and from which the names Cydonia, Codogno (Italian), Coudougner and Coing (French), Quitte (German), and Quince have been derived. Pliny (1/. N., xv. 11.) mentions that the fruit of the quince, Malum cotoneum, warded off the influence of the evil eye; and other legends connect it with ancient Greek mythology, as exemplified by statues in which the fruit is represented, as well as by representations on the walls of Pompeii. The fragrance and astringency of the fruit of the quince are well known, and the seeds are used medicinally for the sake of the mucilage they yield when soaked in water, a peculiarity which is not met with in pears. This mucilage is analogous to, and has the same properties as, that which is formed from the seeds of linseed. In English gardens three varieties are cultivated—the apple-shaped quince, the pear-shaped quince, and the Portugal quince; the last-named has larger

winter and early spring months.

fruits than the other two (4 inches in length, 3–34 in width), of a rich yellow colour when ripe and with less astringency, hence it is better suited for culinary and confectionary purposes than the other two, but is said to be somewhat more tender. The common quince and its varieties are very largely used as “dwarfing ” stocks on which choice pears are engrafted. The effect is to restrain the growth of the pear, increase and hasten its fruitfulness, and enable it to withstand the effects of cold (see HoRTICULTURE, vol. xii. p. 213). The common Japan quince, Pyrus or Cydonia japonica, is grown in gardens for the sake of its flowers, which vary in colour from creamy white to rich red, and are produced during the C. Maulei, a recently introduced shrub from Japan, bears a profusion of equally beautiful orange-red flowers, which are followed by fruit of a yellow colour and agreeable fragrance, so that, when cooked with sugar, it forms an agreeable conserve, as in the case of the ordinary quince. The fruit of the ordinary Japan quince is quite uneatable. QUINCY, a city of the United States, the county seat of Adams county, Illinois, occupies a limestone bluff 125 feet above low-water mark on the east bank of the Mississippi at the extreme western point of the State. The river is crossed here by the great bridge of the Hannibal and St Joseph Railroad. Quincy Bay, an arm of the river, is the finest natural harbour for steamboats on the upper Mississippi. By water Quincy is 160 miles above St Louis, and by rail 263 miles south-west of Chicago via Galesburg. Commanding an extensive view, being well built, having excellent waterworks, and forming an important centre in the railway system of the region, Quincy is both an attractive and a prosperous place, with very miscellaneous industries. Among the public buildings are the court-houses, St John's cathedral (1877), a medical college (1873), a city library, and several hospitals and asylums. The population in 1860 was 13,718; in 1870, 24,052 (1073 coloured); and in 1880, 27,268 (1508 coloured). Laid out in 1825 or about three years after the arrival of the first white settler, Quincy was made a town in 1834, and a city in 1839. QUINCY, a township and seaport of the United States, in Norfolk county, Massachusetts, on a small bay of its own name in the south of Massachusetts Bay and 7 miles south-south-east of Boston by rail. It is best known for its great granite quarries, in connexion with which was constructed in 1827 the first (horse) railway in the United States, and as the birthplace of Governor John Hancock and Presidents John Adams and John Quincy Adams. Among the principal buildings—chiefly situated in the village, which lies on an elevated plain near the centre of the township—are the granite town-house, the so-called Adams Temple (a church erected in 1828), beneath the portico of which are the tombs of the two Presidents Adams, the Adams Academy, a home for infirm sailors, a public library, and the mansions of the Quincy and Adams families, whose estates occupied the greater portion of the township. Quincy, which till 1792 formed part of Braintree, had 5017 inhabitants in 1850, 6779 in 1860, 7442 in 1870 and 10,570 in 1880. QUINCY, Josian, JR. (1744–1775), born in Boston, Mass., 1744, is the most eminent of a well-known family whose founder emigrated to New England in 1633. At the time of his death, at the age of thirty-one, he had won distinction as a lawyer, and his place was secured in history as among the most eloquent, the most clear-sighted, and the most devoted of the men who led the American colomists in the measures preliminary to the revolution In 1767 he entered upon the public discussion of political questions, maintaining with great ability and courage the duty of his countrymen to resist any encroachments upon their right to self-government. In 1770 he wrote An Address of the Merchants, Traders, and Freeholders of Boston in favour of a non-importation Act, asserting, about the same time, in a newspaper article that Americans would “know, resume, assert, and defend their rights” by the “arts of war” if “the arts of policy” should fail. In

December 1773 he took an active and leading part in the

town-meeting which virtually ordered the destruction of the cargoes of the tea-ships in Boston harbour. to the other towns for help to sustain Boston against the enforcement of the consequent Acts of Parliament was written by him; and soon after there appeared under his own name Observations on the Boston Port Bill, with Thoughts on Civil Society and Standing Armies, his longest and most important political paper, which made him a marked man both in England and America. afterwards for England with the approval of the leading revolutionists, to present, though unofficially, to the ministry and other public men the grievances and the determination of the colonists. After six months failing health—he had long been threatened with consumption—compelled him to return home, and he died on shipboard as the vessel was entering the harbour of Gloucester, Massachusetts, April 26, 1775. A memoir written by his only son, Josiah QUINCY (1772–1864), containing his life, correspondence, and the Observations on the Boston Port Bill, was published in 1825 (2d ed., 1874). This only son of Josiah Ş.". jun., born in Boston in February 1772, lived to be three times the of his father, and filled public stations for more years than his father lived ; he was a member of Congress during the eventful period from 1805 to 1813; as the second mayor of Boston his sagacity and energy insured the future prosperity of that city ; in Congress he maintained at the head of the Federal

party the struggle with the disastrous foreign policy of the administrations of Jefferson and Madison, and the dangerous growth of the

slave-power, which he never ceased to oppose ; as president of Harward College for sixteen years (1829–45) he increased the usefulness and mulled to the influence of that seat of learning. He wrote a

history of the college for two hundred years, which was also largely

a history of Massachusetts.

He died in June 1864 in the ninetythird year of his age.

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17, 1803. His father, Jerome Quinet, had been a commissary in the army, but being a strong republican and disgusted with Napoleon's usurpation, he gave up his post and resided either at Bourg or at a country house which he possessed in the neighbourhood, devoting himself to scientific and mathematical study. Edgar, who was an only child, was much alone, but his mother (whose name was Eugénie Rozat Lagis, and who was a person of education and strong though somewhat unorthodox religious views) exercised great influence over him. He was sent to school first at Bourg and then at Lyons, where he took no part in a celebrated barring out which led to the expulsion of his schoolfellow Jules Janin. On leaving school his father wished him to go into the army and then suggested business. But Quinet was determined upon literature, and after a time got his way. His first publication, the 7thl, or, s du Juif Errant, appeared in 1823. Being struck with Hersler's Philosophie dor Geschicht, he undertook to translate it, learnt German for the purpose, published his work in 1827, and obtained by it considerable credit. At this time he was introduced to Cousin and made the acquaintance of Michelet. He had visited Germany and England before the appearance of his book. Cousin procured him a post on a Government mission to the Moren in 1829, and on his return he published in 1830 a book on 1.1 sorore solorne. Some hopes of employment which he had after the revolution of February were frustrated

The appeal

He sailed a few months

A life of him, by his youngest son Edmund Quincy, an accomplished scholar and well-known author, was pub.

by the reputation of speculative republicanism which he had acquired. But he joined the staff of the Revue des Deuw Mondes, and for some years contributed to it numerous essays, the most remarkable of which was that on “Les Epopées Françaises du XIIeme Sićcle,” an early though not by any means the earliest appreciation of the long-neglected chansons de geste. Ahasvárus, his first original work of consequence, appeared in 1833. This is a singular prose poem in language sometimes rather bombastic but often beautiful. Shortly afterwards he married Minna Moré, a German girl with whom he had fallen in love some years before. Then he visited Italy, and, besides writing many essays, produced two poems, Napoléon and Promethée (1833), which being written in verse (of which he was not a master) are inferior to Ahasvárus. In 1838 he published a vigorous reply to Strauss's Life of Jesus, and in that year he received the Legion of Honour. In 1839 he was appointed professor of foreign literature at Lyons, where he began the brilliant course of lectures afterwards enbodied in the Gonie des Joe/issions. Two | years later he was transferred to the Collège de France and the Génie des Religions itself appeared (1842). I

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Quinct's Parisian professorship was more notorious than fortunate, owing, it must be said, to his own fault. His chair was one of Southern Literature, but, neglecting his proper subject, he chose, in conjunction with Michelet, to engage in a violent polemic with the Jesuits and with Ultramontanism. Two books bearing exactly these titles appeared in 1843 and 1844, and contained, as was usual with Quinet, the substance of his lectures. These excited so much disturbance and the author so obstinately refused to confine himself to literature proper that in 1846 the Government put an end to them—a course which was not disapproved by the majority of his colleagues. By this time Quinet was a pronounced republican and something of a revolutionist. He appeared in arms during the disturbances which overthrew Louis Philippe, and was elected by the department of the Ain to the Constituent and then to the Legislative Assembly, where he figured among the extreme Radical party. He had published in 1848 Les /orolutions of Italic, one of his principal though not one of his best works. He wrote numerous pamphlets during the short-lived second republic, attacked the Roman expedition with all his strength, and was from the first an uncompromising opponent of Prince Louis Napoleon. He was banished from France after the cou), as 'fort, and established himself at 13russels. His wife had died some time previously, and he now married Mademoiselle Assaki, the daughter of a l'oumanian poet. At Brussels he lived for some seven years, during which he published Los Esc/urs (1853), a dramatic poem, J/arni rol, St. .1//onal. (1854), a study of that Reformer in which he very greatly exaggerates Sainte Aldegonde's literary merit, and some other books. He then moved to Weytaux on the shore of the Lake of Geneva, where he continued to reside till the fall of the empire. Here his lo n was busier than ever. In 1S60 appeared a singular book somewhat after the fashion of .1/orse, rus entitled J/, r" in " En, hornt, mr. in 1862 a //istor ol, lot ( or m/non, d. 1S/.7, in 1 S65 an elaborate book on the French Revolution, in which the author. republican as he was, blamed the arts of the revolutionists unsparingly, and by that means drew down on himself much wrath from more thoroughgoing partisans. Many pamphlets date from this in riod, as do s I. 1 ( , , otion ( 1 S70), a third look of the class of .shots, rus and .1s, r/ow. but even vagus r, do assing not with hi-tory, legend, or philosophy, but with thy-i al science for the most part. Quinct had refused to return to France to join the Liberal opposition a rainst Napoleon Ill., lot immediately , after Sedan he returned. He was then restored to his pro

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