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fessorship, and during the siege wrote vehemently against the Germans. He was elected deputy by the department of the Seine in 1871, and was one of the most obstinate opponents of the terms of peace between France and Germany. He continued to write till his death, which occurred at Versailles on the 27th March 1875. Le Siéye de Paris et la Défense Nationale appeared in 1871, La République in 1872, Le Livre de l'Erilé in the year of its author's death and after it. This has been followed by three volumes of letters and some other work. Quinet had already in 1858 published a semi-biographic book called IIistoire de mes Idées. The whole of his very numerous works, the chief of which have been already named, have appeared in a uniform edition of which some thirty volumes are now published. His second wife, in 1870, published certain Mémoires d'Eril. There is in English an elaborate Early Life and Writings of Edgar Quinet, by R. Heath (London, 1881), but it does not go beyond the year 1842.
Quinet's character was extremely amiable, and his letters to his mother, his accounts of his early life, and so forth are likely always to make him interesting. He was also a man of great moral conscientiousness, and as far as intention went perfectly disinterested, though it may perhaps be questioned whether the disappointment which he met with for years after the revolution of February had not an insensible influence in determining his republicanism. But he never temporized, and, as has been said above, hesitated not to criticize his own party as severely as his opponents. He had, however, as a writer, a thinker, and a politician, drawbacks which pre
vented him from taking the first rank, and which will probably make
his works, except those which are purely personal, less and less read in the future. As a writer his chief fault is want of concentration, as a thinker and politician vagueness and want of practical determination. His work is very extensive and abounds in passages of great beauty. But no single book of his can be called a masterpiece, and none is of such a kind that the reader feels the subject to have been thoroughly treated in accordance with a definite and consistent principle or series of principles. Of verse he had but little command, and his abundance in a certain kind of effusive prose wants chastisement, and criticism. The singular rhapsodies, of which in the three books Ahasvárus, Merlin, and La Création he has left great store, are too disluse, too inorganic, and too devoid of coherent and positive intention to rank very high. They are more like recorded dreams than anything else. His historical and philosophical works on the other hand, though showing much reading, fertile thought, abundant facility of expression, and occasionally, where prejudice does not come in, acute judgment, are rather (as not a few of them were in fact) reported lectures than formal treatises. His rhetorical power was altogether superior to his logical power, and the natural consequence is that his work is full of contradictions. These contradictions were, moreover, due not merely to an incapacity or an unwillingness to argue strictly, but also to the presence in his mind of a large number of inconsistent tastes and prejudices which he either could not or would not coordinate into an intelligible creed. Thus he has the strongest attraction for the picturesque side of mediaevalism and catholicity, the strongest repulsion for the restrictions which mediaeval and Catholic institutions imposed on individual liberty. He refused to submit himself to any form of positive orthodoxy, yet when a man like Strauss pushed unorthodoxy to its extreme limits Quinet revolted. As a politician he acted with the extreme Radicals, yet universal suffrage, the cardinal doctrine of Radicalism, disgusted him as unreasonable in its principle and dangerous in its results. His pervading characteristic, therefore, is that of an eloquent vagueness, very stimulating and touching at times, but as deficient in coercive force of matter as it is in lasting precision and elegance of form. He is less inaccurate in fact than Michelet, but he is also much less one-ideaed, and the result is that he seldom attains to the vivid representation of which Michelet was a master. (G. S.A.)
QUININE, the most important of the active principles contained in cinchona bark (see CINCHONA, vol. v. p. 780). Although the value of this bark in the treatment of intermittent fevers became widely known in 1638 through the cure of the countess of Chinchon, it was not until 1810 that any attempt was made to determine definitely the active principles to which its properties were due. In that year Gomez of Lisbon obtained a mixture of alkaloids by treating an alcoholic extract of the bark with water and then adding a solution of caustic potash. To this he gave the name of cinchonino. In 1820 two French
chemists, Pelletier and Caventou, proved that the cinchonino of Gomez contained two alkaloids which they named quinine and cinchonine. Some years afterwards quinidine and cinchonidine were discovered, and subsequently several other alkaloids, but in smaller quantity, in different varieties of the bark. Chemistry.—The alkaloids appear to exist in cinchona bark chiefly in combination with cinchotannic and quinic acids, since solvents of the alkaloids in the free state do not dissolve out any from the powdered bark. The cinchotannic acid apparently becomes altered by atmospheric oxidation into a red-colouring matter, known as cinchono-fulvic acid or cinchona red, which is very abundant in some species, as in C. succirubra. For this reason those barks which, like C. Calisaya, C. officinalis, and C. Ledgeriana, contain but little colouring matter are preferred by manufacturers, the quinine being more easily extracted from them in a colourless form. The value of cinchona bark for the manufacture of quinine depends on the amount of quinine sulphate that can be prepared from it in the crystalline form. The exact mode of extraction adopted by manufacturers is kept a profound secret. That hitherto adopted by the Indian Government for the preparation of the cinchona febrifuge (see below) has the merit of simplicity, but the whole of the alkaloid present in the bark is not obtained by it. This method is to exhaust the powdered bark as far as possible by means of water acidulated with hydrochloric acid and then to precipitate the mixed alkaloids by caustic soda. Another method which is said to give better results consists in mixing the powdered bark with milk of lime, drying the mass slowly with frequent stirring, exhausting the powder with boiling alcohol, removing the excess of alcohol by distillation, adding sufficient dilute sulphuric acid to dissolve the alkaloid and throw down colouring matter and traces of lime, &c., filtering, and allowing the neutralized liquid to deposit crystals. The sulphates of the alkaloids thus obtained are not equally soluble in water, and the sulphate of quinine can consequently be separated by fractional crystallization, since, being less soluble in water than the other sulphates, it crystallizes out first. The quinine of commerce is the neutral sulphate, containing 7 molecules of water of crystallization, and having the formula (CoHo, N.O.). HSO, +*H.O. When crystallized from alcohol, or when dried over sulphuric acid, it contains only 2 molecules. Cownley has shown that the salt containing 2 molecules of water is the most permanent one, for when the commercial sulphate containing 7% molecules is dried at 100° C. it becomes anhydrous, and when subsequently exposed freely to the air it rapidly absorbs 2 molecules of water; and that the commercial salt, if exposed to the air, effloresces until only 2 molecules of water are retained." Two other sulphates are known. The one contains a single equivalent of acid, and in commerce bears the name of acid sulphate or soluble sulphate of quinine; it is soluble in 11 parts of water, but with considerable difficulty in absolute alcohol. The other sulphate contains 2 equivalents of sulphuric acid, is very soluble in cold water, but quite insoluble in ether; it is not an article of commerce. Both these sulphates crystallize with 7 molecules of water. The neutral sulphate of quinine occurs in commerce in the form of slender white acicular crystals, which are very light and bulky. It is soluble in about 740 parts of cold water, but in 30 of boiling water, 60 of rectified spirits of wine (sp. gr. 0:85), and 40 of glycerin. Its solubility in water is lessened by the presence of sodium or magnesium sulphate, but is increased by nitrate of potassium,
* Pharm. Jour., , vol. vii. p. 189.
chloride of ammonium, and most acids. It is not soluble in fixed oils or in ether, although the pure alkaloid is soluble in both. It becomes phosphorescent on trituration. When prescribed it is generally rendered more soluble in water by the addition of dilute sulphuric acid or of citric acid, one drop of the former or oths of a grain of the latter being used for each grain of the sulphate of quinine. When a solution of quinine is exposed to sunlight it assumes a yellowish or brown colour due to the formation of “quiniretin,” a body which is isomeric with quinine but has not an alkaline reaction, is not precipitated by tannin, and has an aromatic as well as a bitter taste. Quinine is precipitated from its solution by alkalies and their carbonates. It is very soluble in solution of ammonia, and also slightly soluble in lime water. The acid solution of sulphate of quinine is fluorescent, especially when dilute; it is levogyrate; and when a solution of chlorine is first added and then ammonia an emerald green colour, due to the formation of thalleoquin, is developed. This test answers with a solution containing only 1 part of quinine in 5000, or in a solution containing not more than go own part if bromine be used instead of chlorine. The fluorescence is visible in an acid solution containing one part in 200,000 of water. Quinine forms with sulphuric acid and iodine a compound known as herapathite, 4C20H24N2O2.3SOH2.61 +3H2O, which possesses optical properties similar to those of tourmaline; it is soluble in k000 parts of boiling water; and its sparing solubility in cold alcohol has been utilized for estimating quinine quantitatively. The other alkaloids are distinguished from quinine thus:-quinidine resembles quinine, but is dextrogyrate, and the iodide is very insoluble in water; the solution of cinchonidine, which is levogyrate, does not give the thalleoquin test, nor fluorescence; cinchonine resembles cinchonidine in these respects, but is dextrogyrate. Commercial sulphate of quinine frequently contains from 1 to 10 per cent of the sulphate of cinchonidine owing to the use of barks containing it. The sulphate of cinchonidine is more soluble than that of quinine; and, when 1 part of quinine sulphate suspected to contain it is nearly dissolved in 24 parts of boiling water, the sulphate of quinine crystallizes out on cooling, and the cinchonidine is found in the clear mother liquor, from which it can be precipitated by a solution of tartrate of potassium and sodium. Samples of quinine in which cinchonidine is present usually contain, according to Hesse, a smaller percentage of water than the pure sulphate, the cinchonidine salt exercising a reducing influence on the quinine salt in this respect. Traces of quinidine are also sometimes,
though rarely, found in commercial quinine, but, since ! quinine.
quinidine is even more valuable as a medicine than quinine, its presence does not detract in a medicinal point of view from the value of the latter. owing to its voluminous character, as much as 18 per cent of water may remain present in apparently dry samples of sulphate of quinine. If it loses more than 1 to per cent of water when dried at 100° C. it contains an excessive amount of moisture. Owing to its variability in this respect the hydrochlorate of quinine has been recommended as a more constant salt ; it also possesses advantages from a therapeutical point of view. sulphate of quinine manufactured from cuprea, bark (Romão ordunculator) is liable to contain from 10 to on per cent. of sulphate of homoquinine, which almost coincides in solubility with sulphate of quinine. Homoquinine has been shown by l'aul and Cownley to be decomposed on treatment with caustic soda into quinine and a new alkaloid, cupreine, in the proportion of 2 to 3.
They have also shown that cupreine is soluble in a solution of caustic soda (differing in this respect from quinine), and that therefore it is easy to prepare sulphate of quinine perfectly free from either homoquinine or cupreine. So far as the medicinal properties of cupreine and homoquinine are at present known they appear to be of no practical importance." In consequence of the high price of the alkaloid an attempt was made a few years since by the Government of India to manufacture from cinchona bark a cheap febrifuge which should represent the alkaloids contained in the bark and form a substitute for quinine. This enterprise met with such success that in 1884 as much as 87.14 lb of the febrifuge were prepared; and during the previous year 9144 lb were distributed, of which 4880 lb were supplied to the Government institutions at a cost of little more than a rupee per ounce. This mixture is known as cinchona febrifuge, and is prepared chiefly from C. succirubra, which succeeds better in India than the other species in cultivation, and grows at a lower elevation, being consequently procurable in large quantities at a comparatively low price. A mixture of the cinchona alkaloids, consisting principally of cinchonidine sulphate, with smaller quantities of the sulphates of quinine and cinchonine, is sold under the name of “quinctum" at a cheaper rate than quinine. In 1870 the Indian Government purchased no less than 81,600 ounces of sulphate of quinine, besides 8832 ounces of the sulphates of cinchonine, cinchonidine, and quinidine; but at the present date it is able to meet the requirements of its establishments almost entirely by the cinchona febrifuge prepared at the Government plantations in India. Although quinine is manufactured in the United States, a large quantity has been imported from Europe since the high duty levied on its manufacture has been removed. There is considerable difficulty in obtaining trustworthy statistics as to the extent of the manufacture of quinine. The largest sale that has taken place in America appears to have been in 1883, when 1 tons were put up to auction, and in the same year 16,000 ounces were sold in London and a similar quantity at Derlin. Physiological Action.—Quinine arrests the movements of the white corpuscles of the blood, rendering them round and darkly granulate, and, by preventing them from making their exit from the blood-vessels, diminishes or arrests the formation of pus in inflammation and causes contraction of the spleen when that organ is enlarged. It acts upon the cerebro-spinal nervous system, giving rise to headache and a sense of tension in the brain; these symptoms may be removed by the addition of hydrobromic acid or prevented by the use of the hydrobromide of It acts through the sympathetic nervous system on the lieart, and is thus capable of restraining all the animal processes which develop heat, organic changes, or muscular action. It is antagonistic to atroline in its physiological action. The use of quinine in medicine dates from its discovery Its chief value is as an antiperiodic, especially in intermittent fevers, but also in other diseases when they
been exposed to miasmatic influence without danger after taking a dose or two of five grains of quinine once or twice a day. In the smallest medicinal doses it is purely tonic, in larger ones stimulant; but it differs from other medicines of the same class in the stimulant action being longer sustained. In large doses it acts as a sedative, and in excessive doses it is poisonous. In some individuals it produces an erythematous eruption, and it is also known to act as an oxytocic. Large doses also sometimes produce deafness, and act injuriously in all inflammatory states of the mucous membrane.
The other alkaloids of cinchona bark—quinidine, cinchomidine, and cinchonine—also possess similar properties, quinidine being even more effectual than quinine ; but cinchonine appears to produce nausea and gastric disturbance. This is also the case with the cinchona febrifuge prepared from C. succirubra.
Until the year 1867 English manufacturers of quinine were entirely dependent upon South America for their supplies of cinchona bark, which were obtained exclusively from uncultivated trees, growing chiefly in Bolivia, Peru, and Ecuador, the principal species which were used for the purpose being Cinchona Calisaya, Wedd. ; C. officinalis, Hook. ; C. macrocalyx, var. Palton, How. ; C. Pitayensis, Wedd. ; C. micrantha, R. and P. ; and C. lancifolia, Mutis. Since the cultivation of cinchona trees was commenced in Java, India, Ceylon, and Jamaica, several other species, as well as varieties and hybrids cultivated in those countries, have been used." Recently C. lancifolia, var. Calisaya, Wedd., known as the calisaya of Santa Fé, has been strongly recommended for cultivation, because the shoots of felled trees afford bark containing a considerable amount of quinine ; C. Pitayensis has also been lately introduced into the Indian plantations on account of yielding the valuable alkaloid quinidine, as well as quinine, but the last two species have not as yet been grown in sufficient quantities to afford marketable bark.
The first importation from India took place in 1867, since which time the cultivated bark has arrived in Europe in constantly increasing quantities, London being the chief market for the Indian barks and Amsterdam for those of Java. The principal sales take place in May. In 1876, when Indian calisaya bark first came into the European market, the imports into London were the following :-Cinchona succirubra, 45,000 lb ; C. officinalis, 20,000 lb ; C. Calisaya, 1000 lb. During the last few years Cinchona Calisalsa has also been cultivated extensively in Bolivia and in Tolima, United States of Colombia, and this bark, which had almost disappeared from commerce, is likely in a few years to again become an available source of quinine.
In order to obtain the cultivated bark as economically as possible, experiments were made some years ago by M“Ivor and others which resulted in the discovery that, if the bark were removed from the trunks in alternate strips so as not to injure the cambium, or actively growing zone, a new layer of bark was formed in one year which was richer in quinine than the original bark and equal in thickness to that of two or three years' ordinary growth. This is known in commerce as renewed bark. The process has been found to be most conveniently practised when the trees are eight years old, at which age the bark separates most easily. The yield of quinine has been ascertained to increase annually until the cleventh year, at which it seems to reach its maximum. The portion of the trunk from which the bark has been removed is sometimes protected by moss, and the new bark which forms is then distinguished by the name of mossed bark. The species which yield the largest amount of quinine are by no means the easiest to cultivate, and experiments have consequently been made in cross-fertilization and grasting with the view of giving vigour of growth to delicate trees yielding a large amount of alkaloid or of increasing the yield
* In Java, C. Calisaya, vars. anglica, javunica, IIasskarliana, and Ledgeriana ; C. officinalis, var. angustifolia; C. lancifolia; C. caloptera, Miq.; C. micrantha and C. succirubra, How. In India, C. succirubra, C. officinalis, vars. angustifolia, crispa, Uritusinga, and Bonplandiana, and to a lesser extent C, Calisaya, vars. Boliviana and microcarpa ; C. micrantha, C. Peruviana, How., and C. nitida, R. and P., form only a small proportion of the plantations. Since Mr J. E. Howard, the eminent quinologist, pointed out that C. Pahudiana, IIow., and C. Calisaya, vars. jacanica, IIasskarliana, and anglica, were likely to lead to disappointment as quinine-yielding species, these have been replaced in the plantations as rapidly as possible by the more valuable species, of which C. Ledgeriana, yielding from 5 to 10 per cent, or even more of quinine, C. officinalis, and a hybrid between C. officinalis and C. succirubra which has been named C. robusta, Trimen, are the most important.
in strong growing trees affording but little quinine. Grafting, however, has not been found to answer the purpose, since the stock and the graft have been found to retain their respective alkaloids in the natural proportion just as if growing separately. Hybridization also is very uncertain, and is very difficult to carry out effectually; hence the method of propagating the best varieties by cuttings has been adopted except in the case of those which do not strike readily, as in C. Ledgeriana, in which the plants are grown from the shoots of felled trees. A few years ago it was discovered that a bark imported from the United States of Colombia under the name of cuprea bark, and derived from Itemijia pedunculata, Triana, and other species, contained quinine to the extent of , to 2% per cent., and in 1881 this bark was exported in enormous quantities from Santander, exceeding in amount the united importations of all the other cinchona barks; and by reason of its cheapness this has since that date been largely used for the manufacture of quinine. The imports of cinchona bark into London in 1884, including cuprea bark, are stated to have been 59,287 bales, into France 9271 bales, and into New York 8150 bales. Cinchona bark as imported is never uniform in quality. The South-American kinds contain a variable admixture of inferior barks, and the cultivated Indian barks comprise, under the respective names of yellow, pale, and red barks, a number of varieties of unequal value. For this reason a sample from every bale is analysed before the importations are offered for sale. The alkaloids are contained, according to Howard, chiefly in the cellular tissue next to the liber. No definite knowledge has as yet been attained of the exact steps by which quinine is formed in nature in the tissues of the bark, nor have the numerous endeavours that have been made to build up quinine artificially or to obtain some idea of its constitution by splitting it up into its component o been more successful. Nearly all that is known at present has resulted from analyses of the leaves, bark, and root. From these it appears that quinine is present only in small quantities in the leaves, in larger quantity in the stem bark, and increasing in proportion as it approaches the root, where quinine appears to decrease and cinchonine to increase in amount, although the root bark is generally richer in alkaloids than that of the stem. The altitude at which the trees are grown seems to affect the production of quinine, since it has been proved that the yield of quinine in C. officinalis is less when the trees are grown below 6000 feet than above that elevation, and that cinchonidine, quinidine, and resin are at the same time increased in amount. It has also been shown by Broughton that C. peruviana, which yields cinchonine but no quinine at a height of 6000 feet, when grown at 7800 feet gives nearly as much crystallized sulphate of quinine, and almost as readily, as C. officinalis. Karsten also ascertained by experiments made at Bogota on C. lancifolia that the barks of one district were sometimes devoid of quinine, while those of the same species from a neighbouring locality yielded 3% to 4 per cent of the sulphate ; moreover, Dr De Vrij found that the bark of C. officinalis cultivated at Utakamand varied in the yield of quinine from 1 to 9 per cent. In these cases the variation may have been due to altitude. Free access of air to the tissues also seems to increase the yield of quinine, for the renewed bark is found to contain more quinine than the original bark. See Pharmacographia, 2d ed., pp. 350–370; Howard, Quinology of the East Indian Plantations; IIesse in Pharm. Jour. and Trans., ser. 3, vol. iv. pp. 649–
750, 795; Bartholow, Materia Medica and Therapeutics; King, Manual of Cinchona Cultivation. (E. M. H.)
QUINSY. See TossILITIs.
QUINTANA, MANUEL José (1772–1857), Spanish poet and man of letters, was born at Madrid on April 11, 1772, and after completing his studies at Salamanca was called to the bar. In 1801 he produced an unsuccessful tragedy El Duque de Joseo; his Pelayo (1805), appealing as it did to the spirit of resistance to foreign oppression, was much more successful. The first volume of his somewhat rhetorical and superficial Vidas de Españoles Célebres, in 1807, containing lives of Spaniards who had successfully opposed the enemies of their country, was similar in motive, and at the outbreak of the revolution of 1808 Quintana, as journalist (Jariedades, and Semanario patriótico), as secretary to the cortes and the regency, and also as “the Spanish Tyrtaeus” (Odas & España libre, 1808), rendered important services to the patriotic cause. On the return of Ferdinand VII. in 1814 he shared the fate of other “liberals” or “constitutionalists,” and had to endure six years' imprisonment in Pamplona, obtaining his release only in 1820, when he was named president of the department of public instruction under the new Govern
ment. The counter-revolution of 1823 again drove him from office, to which he was once more restored after the death of the king in 1833. In 1835 he was made a senator and peer; and in 1855, at a meeting of the cortes, a laurel crown was placed on his head by Queen Isabella II., whose “governor” he had been during her minority. He died at Madrid on March 11, 1857. The works of Quintana form the 19th volume in Ribadameyra's Biblioteca de Autores Españoles (1852). The third and last volume of the Vidas appeared in 1833. The biographies of Nuñez de Bilboa, Pizarro, The Cid, Guzman el Bueno, Gonsalvo de Cordova, and one or two others have been translated into English. QUINTILLAN (M. FABIUs QUINTILIANUs) was born in the obscure Spanish town of Calagurris (Calahorra), on the Ebro, in the country of the Vascones, not later than 35 A.D. Concerning his family and his life but few facts remain. His father taught rhetoric, with no great success, at Rome, and Quintilian must have come there at an early age to reside, and must have there grown up to manhood. The years from 61 to 68 he spent in Spain, probably attached in some capacity to the retinue of the future emperor Galba, with whom he returned to the capital. Quintilian must have brought back with him a considerable reputation as a rhetorician. For at least twenty years after the accession of Galba he was at the head of the foremost school of oratory in Rome, and may fairly be called the Isocrates of his time. He also gained some but not a great repute as a pleader in the courts. His greatest speech appears to have been a defence of the queen Berenice, on what charge is not known. For a member of a learned profession his circumstances were easy; but the question of Juvenal, “How is it that Quintilian owns so many estates?” ought perhaps not to be accepted as evidence of great wealth. Vespasian created for him a professorial chair of rhetoric, liberally endowed with public money, and from this time he was unquestionably, as Martial calls him, “the supreme controller of the restless youth.” About the year 88 Quintilian retired from teaching and from pleading, to compose his great work on the training of the orator (Institutio Oratoria). After two years' retirement he was entrusted by Domitian with the education of two grand-nephews, whom he destined as successors to his throne. Quintilian gained the titular rank of consul, and probably died not long before the accession of Nerva (96 A.D.). A good many years earlier his wife had died at the age of nineteen, leaving him two sons, one of whom died when seven years old, the other in his eleventh year, while the father was engaged upon his great work. Such is the scanty record that remains of Quintilian's uneventful life. But it is possible to determine with some accuracy his relation to the literature and culture of his time, which he powerfully influenced. His career brings home to us the vast change which in a few generations had passed over Roman taste, feeling, and society. In the days of Cicero rhetorical teaching had been entirely in the hands of the Greeks. Even Cicero, when he wrote his rhetorical works, was driven to plead that it could not be disgraceful to teach what it was not disgraceful to learn. The Greek language, too, was in the main the vehicle of instruction in rhetoric. The first attempt to open a Latin rhetorical school, in 94 B.C., was crushed by
mously, and the education of the time found its end and climax in rhetoric. Mental culture was for the most part acquired, not for its own sake, but as a discipline to develop skill in speaking, the paramount qualification for a public career. Rome, Italy, and the provinces alike resounded with rhetorical exercitations, which were promoted on all sides by professorships, first of Greek, later also of Latin rhetoric, endowed from municipal funds. The mock contests of the future orators roused a vast amount of popular interest. In Gaul, Spain, and Africa these pursuits were carried on with even greater energy than at Rome. The seeds of the existing culture, such as it was, bore richer fruit on the fresh soil of the Western provinces than in the exhausted lands of Italy and the East. While Quintilian lived, men born in Spain dominated the Latin schools and the Latin literature, and he died just too soon to see the first provincial, also of Spanish origin, ascend the imperial throne. As an orator, a teacher, and an author, Quintilian set himself to stem the current of popular taste which found its expression in what we are wont to call silver Latin. In his youth the influence of the younger Seneca was dominant. But the teacher of Quintilian was a man of another type, one whom he ventures to class with the old orators of Rome. This was Domitius Afer, a rhetorician of Nimes, who rose to the consulship. Quintilian, however, owed more to the dead than to the living. His great model was Cicero, of whom he speaks at all times with unbounded eulogy, and whose faults he could scarce bring himself to mention; nor could he well tolerate to hear them mentioned by others. The reaction against the Ciceronian oratory which had begun in Cicero's own lifetime had acquired overwhelming strength after his death. Quintilian failed to check it, as another teacher of rhetoric, equally an admirer of Cicero, had failed—the historian Livy. Seneca the elder, a clear-sighted man who could see in Cicero much to praise, and was not blind to the faults of his own age, condemned the old style as lacking in power, while Tacitus, in his Dialogue on Orators, includes Cicero among the men of rude and “unkempt" antiquity. The great movement for the poetization of Latin prose which was begun by Sallust ran its course till it culminated in the monstrous style of Fronto. In the courts judges, juries, and audiences alike demanded what was startling, quaint, or epigrammatic, and the speakers practised a thousand tricks to satisfy the demand. Oratory became above all things an art whose last thought was to conceal itself. It is not surprising that Quintilian's forensic efforts won for him no great reputation. The Institutio Oratoria is one long protest against the tastes of the age. Starting with the maxim of Cato the Censor that the orator is “ the good man who is skilled in speaking,” Quintilian takes his future orator at birth and shows how this goodness of character and skill in speaking may be best produced. No detail of training in infancy, boyhood, or youth is too petty for his attention. The parts of the work which relate to general education are of great interest and importance. Quintilian postulates the widest culture; there is no form of knowledge from which something may not be extracted for his purpose; and he is fully alive to the importance of method in education. He ridicules the fashion of the day, which hurried over preliminary cultivation, and allowed men to grow grey while declaiming in the schools, where nature and r, ality were forgotten. Yet he develops all the to chnicalities of rhetoric with a fulness to which we find no loarallel in ancient literature. Even in this portion of the work the illustrations are so aposite and the style so dignified and yet sweet that the modern reader, whose initial interest in rhetorie is of necessity faint, is carried along with much
less fatigue than is necessary to master most parts of the rhetorical writings of Aristotle and Cicero. At all times the student feels that he is in the company of a high-toned gentleman who, so far as he could do so without ceasing to be a Roman, has taken up into his nature the best results of ancient culture in all its forms. His literary sympathics are extraordinarily wide. When obliged to condemn, as in the case of Seneca, he bestows generous and even extravagant praise on such merit as he can find. He can cordially admire even Sallust, the true fountain-head of the style which he combats, while he will not suffer Lucilius to lie under the aspersions of IIorace. The passages in which Quintilian reviews the literature of Greece and Rome are justly celebrated. The judgments which he passes may be in many instances traditional, but, looking to all the circumstances of the time, it seems remarkable that there should then have lived at Tome a single man who could make them his own and give them expression. The form in which these judgments are rendered is admirable. The gentle justness of the sentiments is accompanied by a curious felicity of phrase. Who can forget “the immortal swiftness of Sallust,” or “the milky richness of Livy,” or how “Horace soars now and then, and is full of sweetness and grace, and in his varied forms and phrases is most fortunately bold’s Ancient literary criticism perhaps touched its highest point in the hands of Quintilian. To comprehensive sympathy and clear intellectual vision Quintilian added refined tenderness and freedom from self-assertion. Taking him all in all, we may say that his personality must have been the most attractive of his time—more winning and at the same time more lofty than that of the younger Pliny, his pupil, into whom no small portion of the master's spirit, and even some tincture of the master's literary taste, was instilled. It does not surprise us to hear that Quintilian attributed any success he won as a pleader to his command of pathos, a quality in which his great guide Cicero excelled. In spite of some extravagances of phrase, Quintilian's lament (in his sixth book) for his girl-wife and his boy of great promise is the most pathetic of all the lamentations for bereavement in which Latin literature is so rich. In his precepts about early education Quintilian continually shows his shrinking from cruelty and oppression. The educational method of “Orbilius, abounding in blows,” has never been more earnestly rebuked. Quintilian for the most part avoids passing opinions on the problems of philosophy, religion, and politics. The professed philosopher he disliked almost as much as did Isocrates. IIe deemed that ethics formed the only valuable part of philosophy and that ethical teaching ought to be in the hands of the rhetoricians. In the divine government of the universe he seems to have had a more than ornamental faith, though he doubted the immortality of the soul. As to politics Quintilian, like others of his time, felt free to eulogize the great anti-Caesarean leaders of the dying republic, but only because the assumption was universal that the system they had championed was gone for ever. But Quintilian did not trouble himself, as Statius did, to fling stones at the emperors Caligula and Nero, who had missed their deification. He makes no remark, laudatory or otherwise, on the government of any emperor before Domitian. No character figured more largely in the rhetorical controversies of the schools than the ideal despot, but no word ever betrayed a consciousness that the actual occupant of the Palatine might exemplify the themes. Quintilian has often been reproached with his slattery of Domitian. No doubt it was fulsome. But it is confined to two or three passages, not thrust continually upon the reader, as by Statius and
Martial. To refuse the charge of Domitian's expected successors would have been perilous, and equally perilous would it have been to omit from the Institutio Oratoria all mention of the emperor. And there was at the time only one dialect in which a man of letters could speak who set any value on his personal safety. There was a choice between extinction and the writing of a few sentences in the loathsome court language, which might serve as an official test of loyalty. So Quintilian, man of honour though he was, swallowed the test as best he might, even as two generations ago in England unbelievers took the sacrament to avoid exclusion from municipal affairs. The Latin of Quintilian is not always free from the faults of style which he condemns in others. It also exhibits many of the usages and constructions which are characteristic of the silver Latin. But no writer of the decadence departs less widely from the best models of the late republican period. The language is on the whole clear and simple, and ...] without resort to rhetorical devices and poetical conceits. Besides the Institutio Oratoria, there have come down to us under Quintilian's name 19 longer and 145 shorter Declamationes, or school exercitations on themes like those in the Controversia, of Seneca. The longer pieces are certainly not Quintilian's. The shorter were probably published, if not by himself, at least from notes taken at his lessons. It is strange that they could ever have been supposed to belong to a later century; the style proclaims them to be of Quintilian's school and time. The works of Quintilian have often been edited. Of the editions of the whole works the chief is that by Burmann (1720); of the Institutio Oratoria that by Spalding, completed by Zumpt and Bonnell (1798–1834, the last volume containing a lexicon), and that by Halm (1868). The tenth book of the Institutio Oratoria has often been separately edited, as by Krueger, Bonnell, Mayor (unfinished), and others. There is a critical edition of the 145 Declamationes by C. Ritter (1885). (J. S. R.) QUINTUS SMYRNAEUS, a late epic poet of Greece, sometimes called Quintus Calaber because his poem was discovered at Otranto in Calabria. Next to nothing is known of him. He appears to have lived in the latter part of the 4th century, shortly before Nonnus. He speaks of himself as having tended sheep in his youth at Smyrna (bk. xii. 308 sq.). His epic in fourteen books, known as Tà ué0' "Oumpov or the Posthomerica, takes up the tale of Troy at the point where Homer's Iliad breaks off, i.e., after the death of Hector, and carries it down to the capture of the city by the Greeks. It describes the doughty deeds and deaths of Penthesilea the Amazon (bk. i.), Memnon, son of the Morning (bk. ii.), and Achilles (bk. iii.); the funeral games in honour of Achilles (bk. iv.); the contest for the arms of Achilles and the death of Ajax (bk. v.); the exploits of Neoptolemus and Deiphobus, the deaths of Paris and (Enone, the capture of Troy by means of the wooden horse, the sacrifice of Polyxena at the grave of Achilles, the departure of the Greeks, and their dispersal by the storm (bks. vi.-xiv.). The poet has no originality; in conception and style his work is closely modelled on Homer. His materials are borrowed from the cyclic poems from which Virgil also drew, in particular the AEthiopis of Arctinus and the Little Iliad of Lesches. The style is clear, but the poem is flat and tedious, in spite of the abundance of similes with which the poet seeks to relieve its dulness. The first edition of Quintus Smyrnaeus was published by Aldus Manutius in 1504 or 1505; in this century there have been editions by Tychsen, 1807, Lehrs in the Didot edition of Hesiod, &c., 1841, and two editions by Köchley in 1850 (Weidmann) and 1853 (Teubner). Sainte-Beuve has an essay on him. QUITO, the capital of the republic of Ecuador, South America, an archbishopric, and the chief town of a department, lies 14' of latitude south of the equator, and in 79° 45' W, long, at a height of 9520 feet above the sea. In ancient times it was connected with Cuzco by a paved highway, portions of which still exist; but under Spanish rule it was allowed to relapse almost into the natural isolation of its position. Since 1870, however,