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Cobalti-cyanide of potassium, (NC)Co''. Kz, forms yellow crystals | tained lately is that the very same precipitate is produced by addiisomorphous with those of red prussiate (see infra). It is a re tion to a ferrous salt of an excess of red prussiate. markably stable salt. In its behaviour to reagents it exhibits I. (NC)& fe. Kz + FeCl,=2KCI+(XC)gfe. KFe=B'. none of the characters of a cobalt salt or of a simple cyanide. Aque II. (XC) Fe. Kg + feCl3 = 3KCI+(XC).Fe. Kfe=B”. ous mineral aciils convert it into the hydrogen salt (VC)Co" H.3, B' and B” in the formula look different, but the difference is only which remains undecomposed on boiling. Heavy metallic salts pro- apparent; in either case the group (NC), is combined with 1 Fe and cluce precipitates of cobalti-cyanides; for example, (NC)oCo". ĀG:;. ife and íK; the bodies are identical (Skraup; Reindel). The (8) Ferrosum. — See “prussiate of potash ” above. (9) Forricum.— precipitate B, though insoluble in salt solutions, is soluble in pure Ferric lyılrate and ferric compounds generally do not act upon water, forming an intensely blue solution ; hence the name. cyanide of potassium in a manner analogous to that of ferrous com

Now the potassium in soluble prussian blue can be displaced by pounds; but a ferri-cyanide analogous to the cobalti-salt referred iron in two ways, namely, by digestion with solutions of ferrous or to in (?) is readily produced by passing chlorine into a cold solution ferric salts. In the former case (10) feFeK becomes (NC),fe Feş, or of ordinary prussiate, (NC)8Fe”. Kd+C1 = KCl +(NC),fe". K,.1 In preparing the salt an excess of chlorine and elevation of tempera- empirically (XC),.Fe; this is Gmelin's ("Turnbull's”) blue. In the

latter caso (NC), l'efes becomes (NC),Fefe , or empirically (XC) Fe;; ture must be avoided, or else part of the salt is decomposed with formation of a green precipitate. The solution on evaporation and this is prussian blue as discovered by Diesbach. Contrasting this cooling yields splendid dark red crystals, soluble in 2.54 parts of latter formula with that of Gmelin's blue (NC),3Fe-, we see that water of 15°.6 C. (Wallace), forming a most intensely yellow the latter needs only lose } Fe to become prussian blue; this sursolution. (Orilinary prussiate solution is only pale yellow even plus iron in fact can be withdrawn by means of nitric acid. when saturatel in the cold.) This salt (discovered by L. Gmelin In the manufacture of prussian blue the general process is to in 1822) is now being manufactured industrially and is known in first precipitate ferrous sulphate with yellow prussiate and then to

red prussiate.” In its reactions it is analogous to fully oxidize the precipitate by means of nitric acid or chlorine as ordinary yellow prussiate. The same group, (NC)oFe, which in far as the oxygen of the air does not do it. The following receipt the latter acts as a four-valent, in the red salt plays the part of a is recommended amongst others. Six parts each of green vitriol tri- valent radical, (NC)gfe. But the radical thus modified has and yellow prussiate are lissolved separately, each in fifteen parts a great tendency to assume the four-valent form ; hence an

of water, and the solutions mixed. One part of concentrated sulalkaline solution of red prussiate is a powerful oxidizing agent, phuric acid and twenty-four parts of fuming muriatic acid are then (NC)gfe. Ky+ KHO=(NC) Fe. K +HO. The Ho goes to the reduc: aldel, and after standing some hours also a solution of bleaching ing agent. Like the yellow salt, red prussiate is not poisonous, at powiler in instalments until the blue colour is fully developed. least when pure.

to Turubull's ” blue is made by precipitating reil prussiate of potash Ferro- anil Ferri-cyanides of Iron. — The two prussiates are con with excess of ferrous salt ; but it is easily seen from what was stantly being used in the laboratory as very delicate reagents for said above that the use of this relatively expensive double cyanide the detection of iron salt, and for the discrimination of ferrous and might be dispensed with. The properties of the two pigments are ferric compounds in solutions, -(1) ferro-cyanide and ferrous salt, pretty much the same. They are sold in the form of solid cakes or white precipitate ; (2) ferri-cyaniile and ferrie salt, intensely brown lumps, which, in addition to their blue colour, present a coppery coloration ; (3) ferro-cyaniile and ferric salt, blue precipitate ; lustre on fracture. They are stable against acids, but sensibly (4) ferri-cyaniile and ferrous salt, blue precipitate. These blue affected (bleachel) on prolonged exposure to sunlight; and, although precipitates are being produced industrially and used as pigments, they stanı neutral soap fairly well, they are decomposed promptly under the names of “prussian blue” and “Turnbull's blue” for by solutions of even the carbonates of the alkalis with formation (3) and (4) respectively. The latter has been thus known for

of hydrated oxides of iron. The cheaper commercial varieties are now half a century; yet the constitution of the precipitates and more or less largely diluted with clay, sulphate of baryta, &c. Pure the true rationale of their formation have been fully cleared up prussian blue dissolves readily in a dilute solution of oxalic acid ; only during the last few years. The main results of the researches the intensely blue solution useil to serve as a blue ink, but has referred to are included in the following paragraphs.

come to be superseiled by the several more brilliant blues of the (1) Ferro-cynnide of Hydrogen, (INC) FC.H., is obtained as a white coal-tar series. These tar-blues have displaced prussian blue also crystalline precipitate when air-free concentrated solution of yellow in other applications, and as a commercial pigment it has besides precipitate is mixed with hydrochloric acid and ether. It is easily to struggle gainst ultramarine. In short, it has gone very muel soluble in water and in alcohol. An aqueous solution of it is pre out of use, and as a consequence the manufacture of yellow prussiate pared for technical purposes lɔy mixing a strong solution of yellow is no longer so remunerative as it used to be. prussiate with enough tartaric acid to bring down the potassium Analysis of Cyanides. -As hydrocyanic acil and cyanide of as cream of tartar. When the solution of this ferro-hydrocyanic potassium are dangerously poisonous, and the latter at least is casily acid is boiled half the cyanogen goes oll' as NCH, while the other procured in commerce, the detection of cyanogen in this state of

Fe remains as part of a white, rather unstable, precipitate, (NC)F«•II.; detect such cyanogen in, say, the contents of a stomach the first

combination is one of the problems of forensic chemistry. To When the solution is exposed to the air, especially at higher step is to distil the mass after acilification with tartarie acid, temperatures, part of the cyanogen goes off as NCH, another part which decomposes cyanide of potassium but does not liberate prussie suffers oxislation into H.,O+NC, and this latter combines with the acid from prussian blue (or even prussiate of potash ?). If the disFe(NC), of the original compound into blue boilies similar in their tillate gives no precipitate with nitrate of silver hydrocyanic acil general properties to prussian blue. This latter change is utilizeal is absent, if it does the precipitate may have been produced by in calico-printing for producing patterns of, or dyeing with, prus- hydrochloric acid, which may then be eliminated by redistillation sian blue. The white precipitate (NC),Fe... may be looked upon

with borax or sulphate of soda, neither of which affects NCH. But

H as an acill of which

even in the presence of chlorides the following two tests give perfect Fe (2) Everett's Sult, (NC),Fe. is the potash salt. This salt is certainty.. (1) A solution of hydrocyanic acid, when alkalinized

with caustie potash and then mixed with, first ferroso-ferric salt produced in the ordlinary process for making prussic acid (see above). and then excess of hydrochloric acil, gives a precipitate, or at least It is probably identical with the white precipitate produced when a green suspension, of prussian blue. (2) A solution of NCH, when ferrous salt is clecomposed by prussiate of potash. Everett's salt mixed with ammonia and yellow sulphide of ammonium, is changeul when exposed to the air quickly absorbs oxygen and becomes blue ; into one of sulphocyanate of ammonium, which, after removal of the the reaction, as Williamson showed, assumes a simple form when excess of reagents by evaporation at a gentle heat, strikes an intense the precipitate is boiled with nitric acid. One-half of the potassium and very characteristic red colour with ferric salts, which colour does is then oxidized away, and a blue double ferri-cyanide of potassium not vanish (as that of ferric acetate does) on even strong acidification and ferrosum takes the place of the original precipitate :

with mineral acid (Liebig's test). The quantitative determination (NC)oFe. K,Fe=}(K,0 as nitrate) + {(NC),fe} "'Tc"K'. of cyanogen given as an aqueous solution of hydrocyanic acid or

cyanide of potassium can (if haloils are absent) be effected by ailding This blue when boiled with ferro-cyanidle of potassium is reconverteil

excess of nitrate of silver, then acidifying, if necessary, with nitric into the original Everett's salt with formation of a solution of red

acid, filtering off, washing, drying, and weighing the cyanide of silver prussinte

produced. AgNC=13+ corresponds to VCH = 27 parts. A more er

jiedlitious method has been invented by Liebig. A known quantity (NC)ofe. KFe* + K,*K,. Fe(NC)&=(NC),fe. Ky + Fe(NC)· FeK.), of the given prussic acid is alkalinized strongly with caustic potash Reil prussiate.

and then diluted freely with water. The caustic alkali usually the asterisked radicals changing places.

contains plenty of chloride as an impurity, else a little alkaline (3) Soluble Prussian Blue is isomeric with Williamson's blue. It chloride must be added. A standard solution of nitrate of silver is produced by mixing a solution of ferric salt with cuccss of yellow (conveniently adjusted so as to contain 6.30 grammes of fused niprussiate, which, however, is an old process ; what has been ascer trate per 1000 cubic centimètres, equivalent to 2 grammes of NCHI)

is now dropped in from a burette until the cloud of chloride of 1 Tiere we use the symbol "fe" as designating 50 parts of ferric iron,-“Fe" silver which appears locally from the first just fails to disappear on meaning the same quantity of ferrosum.

stirring, i.c., until the reaction 2KNC+ AgNO3=KAG:(NC). + KNO3


Williamson's blue.

Everett's salt.

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has just been completed. One cub. cent. of silver solution used | NCS. Cu, comes down, which, if enough of reagent was usel, con-
indicates 2 milligrammes of NCH. Liebig's method lends itself tains all the copper. If sulphocyanate is added to nitrate of silver,
particularly well for the assaying of the medicinal acid and of all the silver is precipitated as Ag. NCS, similar in appearance to
cyanide of potassium. The two tests for hydrocyanic acid given the chloride and, like it, insoluble in water and in nitric acid.
above apply as they stand to solutions of the cyanides of alkali Upon this and the fact that sulphocyanates strike a deep red colour
and alkaline-carth metals, but not to mercuric cyanide. In regard with ferric salts Volhard has based an excellent titrimetric methoil
to all other cyanides we have only space to say that from a certain for the determination of silver. (See Silver.)
set (which includes the cobalti-cyanides and the platinum cyanides) Syntheses of Cyanogen Compounds.—Synthetical organic chemistry
cyanogen cannot be extracted at all as NCH (or AgNC) by any dates froin Wühler's discovery of the artificial formation of urea,
known methods. Such bodies must be identified by their own and in the further development of this branch of the science cyano-
specific reactions or by elementary analysis. All cyanides are de gen has playeıl a prominent part. (For illustrations we may refer
composed by hot concentrated sulphuric acid ; the carbon goes off to certain passages in the present article and in those on METHYL
as Co, the nitrogen remains as sulphate of ammonia and the metals and on NITROGEN.) llence it is worth while to enumerate briefly
as sulphates, which brings them within the range of the routine the synthetical method for the making of cyanogen itself. (1)
methoils of analysis,

II ydrocyanic acid is proluced when a current of electric sparks is Cyanates. These were discovered by Wöhler. The potassium madle to cross a mixture of acetylene, C.H., and nitrogen. (2) salt NCO. K is produced by the oxidation of fused cyanide, for pre- Cyanide of ammonium is formed when ammonia is passed over parative purposes most conveniently by Wöhler's method. “An reil-hot charcoal (see supru). (3) Metallic cyanides are proluced intimate mixture of two parts of absolutely anhydrous prussiate of when dry nitrogen gas is passed over a dry mixture of carbonate of potash and one part of equally dry binoxide of manganese is heated potash or baryta an charcoal at a white licat. A similar reaction on an iron tray until the mass has become brownish black and just goes on spontaneously in the iron-smelting furnaces and gives rise begun to fuse. It is now allowed to cool and exhausted by boiling to the formation of vapour of «yanide of potassium. (1) Sulpho80 per cent. alcohol. The filtrate on cooling deposits crystals of cyanide of ammoniun is produced from bisulphide of carbon and the salt NCO.K. If only an aqueous solution of this salt is wanted ammonia, as explained above.

(W. D.) for immediate use, the fuse may be extracted by cold water. From this solution the cyanate of silver, NCO.Ag, or leal, (NCO),Pol), PRYWNE, WILLIAM (1600-1669), was born at Swainscan be prepared by precipitation with solutions of the respective wick near Bath in 1600. Ile was educated at Batlı nitrates or acetates. promptly with formation of carbonates of potash and ammonia

, grammar-school, and became a commoner of Oriel College, kvco +211,0=NH3 + KIO+ CO.,. On addition of nineral acil Oxford, in 1616, taking his 1.1. in 1621; he was adto even the cold solution only a very little of the cyanic acid is mitted a student of Lincoln's Inn in the same year, and liberated as such ; the bulk breaks up at once with ellervescence, in due time became a barrister. lIis studies led him deeply thus, NCO.H +211,0=NH,+CO, +11,0; Very interesting is the into legal and constitutional lore, and no less deeply into its direct effect is the formation of cyanate of aminonia, NCO.NII, ecclesiastical antiquities. IIe was Puritan to the core', but this salt almost immediately passes spontaneously into its with a tenacious memory, a strength of will bordering isomer urea, which is not a cyanato at all but the amide of carbonic upon obstinacy, and a want of sympathy with human aciil, i.e., CO(OIT), -201) + 2NHI,=CO

ONH. This reaction was

nature in its manifold variety. His first book, The Perdimovered by Wühler, who thus for the first time produced an tuity of a Rrjenerate Jun's Estate, 1627, was devotel organic substance from inorganic materials, or virtually from its to a defence of one of the main Calvinistic positions, and elements. Singularly, it is this pseudo-cyanate urra which serves The Unloveliness of Lore-locks and lIeulth's Sickness, 16–8, as a material for making (yanic acid. When hylrochlorate of wrea,

were devoted to attacks upon prevailing fashions, conIICI.COX, 11, is heated to 145° C. the latter behaves as if it were cyanate of ainmonia : the ammonin unites with the hyilrochloric ducted without any sense of proportion, and treatiny follies arid into sal-ammoniac anul the cyanic acidl is set free, but imme on the same footing as scandalous vices. diat-ly suffers polymerization into cyanuric aciil, a solil tri-basic After the dissolution of parliament in 1629 Prynne ariel of the composition VC,0,113, which, being ilifficultly soluble, can be free from the sal-ammoniac by' being washed with cold came forward as the assailant of Arminianism in doctrine water. If parfectly anhydrous cyanuric acid le subjected to dry and of ceremonialism in practice, and thus drew down distillation it furnishes a listillate of (liquidl) cyanic acid NO.1, pon himself the anger of Land. Ilistrio-mustir, published which must le condensed in a vessel surrounded by a freezing in 16:33, was a violent attack, not upon the special immixtur'. Cyanic acid has a very appreciable vapour-tension even at orli

moralities of the stage of l’rynne's day but upon stavenary temperatures, and the least trace of its vapour makes itself felt plays in general, in which the author laid himself open to by a characteristically violent and dangerous action on the respira- the charge of assailing persons in high position, in the first tory orgaus. With dry ammonia gas it unites into true cranate of place by pointing out that kings and emperors who hail ammonia. We do not know much of its own properties, because favoured the drama had been carried off by violent deaths, as soon as it comes out of the freezing mixturu it begins to suffer polymerization into "eyamelid" with great evolution of leat.

which assertion might casily be interpreted as a warning This cyamolil is a porcelain-like mass, insoluble in all ordinary to the king, and in the second place by applying a dis solvents and devoid of acid properties. Dry distillation reconverts graceful epithet to artresses, whichi, as Henrietta Maria it into cyanic aciil. Thurnyrnatrs - This term means buries like cyanates, but

was taking part in the rehearsal of a hallet just as the containing sulphur instead of the oxygen of the latter. "Thio sheet containing the offensive worils was päiving through cyanates are better known, however, as sulphocyanates or sulphu- the press, was supposed to apply to the queen. On 17th ryaniles (1) The potassium salt xcs. K is formed when canile February 1631 Prynne was sentenced by the Star (hamber of potassium is fused with sulphur or certain metallie sulpliides

, 0.11., II. The usual methiol of preparation is to fuse together Lincoln's Inn, rendered incapable of returning to his

to be imprisoner and also to the fined £1000, expelled forts.six parts of dehydrated yellow prussiate of pota-lı, seventeen

poroof lry carbonate of gutash, and thirty-two of sulphur. The fuse fession, degraded from his deure in the university of IN exhaustel with boiling alcohol and the filterel solution allowed Oxforil, and set in the pillory, where he was to lose looth to rl, when crystals of the salt soprate out. The salt is very

On 7th May l’rynne was pacred in the pillory Soluble in water with characteristically large absorption of lai.

The rest of the sentences with the 19. The ammonium salt Sis.NH, can be prepared by allowing and lost his cars. mixture of alcohol, strong aqueous ammonia, and bisulphide of exception of the clan-e relating to the payment of the fine. carlwn to stand for a time and then warming it. Thiocarbonate was carried out. I sharp littes written by liim to Laul of ammonium, CS, XH, s, is produced first, but subsequently criticizing his arguments at the til 1.da milele there towa is rasily obtainrul in crystals. The tar water obtaincu" in the tion of a fresh char!. Prynne, however, got the letter manufature of cal.gas sometimes contains sufficient quantities of into his hands and ture it 111. Though he was avali this mit to make it worth while to rerover it. Both the potassium loronght before the Star (hamber, on 11th June, no addi anl the ammonium salt are much useel ns rengents, aml more positional penalty was intlictel on liim. There is no seasing ally as precipitants for copper and silver. Solutions of cuprie salt when mixed with sulpharyanate assuine the dark brown colour of

to suppose that his punishment was un jaular. In 1637 the capric salt Ca NCR, but on a ldition of sulpliurous ariil the he was one more in the Star (hamber, tengother wi:). colour disappears and a white precipitate of cuprous sulphideyanile, i kastwick and Burton. In 1 Dirine Top.vely listely (r 1.1


his cars.

He com

he had attacked the Declaration of Sports, and in News in the House of Commons. He at once took part against from Ipswich he had attacked Wren and the bishops those who called for the king's execution, and on 5th generally. On 30th June a fresh sentence, that had been December delivered a speech of enormous length in favour delivered on the 14th, was executed. The stumps of of conciliating the king, who had inflicted the most grievPrynne's ears were shorn off in the pillory. When on 27th ous injuries upon him and whose misgovernment he had July he was sent to what was intended to be perpetual bitterly denounced. The result was his inclusion in imprisonment at Lancaster his journey was a triumphal Pride's "purge" on the morning of the 6th, when, having progress, —the imposition of ship-money and the metro- attempted resistance to military violence, he was subjected political visitation having rendered the minds of English- to imprisonment. A fresh protest, published on 1st January men far more hostile to the Government than they had 1649 under the title of A Brief Jsemento to the Present been in 1634. Before long Prynne was removed to Mont Unparliamentary Junto, coupled with his contemptuous Orgeuil Castle in Jersey, where it was hoped that he could refusal to avow his authorship, brought about a fresh order be so entirely isolated that no word of his would reach the of imprisonment on 10th January from the House of outer world again.

Commons itself, which, however, does not seem to have Immediately upon the meeting of the Long Parliament been carried out. After recovering his liberty Prynne in 1640 Prynne was liberated. On 28th November he retired to Swainswick. On 7th June 1649 he was assessed entered London in triumph, and on 2d March 1641 repara- to the monthly contribution laid on the country by Parliation was voted by the Commons, to be made to him at the ment. He not only refused to pay but published 1 Legal expense of his persecutors. As might have been expected, l'indication of the Liberties of England on the ground that Prynne after his release took the side of the Parliament no tax could be raised without the consent of the two strongly against the king, especially attacking in his writ- Houses. In the same year he commenced a long historiinys his old enemies the bishops, and accusing Charles of cal account of ancient parliaments, which was evidently showing undue favour to the Roman Catholics.

intended to reflect on the one in existence. In 1650 his mented on the words of Psalm cv., “Touch not mine labours were cut short by a warrant from President Bradanointed,” by arguing that they inhibited kings from shaw, dated 1st July, and ordering his arrest. For the injuring God's servants who happened to be their subjects, remainder of the year he was imprisoned in Dunster Castle, and in a lengthy work entitled The Sovereign Power of whence he was removed in January 1651 to Taunton, and Parliaments and Kingdoms he maintained that the taking in July to Pendennis Castle. On 1st February 1652 the arms by parliament in a necessarily defensive war was no council of state ordered his discharge on giving a bond of treason either in law or in conscience.

£1000 to do nothing to the prejudice of the CommonPrynne's sufferings had not served to render him com wealth. On his resolute refusal to accept the condition passionate to others. In 1643 he took an active part in an absolute order for his release was given on 18th Februthe proceedings against Nathaniel Fiennes for the surrender ary. From his release till the death of Cromwell Prynne of Bristol. During this and the following year, however, refrained from making any further assault on the existing his chief energies as a prosecutor were directed against Government. His strong conservatism, however, found Archbishop Laud. The cessation of hostilities with the expression in an argument in defence of advowsons and Irish insurgents agreed to on 15th September 1643 brought patronayes and an attack on the Quakers, both published Charles's relations with the Catholics into increased dis- in the same year, as well as in an argument against the repute, and Prynne attacked Laud as the soul of a great admission of the Jews to England issued in the beginning Popish plot by publishing both before and after his execu- of 1655. tion various collections of documents, one of which at least It was not until the restoration of the Rump Parliament was garbled to render it more telling. Even before the by the army on 7th May 1659 that Prynne again came execution of Laud Prynne found a new enemy in the In- | into prominent notice, though he had in the previous year dependents. In 1644 he published Twelve Considerable issued a Plea for the Lords and House of Peers and A lew Serious Questions touchiny Church Government, in which he Discovery, viz., that Quakers were Jesuits in disguise. On upheld the right of the state to form a national church in that day, in addition to the Rump, fourteen of the secluded accordance with the word of God, and reviled the Inde- members, with Prynne among them, claimed admittance. pendents, partly as advocating an unscriptural discipline, The claim was of course refused, but on a second attempt partly as introducing heresy and division, and maintaining on the 9th, through the inadvertence of the doorkeepers, that all religions ought to be tolerated. To the principle Prynne, Annesly, and Hungerford succeeded in taking of individual liberty Prynne was from the beginning to their seats. When they were observed, however, no busithe end irreconcilably hostile. For some time to come he ness was done, and the House purposely adjourned for poured forth pamphlet after pamphlet in vindication of dinner. At the return of members in the afternoon the his assertions. Flowing out of this controversy came doors were found guarded; the secluded members were not another, beginning in 1645 with Four Short Questions, permitted to pass, and a vote was at once taken that they privately circulated, and followed by A Vindication of Four should not again be allowed to enter the House. WrathSerious Questions of Great Importance, in which he denied ful at the failure of his protest and at the continuance of the right of the clergy to excommunicate or to suspend the republican form of government, Prynne attacked his from the reception of the sacrament otherwise than by adversaries fiercely in print. In England's Confusion, publaw. Prynne, in short, maintained the supremacy of the lished 30th May 1659, in the True and Full Varrative, and state over the church, whilst he argued that the state in The Brief Vecessary l'indication he gave long accounts ought to protect the church from the rivalry of sectarian of the attempt to enter the House and of his ejection, associations.

while in the Curtaine Drawne he held up the claims of the Early in 1648 Prynne broke new ground. The Levellers Rump to derision. In Jola Asinaria the ruling powers Levelled was directed against the dangerous opinion that are described as "a new-fangled Government, compacted the Lords should be brought down into the House of Com- of Treason, l'surpation, Tyranny, Theft, and Murder." mons, there to sit and vote. As usual, he argued his case Wood, however, denies that this was by Prynne. In on purely antiquarian and technical grounds, without any Shufiling, Cutting, and Deuling, 26th May, he rejoiced at intellectual grasp of his subject.

the quarrels which he sees arising, for “if you all complain On 7th November 1648 Prynne at last obtained a seat | I hope I shall win at last.” Concordia Discors pointed out

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the absurdity of the constant tendency to multiply oaths, debate on the Ministers' Bill, he urged a settlement on while "remonstrances,” “narratives,” "queries," "prescrip- the principle that the ministers should be compelled to tions," " vindications," "declarations," and "statements” take the oath, but that “all presentations should be good were scattered broadcast. Upon the cry of the "good old throughout, though not by the right patrons, in time of cause” he is especially sarcastic and severe in The True trouble.” On 17th August he spoke passionately against Good Old Cause rightly stated and other pamphlets. any leniency whatsoever being extended to any of the Loyalty Banished explains itself. His activity and fear- king's judges. It is curious, however, to find that the lessness in attacking those in power during this eventful House appointed him to carry the petition to the king in year were remarkable, and an ironical petition was circu- favour of Lambert or Vane. When the question of dislated in Westminster Hall and the London streets com- banding came up, for the carrying out of which he was in plaining of his indefatigable scribbling. On 12th October October made one of the commissioners, Prynne moved the Rump was again expelled by Lambert, and on 24th that no arrears should be paid to those who had acted December once more restored. On 26th December Prynne with Lambert and did not submit. On 7th November he made another fruitless attempt to take his seat. In obedi supported the Bill for the attainder of Cromwell and others ence to the popular voice, however, the ejected members who had participated in the king's execution, and were of 1648, with Prynne among them, wearing a basket-hilt since dead, and particularly desired that the House would sword, re-entered the House and resumed their old seats on take the first and second reading at the same sitting, as 21st February 1660. He boldly declared that if Charles was done in the case of the king's trial. At some time in was to come back it were best done by the votes of those this year (1660) he wrote a letter on the evil custom of who had made war on his father, and was admonished for drinking healths, a subject discussed in the House on his language by Monk and the privy council. This parlia- 10th November. There was indeed scarcely any debate in ment recalled Charles and dissolved itself immediately, which Prynne's voice was not heard; he spoke against Prynne bringing in the Bill for the dissolution on 24th laying the cost of the abolition of the court of wards February. On 13th March he appears as one of three upon the excise, having been in August appointed on appointed to carry out the resolution of the House expuny- the commission for appeals and regulating the excise, ing the Engagement.

and in favour of Bills against the profanation of the The Convention Parliament, which met on 25th April Lord's Day (in which his knowledge of ecclesiastical con1660, contained a large number of Presbyterians. Prynne, troversy again appeared) and against swearing. He apwho was returned for two places, Ludgershall and Bath, pears at this time to have been officially connected withi elected to sit for the latter, and on 16th June presented to the Admiralty. He supported on 27th November the the king an address from the corporation, evidently drawn abortive attempt to turn the kiny's declaration concernup by himself, under the title of Buthonia Rediviva. On ing ecclesiastical affairs into a Bill, and moved against 1st Jay he was nominated on the committee appointed “ to the payment of the debts of the attainted regicides. In peruse the Journals and Records, and to examine what prc- December he wrote against the bishops to the king, thus tended Acts or orders have passed, inconsistent with the “blemishing his late services.” During this year was pubgovernment by King, Lords, and Commons, and report lished I Seasonuble l'indication of the Supream authority them, with their opinion thereon, to this House," and to and Jurisdiction of Christian Kings, Lorels, Purliaments, secure the steady ailministration of the law, and the con (s well or the l'ossessions is l'rsons of Delinquents, Pr'firmation of the legal judgments of the past years. On 9th latex, mul Churchwen. May he went to the Lords with various loyal votes of the At the elections for the Pensionary Parliament, which met ('ommons, and again on 18th May and on 9th June. On on 8th May 1661, Prynne was again returned as member 311 June he "fell upon " Ashley Cooper for putting his hand for Bath in spite of the vehement efforts of the Royalists to the instrument " to settle the Protector in power. On headed by Sir T. Bridge. This parliament was bent upon the 13th he moved that ('olonel Fleetwood, Richard ('rom the humiliation of the Presbyterians, and I'rynne appears in well, John (ioodwin, Thorpe, and Whitelock should be his familiar character of protester. On 30th May, when excepted from the Act of general parlon and oblivion, the the members took the sacrament together at St Margaret's specely passing of which he strongly urged upon the House. Mr Prynne and some few others refused to take it kneel. It is said that at the Restoration he applied to be made one ing. The parson with the lorradl jasel on and refused to of the barons of the exchequer, and that it was in default give it, but he with the wine, not noticing, gave the wine." of this, and to keep so active a man in good temper, that With Secretary Morris Prynne opposed the motion that he was appointed chief keeper of the records in the Tower Dr Gunning should receive the thanks of the House and be with a salary of £500 a year by (Charles, "of his owne desired to print his sermon. On the 18th of this month he mcere motion for my services and sufferings for him under had moved that the Engagement, with the Solemn Layne the late usurpers, and strenuous endeavours by printing and covenant, alioulil loro burned by the hangman. On and otherwise to restore His Majesty.” On 21 July he 13th July he was the subject of attack, as being in a way $11ported a proposal that all officers who had serve the representative of Proslıyterianism : the House in it's during the Protectorate should now refund their salaries, vehement Inglicani-m declared that liis papier lately poband declared that he knew that those persons had received | lished, Sundry Room (!inst the noir into nel lillfir alware £250,000 for their iniquitous duings and to keep Jenerning an rpimini Corporations. Was illegal, false, out the king, a charge he had previously made on 12th scandalous, anul telitions. Prynne was es titreil, alul no May. In all the debates he was for severity won any strony was the feeling that he dee meel it loent to express one who had held office under Cromwell. Onth July lie lis sorrow, noon which the offence was remitteil. The *pke "very honestly and passionately" from the I'resby continne attacks on the Presbyteriantis led him to be ferian point of view in the first great debate on religion, lish his Short, Silver, Pirritie Erminition of Erulerina's in and on the 16th declared he “would not be for bishops! the Common Proper, as well as the prolonely 1.2 Tonoles unless they would derive their power from the king and Consumendiri tehing. Bist During at the timi lexus. In not rannt themselves to be jure dirino." In the delate : 166 there appareil also the brrri Duvilimentaria of the 27th upon the Lords' delay in passing the Art of Ruliniros, possibily a portion of the Resistor. Parlis Imlemnity Prynne found an opportunity for expressing wintry Irits, of which the forth and cineming voluni his hatred of priests and Jesuits; and on the 30th, in the ! waxpullished in 1664. Duri.- 1663 le nirved.in-tantly

on committees, and was chairman of the committee of which had been the cause of death, -an institution probsupply in July, and again in April 1664.

ably existing from a very remote antiquity. In the third session Prynne was once more, 13th May PRZEMYSL, one of the principal towns of Galicia, 1664, censured for altering the draft of a Bill relating to Austria, and the seat of a Roman Catholic and of a Greek public-houses after commitment, but the House again, upon bishop, is picturesquely situated on the river San, about his submission, while taking severe notice of an irregu- | 140 miles to the east of Cracow. It contains several larity committed by “so ancient and knowing a member," churches, of which the two cathedrals are the most interremitted the offence, and he again appears on the com- esting, and numerous convents, schools, and seminaries. mittee of privileges in November and afterwards. In 1665 Among its manufactures are wooden wares, linen, leather, and 1666 he published the second and first volumes and liqueur, and a brisk trade is carried on in these articles respectively of the Exact Chronological l'indication and and in agricultural produce. The trade is mostly in the Historical Demonstration of the supreme ecclesiastical juris- hands of Jews, who form fully a third of the population. diction exercised by the English kings from the original On the hill above the town are the ruins of an old castle, planting of Christianity to the death of Richard I. In said to have been founded by Casimir the Great. Since the latter year especially he was very busy with his pen 1871 Przemysl has been strongly fortified. The population against the Jesuits. In January 1667 he was one of three of the town proper in 1880 was 9244, of the commune impeachinent of Lord Mordaunt, and in November of the Przemysl, one of the oldest towns in Galicia, claims to have been same year spoke in defence of Clarendon, so far as the

founded in the 8th century, and was at one time capital of a large sale of Dunkirk was concerned ; and this appears to have princes endowed it with privileges similar to those of Cracow, and it

independent principality. Casimir the Great and other Polish been the last time that he addressed the House. In 1668 attained a high degree of prosperity. In the 17th century its imwas published his Aurum Reginæ or Records concerning portance was destroyed by inroads of Tatars, Cossacks, and Swedes. Queen-gold, the Brief Animadversions on Coke's Institutes PSALIANAZAR, GEORGE (c. 1079-1763), the assumed in 1669, and the History of King John, llenry III., and name of a pretended native of Formosa, who was in reality Elward I., in which the power of the crown over ecclesi a Frenchman, and was born about 1679, probably in astics was maintained, in 1670. The date of the Alridy- Languedoc. According to his own account he was sent in ment of the Records of the Tower of London is doubtful, his seventh year to a free school taught by two Franciscan though the preface is dated 1656/57. Prynne died in his monks, after which he was educated in a Jesuit college lodgings at Lincoln's Inn, 24th October 1669, and was “in an archiepiscopal city.” On leaving college he was buried in the walk under the chapel there, which stands recommended as tutor to a young gentleman, but soon upon pillars. His will, by which he gave one portion of fell into a lazy and idle life and became involved in his books to Lincoln's Inn and another to Oriel College, pecuniary difficulties. This induced him to assume various is dated 11th August 1669. Prynne was never married. personations in order to obtain a supply of ready money,

The following curious account of his habits is given by Wood. his first being that of a pilgrim on the journey to Rome. “His custom when he studied was to put on a long quilted cap Afterwards le travelled through Germany, Brabant, and which came an inch over his eyes, serving as an umbrella to defend Flanders in the character of a Japanese convert.

At them from too much light; and, seldom cating a dinner, would Liége he enlisted in the Dutch service, shortly after which and then refresh his exhausted spirits with ale brought to him by he altered his character to that of an unconverted Japanese. his servant.” There is a portrait of him in Oriel College, Oxford, At Sluys he made the acquaintance of a Scotch chaplain, and Wood mentions one by Hollar, and an engraving by Stent, as by whom he was brought over to England and introduced the best extant.

(S. R. G.–0. A.)

to the bishop of London. Having undergone conversion PRYTANIS (pl. prytaneis) was the title of certain to Christianity, he was employed by the bishop to translate officials in Greek states. They appear to have succeeded the church catechism into what was supposed to be the the kings at the time when the monarchical form of Formosan language. In 1704 he published a fictitious government was abolished throughout Greece. At Rhodes llistorical and Geographical Description of Formosa, and they continued to be the chief magistrates as late as the was shortly afterwards sent to complete his studies at the 1st century B.C., but in other states their functions dwindled. university of Oxford. The work of course was founded Though they were not priests, they had the charge of certain on previous publications, but the compilation was done public sacrifices. Their headquarters were in the “pryta- with great cleverness, in addition to which he printed a neum" or town-hall, the central point of a Greek state, where so-called Formosan alphabet, and specimens of the language a fire was kept perpetually burning on the public hearth. accompanied with translations. In 1707 he published When a colony was founded the fire in the prytaneum of Dialogue between a Japanese and a Formosan. There also the new city was kindled from the fire in the prytaneum appeared without date An Inquiry into the Objections of the mother-city, and if this colonial fire ever happened against George Psalmanazar of Formosa, with George to be extinguished it was rekindled from the same source. Psalmanazar's Answer. To add to his income he also At Athens in classical times the prytaneis were those fifty joined another person in promoting the sale of a sort of members of the council of five hundred who presided at white japan, the art of painting which he professed to the council meetings as well as at the popular assemblies. have brought from Formosa. His pretensions were from They consisted of the fifty members who represented one the beginning doubted by many, and when exposure was of the ten tribes on the council. The office was held for inevitable he made a full confession of his guilt. Througha tenth of a year and passed in rotation to the representa- out the rest of his life he not only exhibited a seemingly tives of each of the ten tribes. During their term of office conscientious regard for truth but according to Dr Samuel the prytaneis were maintained at the public expense in Johnson, as reported by Mrs Piozzi, "a piety, penitence, and the tholos or rotunda (not, as is sometimes stated, in the virtue exceeding almost what we read as wonderful in the prytaneum). As the highest mark of honour, distinguished lives of the saints.” Dr Johnson used to discuss theocitizens and their descendants were sometimes maintained logical and literary matters with him in an alehouse in for life in the prytaneum. Here, too, ambassadors were the city, and cherished so high an opinion of his character entertained. There was further a court of justice at Athens and talents that he asserted he would “ as soon think of called the “court in the prytaneum”; it tried murderers contradicting a bishop.” Psalmanazar obtained a comfortwho were not to be found, and also lifeless instruments | able living by writing for the booksellers. He published

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