« السابقةمتابعة »
abundant mucilaginous slime, and by taking up oxygen it acquires a peculiar disagreeable odour and an acrid taste. Refined by the ordinary processes (see OILs, vol. xvii. p. 743), the oil assumes a clear golden yellow colour. In specific gravity it ranges between 0.9112 and 0.9117 in the raw state, and from 0.9127 to 0-9136 when refined ; the solidifying point is from -2° to −10° C. Rape oil consists of a mixture of three simple fats or glycerides of fatty acids—the glyceride of oleic acid (olein), of stearic acid (stearin), and of brassic acid, the latter being a fat found hitherto only in oils from the Crucifera and from grape seeds. The olein of rape oil differs from ordinary olein in not yielding sebacylic acid on destructive distillation.
The principal uses of rape oil are for lubrication and lighting; but since the introduction of mineral oils for both these purposes the importance of rape has considerably decreased. It is but little employed in soap-making, as it saponifies with difficulty and yields only an indisserent product. In Germany, it is very considerably used as a salad oil under the name of Schmalzöl, being for that purpose freed from its biting taste by being mixed with starch, heated till the starch is carbonized, and filtered after the oil has cooled. The offensive taste of rape oil may also be removed by treatment with a small proportion of sweet, spirit of nitre (nitrous ether). In the East Indies rape oil and its equivalents, known under various names, are the most important of oils for native use. They are largely consumed as food instead of ghi under the name of “metah" or sweet, oil, but for all other purposes the same substance is known as “kurwah” or bitter oil. Most natives prefer it for the preparation of their curries and other hot dishes. Rape oil is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper hemp oil, rosin oil, and mineral oils. These sophistications can be most conveniently detected, first by taste and next by saponifica: tion, rosin oil and mineral oil remaining unsaponified, hemp oil giving a greenish soap, while rape oil yields a soap with a yellow tinge. With concentrated sulphuric acid, funding nitric acid, nitrous acid, and other reagents rape oil gives also characteristic colorations; but these are modified according to the degree of purity of the oil itself. The presence of sulphur in rape and other cruciferous oils also affords a ready means for their identification. Lead plaster (emplastrum lithargyri) boiled in rape oil dissolves, and, sulphide of lead being formed, the oil becomes brown or black. Other lead compounds give the same black coloration from the formation of sulphide.
RAPHAEL (bsen, “God heals”) first appears in litera
ture in the book of Tobit, where in human disguise and under the name of Azarias (“God helps") he accompanies Tobias in his adventurous journey and conquers the demon Asmodaeus. He is said to be “one of the seven angels [archangels] who present the prayers of the saints, and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One.” In the book of Enoch Raphael is the angel of the spirits of man, and it is his business to gather the souls of the dead in the place where they are reserved till the day of judgment, a conception which seems to imply a derivation from D-sen, “ghosts.” In later Midrash Raphael appears as the angel commissioned to put down the evil spirits that vexed the sons of Noah with plagues and sicknesses after the flood, and he it was who taught men the use of simples and furnished materials for the “Book of Noah,” the earliest treatise on materia medica (Rönsch, Buch der Julilien, p. 385 sq.). RAPHAEL (1483-1520). RAPHAEL SANzio was the son of Giovanni Santi, a painter of some repute in the ducal city of Urbino, situated among the Apennines on the borders of Tuscany and Umbria." For many years both before and after the birth of Itaphael the city of Urbino was one of the chief centres in Italy of intellectual and artistic activity, thanks to its highly cultured rulers, Duke Federigo II. of Montefeltro and his son Guidobaldo, who succeeded him in 1482,” the year before Raphael was born. The ducal
* See Pungileoni, Elogio Storico di Raffaello, Urbino, 1829; for a valuable account of Raphael's family and his early life, see also Id., Vita di Giov. Santi, Urbino, 1822, and Campori, Notizie e Documenti per la Vita di Giov. Santi e di Raffaello, Modena, 1870. .* See an interesting account of the court of Urbino by Delaborde, Etudes sur les B. Arts . . . en Italie, Paris, 1864, vol. i. p. 145.
residence of Urbino, built by Federigo II., even now one of the most magnificent palaces in Italy, was lavishly adorned with works of art of every class—frescos, panelpictures, tapestries, tarsia-work, stucco-reliefs, and sculpture—executed for the duke by some of the chief Italian artists of his time, and contained a collection of oil-paintings by the Van Eycks and other celebrated Flemish painters. Giovanni Santi was a welcome guest at this miniature but splendid court, and the rich treasures which the palace contained, familiar to Raphael from his earliest years, were a very important item among the various influences which formed and fostered his early love for art. It may not perhaps be purely fanciful to trace Raphael's boyish admiration of the oil-paintings of Jan Van Eyck and Justus of Ghent in the miniature-like care and delicacy with which some of his earliest works, such as the Knight's Dream, were executed. Though Raphael lost his father at the age of eleven, yet to him he certainly owed a great part of that early training which enabled him to produce paintings of apparently mature beauty when he was scarcely twenty years of age. From his father, too, Raphael learned much of the religious sentiment and grace of motive which are specially conspicuous in his earlier paintings. The altar-piece painted by Giovanni for the church of Gradara, and a fresco, now preserved in the Santi house” at Urbino, are clearly prototypes of some of Raphael's most graceful paintings of the Madonna and Child. On the death of his father in 1494 young Raphael was left in the care of his stepmother (his own mother, Magia Ciarla, having died in 1491) and of his uncle, a priest called Bartolomeo.4 First or Perussian Period.—In what year Raphael was apprenticed to Perugino and how the interval before that was spent are matters of doubt. Vasari's statement that he was sent to Perugia during his father's lifetime is certainly a mistake. On the whole it appears most probable that he did not enter Perugino's studio till the end of 1499, as during the four or five years before that Perugino was mostly absent from his native city.” As was the case with every one with whom Raphael came in contact, the Perugian master was fascinated by the charm of his manner and delighted by his precocious ability, and seems to have devoted special pains to his artistic education. The so-called Sketch Book of Raphael in the academy of Venice contains studies apparently from the cartoons of some of Perugino's Sistine frescos, possibly done as practice in drawing. This celebrated collection of thirty drawings, now framed or preserved in portfolios, bears signs of having once formed a bound book, and has been supposed to be a sketch-book filled by Raphael during his Perugian apprenticeship. Many points, however, make this tempting hypothesis very improbable; the fact that the drawings were not all originally on . of the same size, and the iniscellaneous character of the sketches—varying much both in style and merit of execution—seem to show that it is a collection of studies by different hands, made and bound together by some subsequent owner, and may contain but very few drawings by Raphael himself." Before long Raphael appears to have been admitted to take a share in the execution of paintings by his master;
* The house of Giovanni Santi, where Raphael was born, still exists at Urbino in the Contrada del-Monte, and, being the property of the municipality, is now safe from destruction. * The administration of Giovanni Santi's will occasioned many painful family disputes and even appeals to law; see Pungileoni, El. Stor, di Raffaello. * Crowe and Cavalcaselle (Life of Raphael, vol. i., London, 1882) adopt the notion that Raphael went to Perugia in 1495, but the reasons with which they support this view appear insufficient. * See an excellent critical examination of the Sketch Book by Morelli, Italian Masters in German Galleries, translated by Mrs Richter, London, 1882; according to this able critic, only two drawings are by Raphael. See also Schmarsow, “Raphael's Skizzenbuch in Venedig,” in 1’reussische Jahrbücher, xlviii. pp. 122-149, Berlin, 1881, who takes the opposite view. Kahl, Das venezianische Skizzénbuch, Leipsic, 1882, follows Morelli's opinion.
and his touch can with more or less certainty be traced in some of Perugino's panels which were executed about 1502. Many of those who, like Messrs Crowe and Cavalcaselle, adopt the earlier date of Raphael's apprenticeship believe that his hand is visible in the execution of the beautiful series of frescos by Perugino in the Sala del Cambio, dated 1500; as does also M. Müntz in his excellent Raphaël, sa Vie, Paris, 1881, in spite of his accepting the end of 1499 as the period of Raphael's first entering Perugino's studio, -two statements almost impossible to reconcile. Considering that Raphael was barely seventeen when these frescos were painted, it is hardly reasonable to attribute the finest heads to his hand; nor did he at an early age master the difficulties of fresco buono. The Resurrection of Christ in the Vatican and the Diotalevi Madonna in the Berlin Museum are the principal pictures by Perugino in parts of which the touch of Raphael appears to be visible, though any real certainty on this point is unattainable." About 1502 Raphael began to execute independent works; four pictures for churches at Città di Castello were probably the earliest of these, and appear to have been painted in the years 1502-4. The first is a guildbanner painted on one side with the Trinity, and below, kneeling figures of S. Sebastian and S. Rocco; on the reverse is a Creation of Eve, very like Perugino in style, but possessing more grace and breadth of treatment. These are still in the church of S. Trinita.” Also for Città di Castello were the coronation of S. Niccolo Tolentino, now destroyed, though studies for it exist at Oxford and Lille (Gaz. d. B. Arts, 1878, i. p. 48), and the Crucifixion, now in the Dudley collection, painted for the church of S. Domenico, and signed RAPHAEL VRBINAS P. It is a panel 8 feet 6 inches high by 5 feet 5 inches wide, and contains noble figures of the Virgin, St John, St Jerome, and St Mary Magdalene. The fourth painting executed for this town, for the church of S. Francesco, is the exquisitely beautiful and highly finished Sposalizio, now in the Brera at Milan, signed and dated RAPHAEL VRBINAS MDIIII. This is closely copied both in composition and detail from Perugino's painting of the same subject now at Caen, but is far superior to it in sweetness of expression and grace of attitude. The Temple of Jerusalem, a domed octagon with outer ambulatory in Perugino's picture, is reproduced with slight alterations by Raphael, and the attitudes and grouping of the figures are almost exactly the same in both. The Connestabile Madonna is one of Raphael's finest works, painted during his Perugian period; it is a round panel; the motive, the Virgin reading a book of hours, is a favourite one with him, as it was with his father Giovanni. This lovely picture was lost to Perugia in 1871, when Count Connestabile sold it to the emperor of Russia for £13,200. Second or Florentine I'eriod, 1.50%-150S.–From 1504 to 1508 Raphael's life was very stirring and active. In the first half of 1504 he visited Urbino, where he painted two small panels for Duke Guidobaldo, the St George and the St Michael of the Louvre. His first and for him momentous visit to Florence was made towards the end of 1504, when he presented himself with a warm letter of recommendation" from his patroness Joanna della Rovere
Parts of Perugino's beautiful triptych of the Madonna, with the archangels Raphael and Michael, painted for the Certosa near Pavia and now in the National Gallery of London, have been attributed to Raphael, but with little reason. Perugino's grand altar-piece at Fiorence of the Assumption of the Virgin shows that he was quite capable of painting figures equal in beauty and delicacy to the St Michael of the Certosa triptych. See Frizzoni, L.I roo Ital orna writ." to il. War. of Londro, Florence, 1880.
* For an account of processional banners painted by distinguished artists, see Mariotti, Lettere pittoriche Perugine, p. 76 “l.
* This letter, which still exists, was sold in Paris in 1853, and is now in Private hands.
to the gonfaloniere Pier Soderini. In Florence Raphael was kindly received, and, in spite of his youth (being barely of age), was welcomed as an equal by the majority of those great artists who at that time had raised Florence to a pitch of artistic celebrity far above all other cities of the world. At the time of his arrival the whole of artistic Italy was being excited to enthusiasm by the cartoons of the battle of Anghiari and the war with Pisa, on which Da Vinci and Michelangelo were then devoting their utmost energies (see LEONARD0 and MICHELANGELo). To describe the various influences under which Raphael came and the many sources from which he drank in stores of artistic knowledge would be to give a complete history of Florentine art in the 15th century." With astonishing rapidity he shook off the mannerisms of Perugino, and put one great artist after another under contribution for some special power of drawing, beauty of colour, or grace of composition in which each happened to excel. Nor was it from painters only that Raphael acquired his enlarged field of knowledge and rapidly growing powers. Sculptors like Ghiberti and Donatello must be numbered among those whose works helped to develop his new-born style.” The Carmine frescos of Masaccio and Masolino taught this eager student long-remembered lessons of methods of dramatic expression." Among his contemporaries it was especially Signorelli and Michelangelo who taught him the importance of precision of line and the necessity of a thorough knowledge of the human form." From Da Vinci he learned subtletics of modelling and soft beauty of expression,” from Fra Bartolomeo nobility of composition and skilful treatment of drapery in dignified folds.” The friendship between Raphael and the last of these was very close and lasted for many years. The architect Baccio d'Agnolo was another of his special friends, at whose house the young painter enjoyed social intercourse with a large circle of the chief artists of Florence, and probably learned from him much that was afterwards useful in his practice as an architect. The transition in Raphael's style from his first or Perugian to his second or Florentine manner is well shown in the large picture of the Coronation of the Virgin painted for Maddalena degli Oddi, now in the Vatican, one of the most beautiful that he ever produced, and especially remarkable for its strong religious sentiment, in this respect a great contrast to the paintings of his last or Roman manner which hang near it. The exquisite grace of the angel musicians and the beauty of the faces show signs of his short visit to Florence, while the general formality of the composition and certain details, such as the fluttering ribbands of the angels, recall peculiarities of Perugino and of Pinturicchio, with whose fine picture of the same subject hung close by it is interesting to compare it. Raphael's painting, though by far the more beautiful of the two, is yet inferior to that of Pinturicchio in the composition of the whole : an awkward horizontal line divides the upper group of the Coronation from that below, the apostles standing round the Virgin's tomb, filled with roses and lilies (l)ante, Potr., xxiii. 73), while the older Perugian has skilfully united the two groups by a less formal arrangement of the figures. The predella of this masterpiece of Raphael is also in the Vatican ; some of
death) by his old master Perugino.” It was probably earlier than this that Raphael visited Siena and assisted Pinturicchio with sketches for his Piccolomini frescos.” The Madonna of S. Antonio was also finished in 1505, but was probably begun before the Florentine visit.* A record of his visit to Siena exists in a sketch of the antique marble group of the Three Graces, then in the cathedral library, from which, not long afterwards, he painted the small panel of the same subject now in Lord Dudley's collection. In 1506 Raphael was again in Urbino, where he painted for the duke another picture of St George, which was sent to England as a present to Henry VII. The bearer of this and other gifts was Guidobaldo's ambassador, the accomplished Baldassare CASTIGLIONE (q.v.), a friend of Raphael's, whose noble portrait of him is in the Louvre. At the court of Duke Guidobaldo the painter's ideas appear to have been led into a more secular direction, and to this stay in Urbino probably belong the Dudley Graces, the miniature Knight's Dream of Duty and Pleasure in the National Gallery (London),” and also the Apollo and Marsyas, sold in 1882 by Mr Morris Moore to the Louvre for £10,000, a most lovely little panel, painted with almost Flemish minuteness, rich in colour, and graceful in arrangement.” Towards the end of 1506 Raphael returned to Florence, and there (before 1508) produced a large number of his finest works, carefully finished, and for the most part wholly the work of his own hand. Several of these are signed and dated, but the date is frequently very doubtful, owing to his custom of using Roman numerals, introduced among the sham Arabic embroidered on the borders of dresses, so that the I's after the V are not always distinguishable from the straight lines of the ornament. The following is a list of some of his chief paintings of this
* The fresco of the Last Supper, dated 1505, in the refectory of S. Onofrio at Florence is not now claimed as a work of Raphael's, in spite of a signature partly introduced by the restorer. * Raphael probably had no hand in the actual execution of the paintings; see Schmarsow, Raphael und Pinturicchio in Siena, Stuttgart, 1880, and Milanesi, in his edition of Vasari, iii. p. 515 sq., appendix to life of Pinturicchio. * This fine altar-piece, with many large figures, is now the property of the heirs of the duke of Ripalta, and is stored in the basement of the National Gallery, London. * This missal-like painting is about 7 inches square; it was bought in 1847 for 1000 guineas. The National Gallery also possesses its cartoon, in brown ink, pricked for transference. " In spite of some adverse opinions, frequently expressed with ex treme virulence, the genuineness of this little gem can hardly be doubted by any one who carefully studies it without bias. Sketches for it at Venice and in the Uffizi also appear to bear the impress of Raphael's manner. See Delaborde, Études sur les B. Arts . . . en Italie, i. p. 236; Gruyer, Raphaël et l’Antiquité, ii. p. 421; Eitelberger, Rafael's Apollo und Marsyas, Vienna, 1860; Batté, Le Raphaël de Ms. Moore, Paris, 1859; and also various pamphlets on it by its former owner, Mr Morris Moore. * It is engraved at p. 53, vol. ii., of Dohme, Kunst und Künstler des Mittelalters, Leipsic, 1878, a work which has many good reproductions of Raphael's paintings and sketches.
family of Perugia as an altar-piece in the church of S. Fiorenzo, and is a work of the highest beauty in colour, well preserved, and very large in scale. The Virgin with veiled head is seated on a throne, supporting the Infant with one hand and holding a book in the other. Below stands S. Niccolo da Tolentino, for whose altar it was painted; he holds a book and a crozier, and is clad in jewelled mitre and green cope, under which appear the alb and cassock. On the other side is the Baptist, in red mantle and camel's-hair tunic, holding a crystal cross. The rich jewellery in this picture is painted with Flemishlike minuteness. On the border of the Virgin's robe is a date, formerly read as MDV by Passavant and others; it really is MDVI or MDVII. If the later date is the true one, the picture was probably begun a year or two before. A favourite method of grouping his Holy Families is that seen in the Madonna del Cardellino and the Bella Giardiniera, in which the main lines form a pyramid. This arrangement is also used in the Madonna del Giardino and in the larger group, including St Joseph and St Elizabeth, known as the Canigiani Holy Family, now at Munich, one of the least graceful of all Raphael's compositions. The Entombment of Christ, now in the Palazzo Borghese in Rome, was painted during a visit to Perugia in 1507 for Lady Atalanta Baglioni, in memory of the death of her brave and handsome but treacherous son Grifonetto, who was killed in 1500 by his enemies the Oddi party." The many studies and preliminary sketches” for this important picture which exist in various collections show that it cost Raphael an unusual amount of thought and labour in its composition, and yet it is quite one of his least successful paintings, especially in colour. It is, however, much injured by scraping and repainting, and appears not to be wholly by his hand. The Madonna del Baldacchino, one of the finest compositions of the Florentine period, owing much to Fra Bartolomeo, is also unsatisfactory in execution; being left unfinished by Raphael, it was completed by Ridolfo Ghirlandajo, by whom the ungraceful angels of the upper part and the canopy were wholly executed, and even designed. It was painted for the Dei family as an altar-piece for their chapel in S. Spirito, Florence. The St Catherine of the National Gallery was probably painted in 1507; its cartoon, pricked for transference, is in the Louvre. In colouring it much resembles parts of the Borghese Entombment, being quiet and grey in tone. To the Florentine period belong some of his finest portraits, and it is especially in these that Da Vinci's influence appears. The portraits of Angelo Doni and his wife Maddalena (Pitti) are vivid and carefully executed paintings, and the unknown lady with hard features (now in the Uffizi) is a masterpiece of noble realism and conscientious finish. The Czartoriski portrait, a graceful effeminate-looking youth with long hair and tapering hands, now moved to Cracow, is probably a work of this period : though worthy to rank with Raphael's finest portraits, its authenticity has been doubted. Very similar in style is the Herrenhausen portrait, once attributed to Giovanni Bellini, but an undoubted work of Raphael, in his second manner; it also represents a young man with long hair, close shaven chin, a wide cloth hat and black dress, painted in half length. The so-called Portrait of laphael by himself at Hampton Court is a very beautiful work, glowing with light and colour, which may possibly be a genuine picture of about 1506. It represents a pleasant-looking
* See Symonds, Sketches in Italy, the chapter on Perugia, mainly taken from the contemporary chronicle of Matarazzo.
* These show that Raphael at first intended to paint a D. position from the Cross, and afterwards altered his so heme into the Eutonioment; an excess of study and elaboration partly account for the soortcomings of this picture.
youth with turned-up nose, not bearing the remotest resemblance to Raphael, except the long hair and black cap common to nearly all the portraits of this time.” A fine but much-restored portrait of Raphael by himself, painted at Florence, exists in the Uffizi; it represents him at a very early age, and was probably painted during the early part of his stay in Florence. Third or Roman Period, 1508-20.-In 1508 Raphael was painting several important pictures in Florence; in September of that year we find him settled in Rome, from a letter addressed in the warmest terms of affectionate admiration to Francia, to whom he sent a sketch for his Adoration of the Shepherds, and promised to send his own portrait in return for that which Francia had given him.” Raphael was invited to Rome by his fellow-citizen (not relation, as Vasari says) Bramante, who was then occupied in the erection of the new church of St Peter's, the foundation-stone of which had been laid by Julius II. on 18th April 1506. At this time the love of the popes for art had already attracted to Rome a number of the chief artists of Tuscany, Umbria, and North Italy, among whom were Michelangelo, Signorelli, Perugino, Pinturicchio, Lorenzo Lotto, Peruzzi, Sodoma, and many others, and it was among this brilliant assembly that Raphael, almost at once, took a leading position.” Thanks to Bramante's friendly intervention, Julius II. (Della Rovere) soon became Raphael's most zealous patron and friend, as did also the rich bankers Agostino Chigi (the Rothschild of his time) and Bindo Altoviti, whose portrait, at the age of twenty, now at Munich, is one of the most beautiful that IRaphael ever produced. A series of rooms in the Vatican, over the Appartamenti Borgia, were already decorated with frescos by Bonfigli, Perugino, Piero della Francesca, Andrea del Castagno, Signorelli, and Sodoma; but so rapidly had the taste of the time changed that Julius II. decided to sweep them
was not without regret that Raphael saw the destruction One vault, that of the
of this noble series of frescos.
* To ludo of to to so;: especially ol; to person represen * Malvasia, los. on 1. ... Ion. this lotter : - ... al-, Mority, so ". * . Minisłiet: .\ . . . . . . . . . . . , 1 < *;
:}.row - i :"... ...;
* Muntz, “ M1, ... ...A. on : I. R. . . Ma. , al.; Al I. 1S-2. ui., l'aris, ISS 1.
Stanza dell’Incendio, painted by his master Perugino, he saved from obliteration ; it still exists, well preserved, a most skilful piece of decorative work; and he also set his pupils to copy a number of portrait-heads in the frescos of Piero della Francesca before they were destroyed." Fig. 3 shows the positions of Raphael's frescos in the stanze, which, both from their size and method of lighting, are very unsuited for the reception of these large pictures. The two most important rooms (A and B) are small, and have an awkward cross light from opposite windows.” Stanza della Segnatura (papal signature room), painted in 1509-11 (A on fig. 3). The first painting executed by Raphael in the stanze was the so-called Disputa, finished in 1509. It is very unlike the later ones in style, showing the commencement of transition from his Florentine to his “Roman manner”; as a decorative work it is very superior to the other frescos; the figures are much smaller in scale, as was suited to the very moderate size of the room, and the whole is arranged mainly on one plane, without those strong effects of perspective which are so unsuited to the decorative treatment of a wall-surface. In its religious sentiment too it far excels any of the later stanze paintings, retaining much of the sacred character of earlier Florentine and Umbrian art. As a scheme of decoration it appears to have been suggested by some of the early apsidal mosaics. Fig. 4 shows the disposition of its main masses, which seem to indicate ; the curved recess of an apse. Gold is largely used, with much richness of effect, while the later purely pictorial frescos have little or none. The subject of this magnificent painting is the hierarchy of the church on earth and its glory in heaven.” The angels in the upper tier and the nude cherubs who carry the books of the Gospels are among the most beautiful figures that Raphael ever painted. The painting on the vault of this room is the next in date, and shows further transition towards the “Roman manner.” In his treatment of the whole Raphael has, with much advantage, been partly guided by the painting of Perugino's vault in the next room (C). Though not without faults, it is a very skilful piece of decoration ; the pictures are kept subordinate to the lines of the vault, and their small scale adds greatly to the apparent size of the whole. A great part of the ground is gilt, marked with mosaiclike squares, a common practice with decorative painters, not intended to deceive the eye, but simply to give a softer texture to the gilt surface by breaking up its otherwise monotonous glare. The principal medallions in each cell of this quadripartite vault are very graceful female figures, representing Theology, Science, Justice, and Poetry. Smaller subjects, some almost miniature-like in scale, are arranged in the intermediate spaces, and each has some special meaning in reference to the ..iii. it adjoins; some of these are painted in warm monochrome to suggest bas-reliefs. The fine painting of the Flaying of Marsyas is interesting as showing Raphael's study of antique sculpture: the figure of Marsyas is a copy of a Roman statue, of which several replicas exist. The very beautiful little picture of the Temptation of Eve recalls Albert Dürer's treatment of that subject, though only vaguely. Much mutual admiration existed between Raphael and Dürer; in 1515 Raphael sent the German artist a most masterly life study of two nude male figures (now at Vienna); on it is written in Albert Dürer's beautiful hand the date and a record of its being a gift from Raphael. It is executed in red chalk, and was a study for two figures in the Battle of Ostia (see below). On the wall opposite the Disputa is the so-called School of Athens." In this and the succeeding frescos all notion of decorative treatment is thrown aside, and Raphael has simply painted a magnificent series of paintings, treated as easel pictures might have been, with but little reference to their architectural surroundings.” The subject of this noble fresco, in contrast to that opposite, 1 How fine these portrait-heads probably were may be guessed from Piero's magnificent frescos at Arezzo, in the retro-choir of S. Francesco. * See Brunn, Die Composition der Wandgenölde Raphaels in Vatican, Berlin, and Gruyer, Les Fresques de Raphaël au Vatican, Paris, 1859. 3. It need hardly be said that the name Disputa is a misnomer; there could be no dispute among the saints and doctors of the church about so well established a dogma as the real presence: the monstrance with the Host below and the figure of Christ above indicate His double presence both on earth and in heaven. ... Dr Braun, Springer, and Hagen have published monographs in German on this painting. * See Trendelenburg, Ueber Rafitel's Schule von Athen, Berlin, 1843, and Richter (same title), Heidelberg, 1882; the title “School of Athens" is comparatively modern. * He has shown great skill in the way in which he has fitted his end frescos
into the awkward spaces cut into by the windows, but they are none the less
FIG. 4.—Diagram to show main
is Earthly Knowledge, represented by an assembly of those great
to Ariosto visited Rome twice about this time, as ambassador from the duke