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Essays on Scriptural Subjects (1753), contributed various Origen's rule accounts for all the psalms except i. and ii., articles to the Ancient Universal History, and completed which were sometimes reckoned as one poem (ilcts xiii. Palmer's History of Printing. He died in Ironmonger 33 in the Western text; Origen; B. Berakhoth, f. 9b), and Row, Old Street, London, 3d May 1763. His memoirs appear to have been ascribed to David (:lets iv. 25). appeared in 1764 under the title Memoirs of * The opinion of Jerome (Præf. in P's. IIeb.) and other commonly known by the Name of George Psalmanazar, but Christian writers that the collector of the Psalter was Ezra do not disclose his real name or the place of his birth. does not seem to rest on Jewish tradition.

PSALMS, Book of, or PSALTER, the first book of the Nature and Origin of the Collection.—Whatever may be Hagiographa in the Hebrew Bible.

the value of the titles to individual psalms, there can be Title and Traditional Authorship.-The Hebrew title no question that the tradition that the Psalter was colof the book is Diban, těhillim, or dm po, “the book lected by David is not historical; for no one doubts that of hymns" or rather “songs of praise.” 1 The singular

some of the psalms date from after the Babylonian exile. mban is properly the infinitive or nomen verbi of 557, The truth that underlies the tradition is that the collection a verb employed in the technical language of the temple is essentially the hymn-book of the second temple, and it service for the execution of a jubilant song of praise to the

was therefore ascribed to David, because it was assumed, accompaniment of music and the blare of the priestly in the second temple was the same as in the first, and had

as we see clearly from (Chronicles, that the order of worship trumpets (1 Chron. xvi. 4 sq., xxv. 3 ; 2 Chron. v. 12 87.). David as its father : as Moses completed the law of Israel The name is not therefore equally applicable to all psalms, for all time before the people entered ('anaan, so David designates two series of psalms, cxiii. cxviii. and cxlv.-c., completed the theory and contents of the temple psalmody of which the former was sung at the three great feasts, the stand its origin, the tradition becomes really instructive,

. thus encænia, and the new moon, and the latter at the daily and may be translated into a statement which throws light morning prayer. That the whole book is named "praises is clearly due to the fact that it was the manual of the that the l'salter was (finally, at least) collected with a

on a number of points connected with the book, namely, temple service of song, in which praise was the leading feature

. But for an individual psalm the usual name is liturgical purpose. Thus, though the Psalms represent a hipm (in the Bible only in titles of psalms), which is applic- such situations and expressions as are too unique to be

great range of individual religious experience, they avoid able to any piece designed to be sung to a musical accom

Ilsed in acts of public devotion. Many of the psalms are janiment of this word Yuljós, "psalm,” is a translation, doxologies or the like, expressly written for the temple; and in the Greek Bible the whole book is called yadpoí or

others are made up of extracts from older poems in a way Yurdrýpov.” The title yudpoi or Bißlùs Yudjor is used perfectly natural in a hymn-book, but otherwise harily inin the New Testament (Luke xx. 12, xxiv. 44; lets i. 20); telligible. Such ancient hymns as Exod. xv. 1 87., Judges liut in Heb. iv. 7 we find another title, namely “Davidl."

V., 1 Sam. ii. 1 sqq., are not included in the collection, though Hippolytus tells us that in his time most Christians said motives borrowed from them are embodied in more modern " the Psalms of David," and believed the whole book to psalms; the interest of the collector, we see, was not lisle his; but this title and belief are both of Jewish origin, torical but liturgical. Again, the temple, Zion, the solemn for in 2 Jac. ii. 13 tù toll Javið means the Psalter, and casts, are constantly kept in the foreground. All these the title of the apocryphal " Psalter of Solomon ” implies point go to show that the collection was not only used that the previously existing Psalter was ascribed to David. but actually formed for 11-e in the temple. Jewish tradition does not make David the author of all

The question now arises, Was the collection a single the palms; but as he was regarded as the founder and

act or is the Psalter made up of several older collections? legislator of the temple psalmody (1 ('hron., ut sup. ; Ezra And here we have first to observe that in the Hebrew text iii. 10; Veh. xii. 36, 45 847. ; Ecclus. xlvii. 8 87.), so also the l'alter is divided into tive bookiscach of which closes he was held to have completed and arranged the whole with a doxology. The scheme of the whole is as follows:-book, though according to Talmndic tradition he incor

Book 1., P--. i.-ali.: all these are ascribed to Davidl crepit i., ii., porated psalms by ten other authors, Adam, Melchizedek, x. which is really quit of in! xxxiii. il "ibed to Daviel in LXX.); .Ibraham, Moses, Heman, Jeduthun, Asaph, and the three solen!!!, ali. 13. Book 11., l'as. Nii

. lxvii.: of them lidir. ari Sons of korah. With this it agrees that the titles of the libe to the Korabite, vliji, bwing purt of vii . I. to Arp,

li.-lsi. to Davil.scepit lui., lxvii., lisi. anonymous; in LIX. posalmus namc no one later than Solomon, and even he is not

the last two lotr Davil mamelluvii. to Solomon; comologa, lasi. recognized as a psalmoulist by the most ancient tradition, 19, 19 followed by the wyliwription "Tl 11 yor's of Daviil the son that of the LIX., which omits him from the title of l’s. Jos rendel." Da 111., 1-. Ixvi-l rais : le tr Ixxiii.. crrrii, and makes Ps. Ixxii, be written not by lout of him.

1. vii, bwr the 11.1999 of Japh, lasciv., www.lurruii., lxs.wii.

thut of the touchitos, lurri. of Davil, lumii. ol low-ul, lumais. The details of the tradition of authorship show consider- of Ethan Coen, wir. 5.2. Book Il., Is-Sillane able variation ; accoruling to the Talmudic view Adam is anonymous Part , ., viii. Hasil, Ivalo author of the Sablath psalm, xcii., and Melchizedek of P's. iv, to bavil: live the clownload in poudar, " Blomsel L. Jabovali (F., while Abraham is identities with Ethan the Ezrahite Girl of 1-1...1 trom ereu lasting and to enlistings and lot all the (Ps. lxxxix.). But, according to older Jewish tradition 2011!!. Walivujalı" Dowk 1.. l'. c.-l. : of them

viii.-1.1., V., Tvis. Prvi.,' vrsti., (Kisviii..slv.seascribed attested by Origen, Ps. xcii. is by Moses, to whom are 10 Darilni svi to Solomol, and ST.-X. Viv. illi pilgrim exigneul I'ss. sc.-c. inclusive, accoriling to a general rule palms: LSX. 10mm con-elonably from the Hebyw as to the that all anonymous pieces are by the same hand with the inims to build to Devil: the look wika kronpoi

oreo las nearest preveling psalm whose author is namel; and Ps.

The division into tive looks was known tollippolytus, but ('I., which by its title is Davilie, seems to have been given

a closer examination of the dogogies shows that it does to Melchizedek to avoid the dilemma of Matt. xxii. tl.327.

not represent the original -cheme of the Psalter; for, while Hirmie el. lag., p. 188: Enerli., II. E., vi. 23, 2: Epiph.,

the doxologies to the first thrie luuks are pe part of the Heu, a P., $ 2:3; Jemme's preface to Prill. junho II.la palms to which they are attached, lint really mark the end Similarly in the Syriac Bible the title is "mazmini"

of a book in a piono fashion not uncommon in Er- rn liter.2* The peenges are collected in Kimhi's preface to his conimeutary

ture, that to lawk is. with its rul.rir aldressed to the people ra the Palms, el Schiller-szinessy, Cambrils, l» Opr, it. 514 9.. el. Rne: rp. Blippol., ut supone : Jerome, m.

plainly 1.-longs to the palm, cis rather to its liturgical er CIL Cypr.), and Præf. in Mal.

1 antion, ariol cers not therefore really mark :helense of a

collection once separate. In point of fact books iv. and v. the extant Hebrew. It is therefore reasonable to hold have so many common characters that there is every reason that the Hebrew Psalter was completed and recognized as to regard them as a single great group. Again, the main an authoritative collection long enough before 130 B.C. to part of books ii. and i. (Pss. xlii.- xxxiii.) is distinguished allow of its passing to the Greek-speaking Jews in Alexfrom the rest of the Psalter by habitually avoiding the andria. Beyond this the external evidence for the comname Jehovah (the Lord) and using Elohim (God) instead, pletion of the collection does not carry us.

It appears even in cases like Ps. 1. 7, where “I am Jehovah thy God” indeed from 1 Chron. xvi., 2 Chron, vi. 41, 42, that various of Exod. xx. 2 is quoted but changed very awkwardly to psalms belonging to books iv. and v. were current in the “I am God thy God.” This is not due to the authors of time of the Chronicler,—that is, towards the close of the the individual psalms, but to an editor; for Ps. liii. is only Persian or more probably in the earlier part of the Greek another recension of Ps. xiv., and Ps. lxx. repeats part of period. But it is not certain that the psalms he quotes Ps. xl., and here Jehovah is six times changed to Elohim, (xcvi., cv., cvi., cxxxii.) already existed in their place in while the opposite change happens but once. The Elohim our Psalter, or that Ps. cvi. even existed in its present form. psalms, then, have undergone a common editorial treatment Turning now to internal evidence, we find the surest startdistinguishing them from the rest of the Psalter. And ing-point in the Levitical psalms of the Elohistic collection. they make up the mass of books ii. and iii., the remaining These, as we have seen, form two groups, referred to the psalms, lxxxiv.-lxxxix., appearing to be a sort of appendix. sons of Korah and to Asaph. At the beginning of the But when we look at the Elohim psalms more nearly we Greek period or somewhat later Asaph was taken to be a see that they contain two distinct elements, Davidic psalms contemporary of David and chief of the singers of his time and psalms ascribed to the Levitical choirs (sons of Koral, (Neh. xii. 46), or one of the three chief singers belonging Asaplı). The Davidic collection as we have it splits the to the three great Levitical houses (1 Chron. xxv. 1 sq.). Levitical psalms into two groups and actually divides the But the older history knows nothing of an individual Asaphic Ps. l. from the main Asaphic collection, lxxiii.- | Asaph ; at the time of the return from Babylon the guild lxxxiii. This order can hardly be original, especially as the of singers as a whole was called Bnē Asaph (Ezra ii. 41), Davidic Elohim psalms have a separate subscription (Ps. and so apparently it was in the time of Nehemiah (Neh. lxxii. 20). But if we remove them we get a continuous xi. 22, Heb.). The singers or Asaphites are at this time body of Levitical Elohim psalms, or rather two collections, still distinguished from the Levites; the oldest attempt the first Korahitic and the second Asaphic, to which there to incorporate them with that tribe appears in Exod. vi. have been added by way of appendix by a non-Elohistic 24, where Abiasaph—that is, the eponym of the guild of editor a supplementary group of Korahite psalms and one Asaphites—is made one of the three sons of Korah. But psalm (certainly late) ascribed to David. The formation when singers and Levites were fused the Asaphites ceased of books iv. and v. is certainly later than the Elohistic re to be the only singers, and ultimately, as we see in Chrondaction of books ii. and iii., for Ps. cviii. is made up of two icles, they were distinguished from the Korahites and Elohim psalms (lvii. 7-11, lx. 5-12) in the Elohistic form, reckoned to Gershom (1 Chron. vi.), while the head of the though the last two books of the Psalter are generally Koralites is Heman, as in the title of Ps. lxxxviii. It Jehovistic. We can thus distinguish the following steps is only in the appendix to the Elohistic psalm-book that in the redaction :—(4) the formation of a Davidic collection we find Heman and Ethan side by side with Asaph, as in (book i.) with a closing doxology; () a second Davidic the Chronicles, but the body of the collection distinguishes collection (li.- lxii.) with doxology and subscription ; () a between two guilds of singers, Korahites and Asaphites, and twofold Levitical collection (xlii.- xlix. ; 1., lxxiii.- lxxxiii.); is therefore as a collection younger than Nehemiah, but (d) an Elohistic redaction and combination of (1) and () ; presumably older than Chronicles with its three guilds. (e) the addition of a non-Elohistic supplement to (cl) with The contents of the Korahite and Asaphic psalms give no a doxology ; (1) a collection later than («?), consisting of reason to doubt that they really were collected by or for books iv., v.

And finally the anonymous psalms i., ii., these two guilds. Both groups are remarkable by the which as anonymous were hardly an original part of book fact that they hardly contain any recognition of present i., may have been prefixed after the whole Psalter was sin on the part.of the community of Jewish faith-though completed. We see too that it is only in the latest collec- they do confess the sin of Israel in the past—but are tion (books iv., v.) that anonymity is the rule, and titles, exercised with the observation that prosperity does not especially titles with names, occur only sporadically. Else follow righteousness either in the case of the individual where the titles run in series and correspond to the limits (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notof older collections.

withstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof Date of the Collection.A process of collection which (xliv., lxxix.). Now the rise of the problems.of individual involves so many stages must plainly have taken a con faith is the mark of the age that followed Jeremiah, while siderable time, and the question arises whether we can fix the confident assertion of national righteousness under a limit for its beginning and end or even assign a date misfortune is a characteristic mark of pious Judaism after for any one stage of the process. An inferior limit for the Ezra, in the period of the law but not earlier. Malachi, final collection is given by the Septuagint translation. Ezra, and Nehemiah, like Haggai and Zechariah, are still But this translation itself was not written all at once, very far from holding that the sin of Israel lies all in the and its history is obscure ; we only know from the pro- past. Again, a considerable number of these psalms (xliv., logue to Ecclesiasticus that the Hagiographa, and doubt- lxxiv., lxxix., lxxx.) point to an historical situation which iess therefore the Psalter, were read in Greek in Egypt can be very definitely realized. They are post-exile in about 130 B.C. or somewhat later. And the Greek Psalter

, their whole tone and belong to a time when prophecy had though it contains one apocryphal psalın at the close, is ceased and the synagogue worship was fully established essentially the same as the Hebrew; there is nothing to (lxxiv. 8, 9). But the Jews are no longer the obedient suggest that the Greek was first translated from a less complete Psalter and afterwards extended to agree with ? The threefold division of the singers appears in the same list

according to the Hebrew text of ver. 17, but the occurrence of Jedu1 The text of the passage is obscure and in part corrupt, but the thun as a proper name instead of a musical note is suspicious, and Latin cum multum temporis ibi fuissem probably expresses the makes the text of LXX. preferable. The first clear trace of the triple author's meaning. A friend has suggested to the writer that for choir is therefore in Neh. xii. 24, 1.c., not earlier than Alexander the συγχρονίσας we ought perhaps to read συχνόν έγχρονίσας. .

Great, with whom Jaddua (ver. 22) was contemporary.

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slaves of Persia; there has been a national rising and armies stage of decay. Again, though no part of the Psalter have gone forth to battle. Yet God has not gone forth shows clearer marks of a liturgical purpose, we find that with them : the heathen have been victorious, blood has in books iv. and v. the musical titles have entirely disapflowed like water round Jerusalem, the temple has been peared. The technical terms, that is, of the temple music defiled, and these disasters assume the character of a reli- which are still recoynized by the Chronicler have gone out gious persecution. These details would fit the time of re- of use, presumably because they were already become unligious persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, to which intelligible, as they were when the Septuagint version was indeed Ps. lxxiv. is referred (as a prophecy) in 1 Mac. made. This implies a revolution in the national music vii. 16. But against this reference there is the objection which we can hardly explain in any other way than by the that these psalms are written in a time of the deepest de influence of that Hellenic culture which, from the time of jection and yet are psalms of the temple choirs. Now the Macedonian conquest, began to work such changes on when the temple was reopened for worship after its pro- the whole civilization and art of the East. Once more fanation by Antiochus the Jews were victorious and a the general tone of large parts of this collection is much inuch more joyous tone was appropriate. Besides, if the more cheerful than that of the Elohistic psalm-book. It psalms are of the Maccabee period, they can have been no begins with a psalm (xc.) ascribed in the title to Moses, original part of the Elohistic psalm-book, which certainly and seemingly designed to express feelings appropriate tó was not collected so late. But there is one and only one a situation analogous to that of the Israelites when, after time in the Persian period to which they can be referred, the weary march through the wilderness, they stood on the viz., that of the great civil wars under Artaxerxes III. borders of the promised land. It looks back on a time of Ochus (middle of 4th century B.c.). See PERSIA, vol. xviii. great trouble and forward to a brighter future.

In some p. 580, and PHENICIA, ib. p. 809. The Jews were involved of the following psalms there are still references to deeds in these and were severely chastised, and we know from of oppression and violence, but more generally Israel apJosephus that the temple was defiled by the Persians and pears as happy under the law with such a happiness as it humiliating conditions attached to the worship there. It did enjoy under the Ptolemies during the 3d century B.C. would appear that to the Jews the struggle took a theo- The problems of divine justice are no longer burning quescratic aspect, and it is not impossible that the hopeful tions; the righteousness of God is seen in the peaceful beginnings of a national movement, which proved in the felicity of the pious (xci., xcii., &c.). Israel, indeel, is still issue so disastrous, are reflected in some of the other pieces scattered and not triumphant over the heathen, but even in of the collection. All this carries the collection of the the dispersion the Jews are under a mild rule (evi. 46), and Elohistic psalm-book down to quite the last years of the the commercial activity of the nation has begun to develop Persian period at the carliest, and with this it agrees—to beyond the seas (cvii. 26 .). The whole situation and name but one other point—that the view of Israel's past vein of piety here are strikingly parallel to those shown in history taken in Ps. lxxviii., where the final rejection Ecclesiasticus, which dates from the close of the Ptolemaic of the house of Joseph is co-ordinated with the fall of sovereignty in Palestine. But some of the psalms carry Shiloh and the rise of Zion and the Davidic kingdom, indi- us beyond this peaceful period to a time of struggle and rates a standpoint very near to that of Chronicles. The victory.

The victory. In Ps. cxviii. Israel, led by the house of laron-... fusion of the separate Korahite and Asaphic psalm-books this is a notable point - has emerged triumphant from a in a single collection along with the second group of desperate conflict and celebrates at the temple a great day Davidie psalms may very probably be connected with the of rejoicing for the whoped-for victory : in Ps. exlix. the remodelling of the singers in three choirs which Chronicles saints are pictured with the praises of (iod in their throat presupposes.

and a sharp sword in their hands to take vengeance on the Low books iv, and v. are, as we have seen, later than heathen, to bind their kings and nobles, and exercise the Elohistic redaction of books ii. and iii., so that the against them the judgment written in prophecy. Such collection of the last part of the Psalter must, if our argi an enthusiasm of militant piety, plainly based on actual mnent up to this point is sound, be thrown into the (ireek successes of Israel and the house of laron, can only be period, and probably not the carliest part thereof. Ind referred to the first victories of the Maccabees, culminating this conclusion is borne out by a variety of indications, in the purification of the temple in 165 B.('. This restoraFirst of all, the langunge of some of these psalms clearly tion of the worship of the national sanctuary under rirjoints to a very lnte date indeed. The Jews had even in | cumstances that inspired religionis feelings very different the time of Vehemiah (Neh. xiii

. 24) been in danger of from those of any other generation since the return frou forgetting their own tongue and adopting a jargon com Babylon might most naturally be followed by an extension pounded with neighbouring idioms; but the restorers of of the temple psalmuly; it certainly was followed by some the low fought against this tendency with vigour and with liturgical innovations for the solemn service of dedication so much success that very tolerable Hebrew was written on the twenty-fifth day of (hisleu was made the pattern for at least a century longer. But in such a psalm as of a new annual feasi (that mentioned in John 3. ?-?).

xxxix. the language is a real jargon, a mixture of Hebrew low in 1 Mac. iv. jf we learn that the devlication was and Aramaic, which, in a hynn accepted for lise in the relebrated with hymns and music. In later times the temple, shows the Hebrew speech to have reached the last palms for the enca-nia or feart of dedication embrareol

Ps. xxx. and the hulle/ l’ss. cxiii.- cxviii. There is no reason ins lxxviii., in which Judal is threatened by the neighbourin strs ating with the support rather than under the fullner of

to delt that these were the pry jesielms-ung in 165 B.A., lehnt the strap of Syria :' is also much more easily understool for in the title of Ps. xxx. the words "the song for the piles the luvase rule of Persia than under the Cireeks, and the associa-delication of the holle," which are a somewhat awkward tio of Tyre with Philistia (as in 1sxxvii

. *' aktees with Pseudo-Seylas insertion in the original title, are found also in the LXI.. re vol. Xriii. p. 809). If this psalm has a definite historical backmand, whxh many critics doubt, it must be later than the destrue.

and therefore are probable evidence of the liturgical 11.se fina nf Siloa by Ochus. That it is not of the Assyrian age is obvions of the palm in the very first year of the feast. But 110 frim the mention of Irab trihes,

collection of old psalms could fully suffice for such an For details as to the linguistie phenomena of the Psalms, see occasion, and there is every reason to think that the hull.l, especially Cresebrecht in Staile's Zeilschr., 1851, p. 270,97: The objec: which especially in its closing part contains allusions that ... of Driver (Journ of Phil., xi. 233do not touch the argument that such palms as cxxxix. belong to the very latest stage of Biblical fit no other time so well, was first arranged for the same Mehr.

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it very intelligible that the Psalter was finally closed, as the allusions in Ps. cxlix., as well as from its place, be we have seen from the date of the Greek version that it almost if not quite the latest thing in the Psalter. must have been, within a few years at most after this great Davidic Psalms.—For the later stages of the history of event. From the time of Hyrcanus downwards the ideal the Psalter we have, as has been seen, a fair amount of of the princely high priests became more and more diver- circumstantial evidence pointing to conclusions of a pretty gent from the ideal of the pious in Israel, and in the Psalter definite kind. The approximate dates which their conof Solomon we see religious poetry turned against the tents suggest for the collection of the Elohistic psalmlords of the temple and its worship. (See MESSIAH.) book and of books iv. and v. confirm one another and

All this does not, of course, imply that there are not are in harmony with such indications as we obtain from in books iv. and v. any pieces older than the completion of external sources. But, in order to advance from the conbooks ii. and iii., for the composition of a poem and its clusions already reached to a view of the history of the acceptance as part of the Levitical liturgy are not neces Psalter as a whole, we have still to consider the two great sarily coincident in date, except in psalms written with a groups of psalms ascribed to David in books i. and ii. direct liturgical purpose. In the fifteen “songs of degrees” Both these groups appear once to have formed separate (Pss. cxx.-cxxxiv.) we have a case in point. According collections and in their separate form to have been ascribed to the Mishna (Aliddoth, ii. 5) and other Jewish traditions, to David; for in book i. every psalm, except the introducthese psalms were sung by the Levites at the Feast of tory poems i. and ii. and the late Ps. xxxiii., which may Tabernacles on the fifteen steps or degrees that led from have been added as a liturgical sequel to Ps. xxxii., bears the women's to the men's court. But when we look at the the title “of David,” and in like manner the group

Pss. psalms themselves we see that they must originally have li.-laxii., though it contains a few anonymous pieces and been a hymn-book, not for the Levites, but for the laity one psalm which is either “of” or rather according to the who came up to Jerusalem at the great pilgrimage feasts ; oldest tradition "for Solomon,” is essentially a Davidic and the title of this hymn-book (which can be restored hymn-book, which has been taken over as a whole into from the titles derived from it that were prefixed to each the Elohistic Psalter, even the subscription lxxii. 20 not song when they were taken into the Levitical connexion) being omitted. Moreover, the collectors of books i.-iii. was simply "Pilgrimage Songs."2 All these songs are knew of no Davidic psalms outside of these two collecplainly later than the exile; but some of them cannot well | tions, for Ps. lxxxvi. in the appendix to the Elohistic be so late as the formation of the Elohistic psalm-book, collection is merely a cento of quotations from Davidic and the simple reason why they are not included in it is pieces with a verse or two from Exodus and Jeremiah. that they were hymns of the laity, describing with much These two groups, therefore, represented to the collectors beauty and depth of feeling the emotions of the pilgrim the oldest tradition of Hebrew psalmody; they are either when his feet stood within the gates of Jerusalem, when really Davidic or they passed as such. This fact is imhe looked forth on the encircling hills, when lie felt how portant; but its weight may readily be over-estimated, for good it was to be camping side by side with his brethren the Levitical psalms comprise poems of the last half-cenon the slopes of Zion (cxxxiii.), when a sense of Jehovah's tury of the Persian empire, and the final collection of forgiving grace and the certainty of the redemption of books ii. and iii. may fall a good deal later. Thus the Israel triumphed over all the evils of the present and filled tradition that David is the author of these two collections his soul with humble and patient hope.

comes to us, not exactly from the time of the

hronicler, The titles which ascribe four of the pilgrimage songs to but certainly from the time when the view of Hebrew David and one to Solomon are lacking in the true LXX., history which he expresses was in the course of formaand inconsistent with the contents of the psalms. Better tion. And it is not too much to say that that view, attested, because found in the LXX.as well as in the Hebrew, which to some extent appears in the historical psalms of and therefore probably as old as the collection itself, are the the Elohistic Psalter—implies absolute incapacity to undername of Moses in Ps. xc. and that of David in Pss. ci., cii., stand the difference between old Israel and later Judacviii. cx., cxxxviii.-cxlv. But where did the last collectors ism and makes almost anything possible in the way of of the Psalms find such very ancient pieces which had been the ascription of comparatively modern pieces to ancient passed by by all previous collectors, and what criterion authors. Nor will it avail to say that this uncritical age was there to establish their genuineness? No canon of did not ascribe the Psalms to David but accepted them on literary criticisin can treat as valuable external evidence an the ground of older titles, for it is hardly likely that each attestation which first appears so many centuries after the psalm in the Davidic collections had a title before it was supposed date of the poems, especially when it is confronted transferred to the larger Psalter ; and in any case the titles by facts so conclusive as that Ps. cviii. is made up of are manifestly the product of the same uncritical spirit as extracts from Pss. lvii. and lx, and that Ps. cxxxix. is we have just been speaking of, for not only are many of marked by its language as one of the latest pieces in the the titles certainly wrong but they are wrong in such a way book. The only possible question for the critic is whether as to prove that they date from an age to which David was the ascription of these psalms to David was due to the merely the abstract psalmist, and which had no idea whatidea that he was the psalmist par excellence, to whom any ever of the historical conditions of his age. For example, poem of unknown origin was naturally ascribed, or whether Pss. xx., xxi. are not spoken by a king but addressed to a we have in some at least of these titles an example of the king by his people; Pss. V., xxvii. allude to the temple habit so common in later Jewish literature of writing in (which did not exist in David's time), and the author of the the name of ancient worthies. In the case of Ps. xc. it latter psalm desires to live there continually. Even in the can hardly be doubted that this is the real explanation, older Davidic psalm-book there is a whole series of hymns and the same account must be given of the title in Ps. cxlv., in which the writer identifies himself with the poor and if, as seems probable, it is meant to cover the whole of needy, the righteous people of God suffering in silence at the the great hallel or tehilla (Ps. cxlv.-cl.), which must, from hands of the wicked, without other hope than patiently to

wait for the interposition of Jehovah (Pss. xii., xxv., xxxvii., Possibly under Simon ; compare the other hallel (Ps. cxlv.- cl.) xxxviii., &c.). Nothing can be farther removed than this with 1 Mac. xiii. 50 sq.

from any possible situation in the life of the David of the ( as in Ezra vii. 9 seems to be properly a

books of Samuel, and the case is still worse in the second n).

Davidic collection, especially where we have in the titles



מעלה) שיר המעלות .(בית האבות plural lilke

definite notes as to the historical occasion on which the verse additional to the acrostic perhaps gives, as Lagarde poems are supposed to have been written. To refer Ps. suggests, the characteristic post-exile name Pedaiah as liii. to Doeg, Ps. liv. to the Ziphites, Ps. lix. to David when that of the author ; Ps. xxxi., with many points of resemwatched in his house by Saul, implies an absolute lack of blance to Jeremiah ; Pss. xxxiv., XXXV., where the “servant the very elements of historical judgment. Even the bare of Jehovah” is the same collective idea as in Deuteronames of the old history were no longer correctly known Isaiah ; and Pss. xxxviii., xli. The key to many of these when Abimelech (the Philistine king in the stories of psalms is that the singer is not an individual but, as in Abraham and Isaac) could be substituted in the title of Lam. iii., the true people of God represented as one perPs. xxxiv. for Achish, king of Gath. In a word, the ascrip- son; and only in this way can we do justice to expressions tion of these two collections to David has none of the which have always been a stumbling-block to those who characters of a genuine historical tradition.

regard David as the author. But, at the same time, other At the same time it is clear that the two collections do psalms of the collection treat the problems of individual not stand on quite the same footing. The Elohistic redac- religion in the line of thought first opened by Jeremialı. tion—the change in the names of God-extends only to Such a psalm is xxsix., and above all l’s. xvi. Other the second. Now the formation of the Elohistic Psalter pieces, indeed, may well be earlier. When we compare must have been an official act directed to the consolidation Ps. viii. with Job vii. 17, 18, we can hardly doubt that of the liturgical material of the temple, and if it left the psalm lay before the writer who gave its expressions one of the so-called Davidic collections untouched the so bitter a turn in the anguish of his soul, and Pss. XX., reason must have been that this collection had already a xxi. plainly belong to the old kingilom. But on the fixed liturgical position. In other words, book i. is the whole it is not the pre-exilic pieces that give the tone to oldest extant liturgy of the second temple, while there is the collection ; whatever the date of this or that indivino evidence that the Davidic psalms of book ii. had a fixed (ual poem, the collection as a whole whether by selerliturgical place till at least the close of the Persian period. tion or anthorship is adapted to express a religious lite

And now the question arises : May we suppose that the of which the exile is the presupposition. Only in this oldest liturgy of the second temple was also the liturgy of way can we understand the contlict anul triumph of spiritthe temple of Solomon? We have it in evidence that wal faitlı, habitually represented as the faith of a poor music and song accompanied the worship of the great and struggling band living in the midst of oppressors and Manctuaries of northern Israel in the 8th century 1.(: (.Imos with no strength or help save the consc1011=116:53 of loyalty 1. 23), but from the context it appears probable that the to Jehovah, which is the fundamental note of the whole musicians were not officers of the temple but rather the book. worshippers at large (compare Amos vi. 5). So it cer Whether any of the olilor porems really ali David's is il tainly was in the days of David (2 Sam. vi. 5) and even of question more curious than important, il-, it lent, there laainh (xxx. 29); the same thing is implied in the song of, is none which we can fit wiih certainty into any point of Hezekiah (Isa. xxxviii. 20), and in Lam. ii. 7 the noise i his life. If he wire that ? San. ... in any within the sanctuary on a feast-clay which atrorils a simile SC'21.se" part of the olel traclition of Diviil's lite, there would for the shouts of the victorious (haklavans suggests rather be every reason to an ler thuajlation in the aflirmatives the untraineil etforts of the congregation than the disci- | as has been done by Ewald (smi DAVID); but the mille plined musii of a temple choir. The allusion to "chambers doubis that exit of this point ihrow the whol. 41... on vorsingers" in Ezek. xl. 11 is not found in the Septuagint into the region of meri conje turis text, which is justified by the context, and the first certain The routints of boki. mike it lit:!, poroball, that it allusion to a class of singers belonging to the sidered min was originally collected ligi 1!. 1, ". ministers, when inters is at the return from Babylon (Ezra ii. 11). The hymn-look it ultimately lime. Things I Levite's way in which these singers, the sons of Isaph, are spokon were ill provided for, and costly iranlar in their of may be taken as evidence that there was a guill of attonellen at th... temple, till the time of Sileniali, who temple singers before the exile ; but they cannot have been made it lis 1011-10s torttle. thu lokom of the clony Very conspicuous or we should have hearil more of them. in such a way is too makro lolar Vie pribly. With Th. listorical luokx, as elited in the captivity, are fond of regular price a regular litre William sarying the narrative by the insertion of lyrical pieces, I in the ab omni of litet mviilene it !!!!! jertured inlone or two of these - the "passover song" (Exod. xv.), that them..pozion of the liriti'. .!... Plir for this and perhaps the song from the book of Jaclar a-'ribed to purpone too's pl.m. in colt!"Z", V.Ilirciler til reaching Solomon (le vol. xi. p. 398)— look as if they werising in reforms of Enditiil Vilepnili, :1:1:11 12:41 il tubolan the tirol temple; lont they are not found in the l'salter, andl, character to the c*.!!!!.."!,!111.... Til :'!!:la. In ally

!!! Tailsno piece from the Psalter is 11-il to illil-tratos tho. life of Davile scepot Px. xviii., un it occurs in al sertioil which " i pol... !!!!! .? ivi lit.. waliliip, while can be shown to be an interpolation in the origin::|

!110,1,1, 11:: 1.'

lli-lulis form of Simnel. These facts seem to indiritt!11! Veel Tiril and 11."

will it lipili howk i. of the l'sulter lied not exist when the c!iiing of

J. the hilpiral lunchy Wilt completed, and that in musicals

:11: i ..." ii rilibHirtl: 10-0"!. III etho matter the ritual of the second templo Wily com. Polyteconstruiter. Indeed the rural change in t... ott!:...VIII'slii: ili. Lotisnili: TV life of the nation called by the capitivity couli 1. mg 10 ch.11.1 1111!:" ::1.1:1 ili prietail to intieme the psalmly of the sancınary morn

lili u Shii !!. This i'.:. :: ii-:):: Hinn 11.091 iny other part of the worship; the look of Lamental-1-SIDEtits marks an era of profound in wrtance in the religion. J'!' MI's l

........ very of loilcl, and no collection formed force then. 1:1 1,

!!!...!ilico. ii. ... L:1:::..! ir We're tint sung could have been an adequate hymn silms wiili wli ! i: is complete with all t... luuk for the conil temple. In point of fact the notes nueitin !....!!!!Pilih

... 1.6.1 1.... 18k in the Lamentations and in l. xl.-Ixvi. meet riis Tal. I'mix the t. t. ! ... pls..! canamin in not a few palms of luok i., 7.99., l'os, W.i., XIV., 11:1111::-; it!:) .l.lis : Hi! t.. :1.1.1., where the closing prayer for the redemption of larail in it Woment of Mi-am lupicwhich in Plovi. Tik

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