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pregnant, till her being delivered of they were still governed by their a son, and the expiry of his mi- ancient Khans, who, acknowledge nority. In the event of the emperor ing the emperor Alexander as their leaving no son, and a posthumous sovereign lord, instead of the child proving a female, the crown Schah of Persia, still retained itself devolved upon the grand their ancient laws and customs, duke Michael.

were separated by their religious 1. In the course of the year, the belief from their christian sua differences between Russia and periors and, while paying formal Turkey, regarding the occupation homage to Russia, preserved their of Wallachia and Moldavia, and attachment to Persia, cemented as the rights of the Servians, which it was by conformity of faith, had led to so much tedious negotia similarity of language and mantionat Constantinople, were brought ners, and ancient recollections. The to an amicable conclusion, of which disputes about the frontier were We shall speak more at large, in perpetually renewed. Russia alleged detailing the public events which that Persia had taken possession of occurred in Turkey. But scarcely a tract of country expressly ceded had the emperor arrived at this to Russia, in the treaty of Gulistermination of a dangerous dispute tan; while it was certain that with one neighbour, and escaped Russia, certainly without author from the splendors of his corona- ity from that treaty, had taken tion, when he found himself un- possession of part of the Persian expectedly involved in actual war territories on the lake of Göktscha. with another, though less formida- These differences had long been ble, adversary. When Russia, in the subject of negotiation between 1812 and 1813, was collecting all the two courts, and Russia had, in her resources to oppose the inva- the meanwhile, continued to occusion of Napoleon, and disentangling py the disputed ground. No threat herself from every embarrassment or appearance of hostilities had as which might hamper her exertions yet appeared on either side ; Russia in a contest in which her existence had offered to restore the territory was at stake, she put an end to the in question, upon the distriet be war then existing between her and longing to her and occupied by Persia, by the treaty of Gulis. Persia, being given up in return; tan. In that treaty the boundary or to exchange it for another tract between the territory of the two described to be of far less 'value, and countries on the north-west, to- whose dry and arid soil offered no wards Georgia, had not been mark- compensation except the vicinity of ed out with sufficient distinctness

, the lake. "At length it was agreed no other line of demarcation have between general Yermoloff, the ing been assumed than the posi- Russian commander in Georgia, tions occupied by the belligerent and Abbas Mirza, the prince royal ármies, not following either any of Persia, that it should be retained natural limit, like that of the moun- by Russia, and that Persia should tains and rivers, or any succession receive in return a' tract of land of artificial works such as towns between the rivers Kapan and Kaand fortresses. The Khanats of panatchy. Nicholas, immediately Shirvan, Karabun, and Noucha on his accession, despatched prince had been ceded to Russia ; but Menzikoff as ambassador extraora

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dinary to the Court of Tehran, to misconduct of the Russian soldiery, announce his accession to the and of some of the inferior Russian throne, and put the finishing hand agents, had produced general disto the arrangement regarding the content among the lower orders of line of demarcation; authorizing the people.* All these circumhim, if it should be necessary for stances, exaggerated and enthe final settlement of the matter, forced by the Mollahs, the Persian to give up to Persia, in addition to priesthood, had produced a general the district of the Kapan, part of belief in the country, that Georgia the neighbouring district of Talys was eager to rise in arms against chine. Prince Menzikoff, on his its northern oppressors, and that arrival on the frontiers, was treated now was the time for Persia to with the highest respect; Abbas drive back the neighbour, before Mirza himself received him at whose advance she had hitherto Tauris, loaded him with honours, been compelled to recede. In A and gave him the most friendly solemn appeal in defence of the assurances.

suffering believers in the prophet bs But Abbas Mirza, who was heir was made to the people by the apparent, having been named by his Mollahs, and despatched to the father to succeed him, and whom, provinces, to be read in all the therefore, Russia had bound herself mosques; calling into actionsret by the terms of the treaty of Gulistan ligious prejudices which are such to recognize as successor, had been powerful motives to popular action playing a double part. Whether every where, and, in the east, rise from uncalculating ambition, na so easily to fanatical enthusiasm. tional antipathy, or mere precipitate Abbas Mirza was assisted by the folly, he had been watching a fa- prime minister Alaiar Khan, who vourable opportunity for recovering was likewise his brother-in-law's from Russia by force part, at least, and, supported by the public wishes, of the spoils which she had secured they easily prevailed over the pas to herself at the peace of 1813. cific dispositions of the king, te He thought that he had now found presenting to him how much he it, and that the occupation of the would gain in the opinion of all disputed territoty by Russia would true Mahommedans by standing furnish a good pretext for war, forth as the champion and avenger while the discontents of the new of their religion, and to what dei subjects of Russia would both be gradation of character : he must useful instruments in prosecuting submit, if he refused to listen to it, and render it popular at home. the prayers of his brother-believers

The Mahommedans of Georgia groaning under the oppression of were averse to the rule of an infi.

an 'infidel yoke. The kingre del; thepetty chiefs were dissatisfied with a power which abridged their In the Persian camp at Sultania, ia own prerogatives, and, by its great- Chousk of Karabang made the following er strictness in comparison with call yourself the king of the Mohammethe supremacy which had been dans, and idly pass your time in the exercised by Persia, compelled them Harem, when Mussulmen, are daily to remember that they were sub abused by infidels? I was obliged to jects in reality, as well as in name; violated my wife in Karabang.

spit In some places the violence and at your beard.")

solved for war, and the troops tiations, stated that he would im were ordered to mareh to the fron-mediately apply to his government tier.

for further orders; but he was inThese resolutions had been formed that he would be furnished adopted, while prince Menzikov with the means of returning to was on his journey to Sultania. Teflis, and that, although the neOn the road he had been passed by gotiations might be resumed in a Abbas Mirza returning in great frontier town, it would only be on haste from Tauristo the camp; and, the footing of the treaty of Guwhen he arrived at Sultania, he listan, that was, upon Russia, as experienced a striking change from a preliminary, retiring instantly the deference and respect with from the disputed territory. On which he had been received on the the interposition of the English frontier. At his first audience, Chargé d'Affaires, prince Menziwhen he presented the emperor's koff agreed to take with him to letter to the Schah, the latter, in- Teflis a Persian negociator, whose stead of taking it in his own hand, efforts he might second, and who the usual mark of respect to a should endeavour to procure from foreign potentate, and which, in general Yermolov the evacuation the course of the previous arrange of the coast of the Goktcha during ment of the ceremonial of presen- the ensuing winter, which could tation, he had twice positively pro- be employed in arranging the mised to do, made a sign to the prince points in dispute regarding the to lay it upon a cushion, a mark of frontiers. The Schah assented to contempt and insult to his master. * this proposal, and named an envoy War had been already resolved to proceed to Teflis; but the portion upon, but decency required that a of territory in dispute were not the reason should be given. The object or motive of the war party, Persian minister accordingly made and such an arrangement did anya a peremptory demand to prince thing but suit their views. The Menzikoff

, that Russia should im- Khan of Talyche, a district subject mediately give up possession of the to Russia, chose this moment to' country which she occupied on the revolt ; he put the Russian garrison lake of Goktcha. Prince Menzi- of Arkevan to the sword, and de koff answered by referring to the manded of Persia, what he inletter of Abbas Mirza to general stantly received, assistance against Yermoloff, in which his royal high- the infidel. Abbas Mirza and his ness had consented to yield that adherents took advantage of this district in exchange for the track occurrence to decide the king between the Kapan and Kapana- for war. The king and the army tchy; but Alaiar Khan replied, which had been in the camp at that such an exchange had never Sultania, marched to the frontier received the sanction of the Schah, of Georgia, and prince Menzikov and totally inadmissible. set out on his return to Teflis. The Russian envoy, whose instruc- On his journey he was subjected tions had been framed on the to manifold species of insult, and supposition of that exchange being bad treatment. His dragoman was a point already fixed by the nego- put under arrest; the couriers

coming to him as well as those * Prince Menzikov's Despatches. sent by him, were stopped, and

was

the despatches taken from them. therefore, on the 28th September, At Erivan he was detained for issued a declaration of war against three weeks by orders of the Persia, in which, after stating the Persian minister, notwithstanding facts, she concluded, that, as the all his remonstrances against this treaty of Gulistan had been breach of the law of nations; and broken, she would not lay down he at last made his escape, and her arms, “ till she had obtained. reached Teflis in safety, only by guarantees for perfect security for causing it to be represented to that the future, and a jușt indemnity minister, that, as his numerous for the past, by a solid and honourenemies would assuredly make able peace." use of the first unsuccessful or The folly, the precipitation, the even doubtful battle, to destroy his fanaticism of Persia thus hurried credit, it would be good policy for her into an unnecessary war, him to think beforehand of con- for which she was not at all precluding a peace on advantageous pared, and that, too, with a power terms, and thatsuch a peace was most whose colossal strength, if directed likely to be obtained by allowing towards schemes of conquest, could the departure of the Russian am have wished for no better pretext: bassador, who would have a per- to crush her. Even if Russia, by sonal interest to incline his gou occupying the shore of the Goktcha, vernment to an accommodation. had extended her occupation be

When these proceedings first yond the limits prescribed by became known at Petersburgh and treaty, it was not an aggression of Moscow, the emperor Nicholas was yesterday, calling for immediate disposed to ascribe them to the action to repel it. The encroach disobedience of some Persian com- ment, if such it were, had been, mander, who had disregarded the and was at that moment, the subintentions of his sovereign ; and he ject of negotiation; that negotiademanded nothing more than the tion had already come the length immediate removal and exemplary of an arrangement sanctioned by punishment of the Sirdar of Eri- the prince royal; and if a refusal on van, whom he considered to be the part of Persia to ratify it, ren, the first aggressor

But when dered it necessary for the Russian these orders arrived in Georgia, it envoy, necessarily uninstructed on was no longer possible to execute an occurrence which had never them, and the affair was decided. been anticipated, to await the Abbas Mirza, having returned from farther orders of his court, it could the camp of Sultania, had taken, be no good reason for interrupting in person, the command of the negotiation altogether by an unPersian forces. He already occur expected appeal to arms, Persia pied a part of the province of rushed into war without a suffi, Karabasch, belonging to Russia, cicnt motive; and, as she brought and was exciting rebellion ; his to it neither adequate resources, emissaries were encouraging the nor sufficient preparation, she could Mahommedan subjects of Russia in not reasonably promise herself that all the frontier provinces to revolt; the result would be favourable. and the Persian proclamations an The Persian army was trained by nounced a religious war. Russia, British oflicers; but when it

marched to attack the Russian devotion of one of his attendants. frontier, the British chargé & The Russians now advanced, and affaires forbade them to follow it. took possession, of Elizabethpol

The Persian army consisted of without opposition. Abbas Mirza, between thirty and forty thousand having been joined by Alaiar men; and, as the invasion took Khau, burning to avenge their deplace in the midst of peace, it feat, advanced against Madatov, found, when it crossed the Araxes, who had prepared to meet him by the frontiers of Georgia almost effecting a junction with general stripped of troops. The Georgian Parkæwitch, and a second battle army of Russia was dispersed in was fought on the 25th September, its cantonments, and to collect in the neighbourhood of Elizabeththem required time. At first, pol. According to the Russian therefore, success was on the side accounts, the Persians, though of the Persians; the Russian posts amounting to no fewer than thiron the frontiers fell back as the ty-five thousand men, with twenenemy advanced, being too weak ty-six pieces of artillery, were, to resist them, and, the country after a short combat, routed with being open to them for a time, the the loss of twelve hundred men, Persians issued their manifestos while the killed and wounded in calling on the delivered population the Russian army did not amount to take up arms in the name of to three hundred men. The Mahomet, and in defence of their Persians retreated across the Araxe religion, a call which was not very es in confusion, leaving behind generally answered. Their pros- them great part of their bagperity was of short duration. 'gage, and fell back upon the General Yermolov rapidly con frontiers of Persia. General Parkæ. centrated his troops at Teflis, and witch sent detachments across the strengthened the different points river to seize the enemy's magawhich were threatened. In the zines, clear the frontier, and middle of September, the Persians recover the numerous families of were first encountered by general Russian subjects, who had been Madatov, who attacked a body of carried off as plunder. In the them amounting to about ten course of these operations numerous thousand men under the command skirmishes took place, all of which of a son of Abbas, and a brother terminated to the advantage of of the Schah. After a severe con the Russians. In the end of test, the Persian cavalry took to October, they returned to the left flight, and the infantry, being thus bank of the Araxes to go into left unsupported, were broken by winter quarters; and, at the same the Russian cavalry, and complete- time, Abbas Mirza, who had rely routed. The Persians lost two treated to Ardebil, retaining a thousand men in killed and wound- small body of troops round his own ed. Amur Khan, the uncle of person, dismissed the remainder till Abbas Mirza, was killed while en- the spring. From the province of deavouring to rally his troops, and Erivan, the Serdar, and his brother the young prince, son of Abbas, Hassam Khan, made various preafter having been taken prisoner datory incursions into the Russian by a Cossack, was rescued by the territory, striving to excite the in

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