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in their heads, and, worst of all, however powerfully it might act as to irritate and disgust the Greek a bond of sympathy. In so far government by their arrogant as- as oppression can justify foreign sumption of juvenile superiority. interference, it matters 'not wheThe wishes and intentions of such ther that oppression be exercised men may have been laudable, 'over orthodox believers or over hebat, in general, the want of pru- retics: to twist the bow-string round dence, of discretion, sometimes of the neck of an innocent' mussulhonesty, in the directors of such man, is as great an enormity as to schemes, was deplorable.

twist it round the neck of an in**. The interposition of the Chris- nocent Christian; and it has never tian cabinets, if ready to be backed been a rule of European policy, by force, would probably have that nations of different religions been effectual with Turkey, press- ought not to be subject to the ed as she was by Russia; but it same sovereign." On what prinwould have been difficult to have ciple could Russia ask that Chrisdiscovered any principle of jus- tian Greece should be withdrawn tice, on which such an interference from under the yoke of Turkey, could have been defended. The on which Turkey, in return, might sovereignty of Turkey over Greece not have insisted that the Mahomwas just as legitimate as that of medan provinces of Daghistan and Venice had once been over Can- Shirvan should be liberated from dia and the Morea, or that of the supremacy of Christian RusRussia over Georgia; it was per- sia ? Any interference, therefore, fectly consonant to the public in the shape of a demand, seemed law of Europe, and had been ac- to be out of the question : advice knowledged without interruption, and good offices to both parties, by all its powers. The tyranny were all that the Christian cabior injustice of the Ottoman Porte nets could offer." Russia, in the towards its Greek subjects, could note in which she explained to the not be made the ground of inter- ministers of foreign powers at the ference, without setting it up as Porte the reasons why she ina principle that every sovereign sisted by threats of using force, had a right to take care that his on the acceptance of her ultimaneighbour exercised his authority tum regarding the principalities according to his notions of hu- on the left bank of the Danube, manity and principle. France or assured them, that this resolution England had no more right, in had no connection with the state point of principle, to quarrel with of things in Greece: that, notwiththe Sultan for leading into cap- standing her natural inclination tivity the dishonoured matrons of and the universal wish of the naMissolonghi, than for tying up in tion to save from extermination sacks, and throwing into the sea its remaining fellow-Christians, of Marmora, the matrons of Con- she would not depart from her stantinople who talked of forbid previous engagements, to act only den things. Neither could any in concert with the other powers ; help be derived from the fact, that and that the instructions sent to the Greeks were Christians, and M. Minziacky had' no relation to their oppressors Mahommedansthose affairs. The note concluded Vol. LXVIII.

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their pay; and the executive, ex- utmost delicacy and difficulty. In erted itself in procuring provisions every christian state, the melanand ammunition for the fortresses, choly fate of the devoted garrison and the troops, which were still on and inhabitants of Missolonghi exfoot; sending numbers of females cited only one feeling of deep comand children into the islands, that miseration, in every capitaland in the event of asiege, the magazines even in some courts, contributions might not be burdened with a were collected to relieve the crouds croud of useless mouths. The in- who were perishing in nakedness activity of Ibrahim, who was re and want, and to re-purchase posing his army at Modon, and captives. At Berlin the king watching over the safety of himself set the example. The king Tripolizza, allowed it to carry on of Bavaria transmitted from himits military preparations undisturb- self and his family a sum of uped; and it found leisure to em wards of 3,0001. in addition to a ploy its authority in attempting, sum of nearly 2,0001. which he sometimes successfully, to allay had already given towards the rethe dissentions which were per- demption of women and children petually on the eve of breaking who had been carried into slavery out among the chiefs. The pre- from Missolonghi. The self-consident of the executive commission stituted Greek committees, too, himself, with two of its members, who, as yet, had exhibited only inand the archbishop of Arta vice- contestible proofs of vanity, brapresident of the committee of the vado, and mismanagement,-sinNational Assembly, hastened to creased their exertions to export Corinth, where petty and private for the service of Greece certain jealousies of long standing be- persons who assumed the appellat tween the general and vice-general tion of Phil-Hellenes, small enough of the province were now openlyas- in number, to be utterly iconsuming the form of a civil war; the temptible as allies, and in the use factions having successfully re- of arms, if arms could be ob= cruited, even in the neighbouring tained, far less practised and ex provinces, men, who, if they drew perienced than the Greeks themthe sword at all, ought to have selves. Forty-five of these persons been opposing the common enemy. were shipped from Marseilles in These deputies, backed by the the month of July with much presence of Colocotroni, who was parade, and theatrical affectation thus withdrawn from the Morea at of sentiment,“ to fight for liberty so critical a period, succeeded in and the cross," as it was called restoring for a time, at least, ap- that is, to make windy apostrophes parent harmony.

in the gulph of Salamis, or on the The appeal which the National plain of Marathon ; to frame con Assembly had made to Europe was stitutions for people who could partially answered in one way, but not think; and establish the libercould not be answered in another ; ty of the press, as the all in all their treasury might be assisted, of human happiness, in a nation and their troops armed, by private that could not read; to prate of contributions; but the interference Miltiades and lord Byron, without of governments, was a task of the having one ray of common sense

in their heads; and, worst of all, however powerfully it night act as to irritate and disgust the Greek a bond of sympathy. În so far government by their arrogant as- as oppression can justify foreign sumption of juvenile superiority. "interference, it matters not wheThe wishes and intentions of such ther that oppression be exercised men may have been laudable, 'over orthodox believers or over hebut, in general, the want of pru- retics: to twist the bow-string round dence, of discretion, sometimes of the neck of an innocent' mussulhonesty, in the directors of such man, is as great an enormity as to schemes, was deplorable.

twist it round the neck of an in5. The interposition of the Chris- nocent Christian; and it has never tian cabinets, if ready to be backed been a rule of European policy, by force, would probably have that nations of different religions been effectual with Turkey, press- ought not to be subject to the edi as she was by Russia; but it same sovereign." On what prin would have been difficult to have ciple could Russia ask that Chrisdiscovered any principle of jus- tian Greece should be withdrawn tice, on which such an interference from under the yoke of Turkey, could have been defended. The on which Turkey, in return, might sovereignty of Turkey over Greecè not have insisted that the Mahom was just as legitimate as that of medan provinces of Daghistan and Venice had once been over Can- Shirvan should be liberated from dia and the Morea, or that of the supremacy of Christian RusRussia over Georgia; it was per- sia ? Any interference, therefore, fectly consonant to the public in the shape of a demand, seemed law of Earope, and had been ac to be out of the question : advice knowledged without interruption, and good offices to both parties, by all its powers. The tyranny were all that the Christian cabi or injustice of the Ottoman Porte nets could offer. '- Russia, in the towards its Greek 'subjects, could note in which she explained to the not be made the ground of inter- ministers of foreign powers at the ference, without setting it up as Porte the reasons why she inia principle that every sovereign sisted by threats of using force, had a right toʻtake care that his on the acceptance of her ultimaneighbour exercised his authority tum regarding the principalities according to his notions of hu- on the left bank of the Danube, manity and principle. France or assured them, that this resolution England had no more right, in had no connection with the state point of principle, to quarrel with of things in Greece: that, notwiththe Sultan for leading into cap- standing her natural inclination tivity the dishonoured matrons of and the universal wish of the naMissolonghi, than for tying up in tion to save from extermination sacks, and throwing into the sea its" remaining fellow-Christians, of Marmora, the matrons of Con- she would not depart from her stantinople who talked of forbid previous engagements, to act only den things. Neither could any in concert with the other powers ; help be derived from the fact, that and that the instructions sent to the Greeks were Christians, and M. Minziacky had no relation to their oppressors Mahommedanss those affairs. The note concluded VOL. LXVIII.

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with a hope, that the joint efforts ceive with what temper he would of the ministers of the allied powers have listened, in the moment of at Constantinople would succeed victory, to pretensions so high. " in putting an end to the dreadful

It was of importance to Greece scenes in Greece, and bring about to avoid, at least, any quarrel an arrangement which might re with the European powers, in concile policy and humanity. A which the unblushing and unremission of the duke of Welling- strained system of piracy pursued ton to St. Petersburgh in the under her flag in the Levant, spring of the year, was thought to threatened to involve her. Almost have reference principally to the every island in the Archipelago had settlement of the contest; but, if become a nest of robbers. While the the negotiation went any further government could with difficulty than fixing general rules by which man the national fleet, Motillas of the cabinets were to be guided, mystics, and other piratiçal craft, and ascertaining their mutual in- swarmed from Candia to Negrotentions, it produced, in the mean pont, and violated the flag of time, no practical effect. Any con- every nation that sailed the Meditions, again, to which the Greeks diterranean. The crews of the seemed willing to consent, were captured vessels were frequently evidently such as Turkey would treated with barbarous cruelty; never accede to. According to a the cargoes were openly carried document delivered by general for sale generally to Syra, and Roche to the Greek committee in often regularly imported into Paris, and purporting to emanate Smyrna, the very market for from the National Assembly, the which they had been shipped in British minister at Constantino- the home port. There were squaple was authorized to treat of drons of British, French, American, peace on condition, that no Turk and Austrian men of war cruisshould reside, or possess property, ing in the Levant, but sometimes in Greece; that all the Grecian the hardihood of the pirates set fortresses should be occupied by them at defiance. When pursued, Greek garrisons; that the Greeks they ran their light and small vesshould have a sufficient military sels into some narrow and shallow and naval force for the mainte creek, where a ship of war could nance of tranquillity, and the pro- approach them only by sending tection of commerce ; that they out her boats. If she did so, should enjoy the right of coining they fought from behind rocks money, and that the amount of tri with all the courage of despair. bute to be paid by them should be if taken, it was only to be run up fixed; that the Sultan finally at the yard arm ; if they allowed should have no influence over the their vessel to be captured or Greek clergy, or in the internal . burned, they were left to starve ; organization of the country. "If it to be shot, therefore, fighting to was only the dread of a Russian the last, with a chance of escape, invasion, when he was 'helpless, was better than either of these that induced the Sultan to concede alternatives. The government of the much more limited privileges Greece was much too feeble to be of the Servians, it is easy to con- able to put down these daring free

booters, who, in general, islanders But by far the greatest diffithemselves, found abundant friends culty which the commission of in the inhabitants of the Archipe- government had to encounter, and lago. By a decree, however, is- the greatest obstacle to remedying sued in June, it declared that it the losses they had sustained in would consider as piratical all western Greece, arose from the vessels which, not forming part of total ruin of the finances. Neithe Greek fleet, should cruise on ther discipline, nor constancy, the seas as privateers; secondly, could be expected from troops all those vessels which, though who were ill-clothed, ill-fed, and belonging to the national fleet, not paid at all. Possessed of should not be provided, besides no resources in themselves, the their papers of military service, Greeks had already contracted with regular letters of marque, debts which they were unable to signed by the government, or ad- pay, and yet these debts had been miral; thirdly, all those small pri- contracted, and the money raised vateering vessels, which went un- by them expended, without one der the denomination of mistichs, solitary real advantage having pirames, and clephtines. The been hitherto parchased by them. local authorities stationed on the On the return of lord" Cochrane isl nds on the coast of Greece, from establishing independence in and the Greek ships of war, car- Peru, he was willing for an adequate rying regular commissions, were pecuniary reward, to devote himrequired to seize all such vessels, self to the same cause in Greece: and, in case of resistance, to chase, and, if a proper naval force could sink, or burn them.

be put under his command, every Thebuilding of pirames, cleph- thing was to be expected from his tines, and other similar vessels skill, his gallantry, and his love calculated for piratical cruising, of enterprise. Certain gentlemen was expressly forbidden. If the in London, styling themselves the builders of these interdicted barks Greek Committee, with the knowdid not forth with abandon the ledge and consent of the Greek intended construction of them, or deputies, Messrs. Orlando and undertook the building of any Luriottis, hadentered into an new ones, they were to be punished arrangement with his lordship, by with fine and imprisonment. The which a fleet was to be created, public authorities of the islands and placed under his command. on the coast, on which such barks It was to consist, not merely of were built, were also to be pu- the usual ships of war, but likenished with a pecuniary penalty, wise of a number of steam-boats, if they did not prevent the con not hitherto used in the Levant; struction of them. This decree and two large frigates were to be was principally valuable as fixing : built in the United States. The certain plain characters which only thing wanting for the exeshould be indicative of piracy, ucution of this plan was funds, and thus freeing the naval squa- precisely the want which it was drons of foreign powers from the anost difficult to supply, Early difficulty which they often en in 1825, a loan to the extent of countered of ascertaining the 2,000,0001. was negociated in pirate from the Greek ship of war. [2 B 2]

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