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was no money paid, except a trifle Mr. Bankes's plan and Mr. Buckwhich I gave as a present to the ingham's. I am an architect by Arabs. I know the little book profession. now produced; I saw Mr. Bankes The Hon. Capt. Irby.I am an writing in it. One day, at Na- officer of the royal navy. In the zareth, I saw the plaintiff, who year 1818, I accompanied capt. was in the room, take a paper out Mangles, R. N., and Mr. Bankes, of it, and copy a plan at the win- to Djerask twice, and remained dow.
seven days there in all, and took a Mr. Charles Barry. I visited plan of the town by measurement. Djerask in 1818. I was accom- My plan agrees with Mr. Barry's panied by Messrs. Godfrey, Wise, plan. I mean that I only assisted and Bayley. I made a plan of the Mr. Bankes in making the plan place by measurement. I was now produced. I did not make there two days. The plan now any plan. The plan which I have produced is my plan, and it is cor called my plan is the second plan rect. I have seen the published taken by Mr. Bankes. plan of that place; it appears to travelling in Egypt, in the year be a copy of the original plan 1817; and in Syria, in 1818. I taken by the defendant. The de travelled in Asia Minor afterfendant's plan is not correct, but is wards. I heard of Mr. Buckmore correct than the plaintiff's, ingham, at Aleppo and Cairo ; and because it has not so many errors that, instead of proceeding on his in it as the plaintiff's. In the mission to India, he was travelling plaintiff's and the defendant's plans about the country. the walls are waving in some Capt. Mangles. I was twice at places, but I say, that, as far as the ruins of Djerask in the year my observations went, the walls 1818, and assisted Mr. Bankes and are angular. In the printed plan the last witness in taking a plan of there is a military curtain in a the place. It is a correct plan. I part of the walls, but the place so knew Mr. Burkhardt, who went marked is merely an angle of the by the name of Sheik Ibrahim. I wall. In the printed plan there heard Sheik Ibrahim and Mr. are two towers marked on the right Barker, the consul at Aleppo, hand, but there are no such things speak of Mr. Buckingham. in that angle. At the opposite Mr. Brougham objected to any corner of the city there are many question being put as to what towers, which are not in the either of those persons said of the printed plan. There are also two defendant. rows of pillars in the printed plan, The Lord Chief Justice..Then but there are no such things in the I can't allow any to be put. In city. The bearing of the theatre, your plea, Mr. Gurney, you state and the drawing of it, which are that the plaintiff was notorious in in the printed plan, are not correct. those countries; but what one The remains of a bath, stated in man says of another in one counthe printed plan, do not exist. try, and what another person says That which is stated in the printed of the same person in another plan to be an aqueduct, is the re- country, are not sufficient evidence mains of a bridge. Many of those to sustain such a plea. errors are common to both plans Colonel Leake ---I am secretary
to the African Society, and have favourable opinion of the plaintiff, seen letters which are stated to be
were read. the letters of Sheik Ibrahim, but I The Lord Chief Justice having did not know him, neither did I directed the attention of the jury to correspond with him. I was not such parts of the justification as the secretary of the society at the had been proved, observed, that the time; I have seen the Greek in- plaintiff was entitled to their verscriptions in Mr. Buckingham's dict. The first letter written by book, and there are errors which I the defendant to the plaintiff apshould not expect from a person peared to be in consequence of having a knowledge of Greek. considerable irritation, but for the There are errors in the Latin in- republication of it to Mr. Hobscriptions. The word "Pyræum” house, no such excuse could be was inserted for the word “Py-' offered. The jury would there
fore find for the plaintiff such reaMr. Beechy.--I was acquainted sonable damages as would shew with the late Mr. Burkhardt; I they had been guided by sober judga know his hand-writing; the letters ment, and not by angry feelings. now produced are in his hand-writ The Jury, having retired for ing...,
found a verExtracts of 'letters from Mr. dict for the plaintiff-Damages Burkhardt, expressing a very un, 4001,
COPY of CORRESPONDENCE between the TREASURY and the BANK
DIRECTORS, relative to an Alteration in the EXCLUSIVE PRIVILEGES of the BANK of ENGLAND.
Copies of Communications be- tomed course, it becomes important
tween the First Lord of the to lose no time in considering Treasury and the Chancellor of whether any measures can be the Exchequer, and the Gover- adopted to prevent the recurrence nor and Deputy Governor of in future, of such evils as we have the Bank of England, relating recently experienced. to an alteration in the Exclusive However much the recent disprivileges enjoyed by the Bank tress may have been aggravated, of England.
in the judgment of some, by inciNo. I. Fife House, Jan. 13.
dental circumstances and particuGentlemen. We have the ho- that the principal source of it is to
lar measures, there can be no doubt nour of transmitting to you here
be found in the rash spirit of spewith a paper, containing our
culation which has pervaded the views upon the present state of the banking system of this coun- fostered, and encouraged, by the
country for some time, supported, try, with our suggestions thereupon, which we request you
will lay before the court of directors of evil, in future, must be found in an
The remedy, therefore, for this the Bank of England for their consideration. We have the ho improvement in the circulation of
country paper ; and the first meanour to be, gentlemen, &c.
sure which has suggested itself, to (Signed)
most of those who have considered LIVERPOOL. FREDERICK JOHN ROBINSON. circulation throughout the coun.
the subject, is a recurrence to gold The Governor and Deputy
try, as well as in the metropolis Governor of the Bank of
and its neighbourhood, by a repeal England.
of the act which permits country The panic in the money-market banks to issue one and two pound having subsided, and the pecu- notes until the year 1833; and by niary transactions of the country the immediate enactment of a prohaving reverted to their accus hibition of any such issues at the
expiration of two or three years last thirty-five years, though Seotfrom the present period.
land during the whole of that It appears to us to be quite time has had a circulation of oneclear, that such a measure would pound notes; and the small pecube productive of much good ; that niary transactions of that part of it would operate as some check the United Kingdom have been upon the spirit of speculation, and carried on exclusively by the means upon the issues of country banks; of such notes. and whilst, on the one hand, it The issue of small notes, though would diminish the pressure upon it be an aggravation, cannot therethe Bank and the metropolis, inci- fore be the sole or even the main dent to an unfavourable state of cause of the evil in England. the exchanges, by spreading it over The failures which have occura wider surface; on the other red in England, unaccompanied as hand, it would cause such pressure they have been by the same occurto be earlier felt, and thereby en rences in Scotland, tend to prove sure an earlier and more general that there must have been an unadoption of precautionary measures solid and delusive system of banknecessary for counteracting the in- ing in one part of Great Britain, conveniences incident to an export and a solid and substantial one in of the precious metals. But though the other. a recurrence to a gold circulation It would be entirely at variance in the country, for the reasons al- with our deliberate opinion, not to ready stated, might be productive do full justice to the Bank of Engof some good, it would by no means land, as the great centre of circugo to the root of the evil.
lation and commercial credit. We have abundant proof of the We believe that much of the truth of this position, in the events prosperity of the country for the which took place in the spring of last century is to be ascribed to 1793, when a convulsion occurred the general wisdom, justice, and in the money transactions and cir- fairness of the dealings of the culation of the country more ex- Bank; and we further think that, tensive than that which we have during a great part of that time, recently experienced. At that it may have been, in itself and by period nearly a hundred country itself, fully equal to all the imporbanks were obliged to stop pay- tant duties and operations confided ment, and parliament was induced to it. But the progress of the to grant an issue of Exchequer- country during the last thirty or bills to relieve the distress. Yet, forty years
, in every branch of inin the year 1793, there were no dustry, in agriculture, manufacone or two pound notes in circula- tures, commerce, and navigation, tion in England, either by country has been so rapid and extensive, banks or by the Bank of Eng- as to make it no reflection upon land.
the Bank of England to say, that We have a further proof of the the instrument, which, by itself, truth of what has been advanced, was fully adequate to former transin the experience of Scotland, actions, is no longer sufficient which has escaped all the convul- without new aids to meet the de sions which have occurred in the mands of the present times. money-market of England for the We have, to a considerable de
gree, the proof of this position, its own body in different parts of in the very establishment of so
the country. many country banks.
Secondly, That the Bank of Within the memory of many England should give up its excluliving, and even of some of those sive privilege as to the number of now engaged in public affairs, partners engaged in banking, exthere were no country banks, ex- čept within a certain distance from cept in a few of the great commer the metropolis. cial towns.
It has always appeared to us, The money transactions of the that it would have been very decountry were carried on by supplies sirable that the Bank should have of coin and Bank notes from Lon- tried the first of these plans-that don.
of establishing branch banks upon The extent of the business of a limited scale. But we are not the country, and the improvement insensible to the difficulties which made from time to time in the would have attended such an exmode of conducting our increased periment, and we are quite satiscommercial transactions, founded fied that it would be impossible for on pecuniary credit, rendered such the Bank, under present circuma system no longer adequate, and stances, to carry into execution such country banks must have arisen, a system, to the extent necessary as in fact they did arise, from the for providing for the wants of the increased wealth and new wants of country. the country.
There remains, therefore, only The matter of regret is, not that the other plan the surrender by country banks have been suffered to the Bank of their exclusive priviexist, but that they have been suf- lege, as to the number of partners, fered so long to exist without con- beyond a certain distance from the trol or limitation, or without the metropolis. adoption of provisions calculated The effect of such a measure to counteract the evils resulting would be, the gradual establishfrom their improvidence or excess. ment of extensive and respectable
It would be vain to suppose, banks in different parts of the that we could now, by any act of country ; some perhaps with charthe legislature, extinguish the ters from the Crown, under cerexisting country banks, even if it tain qualifications, and some withwere desirable ; but it
be out. within our power, gradually at Here we have again the advanleast, to establish a sound system tage of the experience of Scotof banking throughout the coun land. try; and if such a system can be In England there are said to be formed, there can be little doubt between 800 and 900 country that it would ultimately extin- banks; and it is no exaggeration guish and absorb all that is objec- to suppose that a great proportion tionable and dangerous in the pre- of them have not been conducted sent banking establishments. with a due attention to those pre
There appear to be two modes cautions which are necessary for of attaining this object :
the safety of all banking establishFirst, That the Bank of Eng- ments, even where their property land should establish branches of is most ample. When such banks