The 'Mother of All Trades': The Baltic Grain Trade in Amsterdam from the Late 16th to the Early 19th Century
BRILL, 01/01/2002 - 370 من الصفحات
In the early-modern period, the Dutch called the grain trade on the Baltic the 'mother of all trades', as they considered it to be the basis of most of their trade and shipping and indeed the cornerstone of the Dutch economy. For a very long time the mass grain exports from the Baltic were dominated by the Dutch, and Amsterdam was the central entrepot from which the grain was distributed over the Dutch hinterland and the rest of Europe. This book aims to present a general history of the 'mother of all trades' and particularly shows the fundamental importance for transaction costs, including the costs for transport, insurance and protection, the quality of the local services sector in Amsterdam, the influence of monetary and mercantile policies, and the efficiency of trade organization.
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activities agents Amsterdam average Baltic grain Baltic trade beginning Board bread carried carriers cent chartered Clercq commodities compared contracts Cornelis costs course Danzig decline delegates demand directors Dutch Dutch ships early economic eighteenth century enterprises Europe example Exchange expenses exports fact factors Figure firm fleet fluyt foreign freight GAA PA 78 grain exports grain trade guild guilders half Holland Hooft important interests involved Italy later least less letters living measurers merchants middle Netherlands nineteenth century organization paid period Pieter port possible probably profits provinces rates reason reduced region relatively remained rise risk role sailing seventeenth century share shipmasters shipowners ships shows situation sixteenth century Sound Table tion town transaction transport turned voyage wages Willem Willem de Clercq