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been forgotten by those who have believed that Jupiter and Zeus are one. Jupiter is paternal, grave and solemn, bearing in his right hand the lightning, and drinking out of the celestial cup.

So Indra, the Bactrian god, is depicted, and in the Vedas repeated mention is made of his quaffing the celestial soma. * Jupiter descends to no low amours. Zeus is constantly engaged, like Shiva, in intrigue, and perpetually quarrelling with Bohwani, as Zeus with Hera. Jupiter's rites are solemn and pure. Zeus is not only adored with bloody sacrifice, but with public prostitution, as is Shiva. And, further, Zeus, like Amun, is worshipped between the pillars, the Sivaitic emblem of the lingam. That there was a material taint ef Turanism, even in the Latins, was inevitable from their neighborhood to the Etruscans, a mixed race of Turans and Aryans, of Phænician extraction. This will be seen in their female deities, a thing unknown to the Aryans, who, having been blessed with a divine revelation, never did nor could associate ideas of sex with their deities. It was altogether from Turan sources that the principle of the Shaktis, or female energies of the gods, crept into the Hindu mythology, and those derived from it. In the Puran's Saraswati the bride of Brahma is the patroness of the arts and learning, but is altogether an abstraction, taking no part in the divine history. The name, also, is derived from the ancient name of the Jumna. Lakhsmi, the energy of Vishnu, is the goddess of love and beauty, and is, in every attribute, similar to Aphrodite. All the others, and there are thousands, in a theology which numbers thirty-three millions of deities may easily be reduced down to Bohwani, the consort of Shiva, and the Turan Bo. Schlegelt has hazarded the conjecture that the Phoenician Hastoreth, the Phrygian Cybele, the Ephesian Artemis, and the German Hertha only differ in unessential points from this sanguinary goddess. Her picture is by no means pleasing one. She is represented as having four arms, with which she brandishes weapons of destruction, and a human head. She wears a chain of human heads, alternately black

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• Drink extracted from the moon.

* Literature and Wisdom of the Hindus.

and white, that reaches from her neck to her thighs, and around her waist is a cincture of gory human hands. It must be admitted that the nations above quoted worshipped her under more agreeable forms.*

Coleman and Vans Kennedy both state that there is a sect in India which worships exclusively these Shaktis, but they are in error. That they are adored secretly and in the most bestial manner there is no doubt, but it is by men of every caste and every sect, and is an orgie which words cannot describe. Every law of Manu is, for the time, abrogated. Every one, Brahmans included, eats meat, and drinks strong liquor from the same cup. And, when the festival is concluded, the votaries return home, but never recognize each other publicly or otherwise. It is very possible that the secret worship of Cybele was of a similar character.

As Schlegel has pointed out the identity of Artemis and Bohwani, it may be well to inquire how this goddess came to be associated with the moon. It probably arose from a misconception of the cow's horns of Isis, which the Ephesians believed to be a crescent moon, not knowing the mystic meaning of the emblem. For as Chanda the moon, in the Hindu theogony, is a male, it is obvious that there has been some misconstruction.

of the many children of Shiva and Boh wani, few are worthy of note save Ganesha and Iswara, though the latter seems most frequently considered as Shiva himself. Ganesha, now known as Ganapati, has a special sect of his own, and is represented in his temples with the head of an elephant. He is the god of the human intellect, and is distinguished in the Hindu mythology by what a Yankee would term cuteness Sir William Jones considered him to be identical with Janus, as also did Pomey in his Pantheum Mythicum. We know so little of the Roman god that it is hard to decide upon the correctness of the hypothesis. Ganapati, as special god of humanity, certainly seems to have the same bearing as Buddha towards fetichism. But there is a slight difference between

* Hekate may also be taken for Bohwani, who, in her combat with Bali, the Hindu Typhon, assumes a gigantic figure with a hundred arms. And Briareus may have a similar origin..

the man-god and the deity who cares specially for the human intellect. It is very slight, doubtless, yet from the seeming identity of this god with the Tartar deity Hans, and with the Babylonish Oannes, it would seem that he is distinctly Turan, and, therefore, Jan, or Janus may be one and the same with Ganesha. Niebuhr has pointed out that the two heads of the Roman deity were given him so that he might survey with equal eye the welfare of the Rhamnes and the Quirites, between whose towns his temple was built. And he thinks further, that this deity belonged to the Sabines, who were Gaels. As the Gaels were Aryans, and Ganesha is Turanic, he must have been adopted by the Kelts and Germans from the Turanic element which they dispossessed in Europe.

Iswara, whether son of Shiva, or Shiva himself, is universally recognized as Bacchus. It is strange that a nation who have from the remotest historic times, abjured the use of liquor, should have in their Pantheon the prototype of the jolly conquering god Bacchus. But there is no doubt of it, for the universal testimony of the ancients is, that Bacchus came from India, bringing the care-destroying cup. There is a goddess who presides over drinking; but this is easily explained, as at the worship of the Shaktis, intoxication is a solemn act of religion. The command is “drink, drink till you fall on the ground, then rise up and drink again.” But Iswara takes no part in these rites, nor is he a distinguished deity among the Hindus, though Shiva frequently speaks of himself as Iswara. The worship of Bacchus, or, rather, drink. ing, was not a vice of the Turans, for the simple reason that they for a long time were unacquainted with the secret of fermentation. At present they manage to make a drink from a mushroom, and also from milk. Marco Polo and Friar Rubrequies, both mention, though not approvingly, the fermented mare's milk at the Khan's table. Probably in Xanadu a better beverage is used. From these facts, we must doubt the Turanic origin of Iswara, and rather believe that when the western Hindus, that is, the Turans, became acquainted with wine, they immediately added Iswara to the family of Shiva. But wine, as almost every art and invention, will be traced to an Aryan brain.

In the Hindu mythology we find clearly the traces of that older, purer faith which was the special characteristic of the Aryans, but disfigured by the Turan worship of Shiva. The resemblance, therefore, of the Hellenic and cognate races, is due to two things; first, to their Aryan ancestry, from which they derive the idea of Apollo, or the sun god, as distinct from the Turan worship of the sun itself; and, secondly, to the same influence that corrupted the Hindu ethics and religion. This latter resemblance does not necessitate actual communication between the Hellenes and Pelasgi on the one hand, and the Hindus on the other; for history teaches us that no such after communication took place. But having a fundamental common fund of traditions, originally, as we may believe, derived from divine revelation, and being acted upon by the same disturbing element, analogous results followed. Thus, though the worship of Zeus and of Shiva are identic, and the two gouls are doubtless one, we must not conclude that the Greeks learned it from the Hindus, but both acquired it from the same bad source—the Turans. Jupiter, however, who, we hold, is synonimous with Indra, was a belief which the Pelasgians inherited from their ancestors, who once lived in Ariana, or Bactria.

Unfortunately for the cause of history, nomenclature has too strong a hold upon the human mind. Accustomed to regard the Turans as the enemies of Iran, writers have failed to perceive that the Khamites are the same people. The word Mongol has also been a fruitful source of error, since it has acquired a meaning calculated to lead astray. The term has been given to the wandering Tartars of central Asia, and accordingly writers even as great as Micziewicz speak of races as mongol which are distinctly Aryan. The fact is, that there are Aryan nomads as well as Mongol, if Mongol is to be used to designate Khamnites. The golden horde which exists to this day is Aryan; the Cossacks of the Don, and many of the tribes called Uralian, are of the same stock. Yet most unfortunately the word is taken universally as Khamitic. This will account for the strange fact that almost all writers, save Bunsen, bave failed to recognize that Europe was peopled by Turans before the Aryan

dispersion. This was the race of unbelievers whom the Hebrews, most distinctly an Aryan nation, were commanded to root out. The Zend-avesta, and the ancient songs of the Trans, bear witness that they conceived they had the same injunction; and from scattered hints, we may conjecture that the Hindus believed they had received the same mission.

T'he misfortunes that befell the Hebrews was the inevitable result of disobedience. The sons of God (Aryans) intermarried with the daughters of men (Turan), and begat a race of giants. So runs the word of revelation; and the mixed race was indeed one of extraordinary development. The Phæni. cian, the Etruscan and the Egyptian, must be numbered among the nations of this admixture; also, in all probability, the Arab and the Syrian. All of these tyrannized over the Aryan people, in some instances destroying them; in others, retarding their increase and stunting their intellectual development. So particularly with the Hindus, whose union with the Turans of the west culminated in a condition of moral wretchedness, to which the wide earth yields no parallel.

But to ascribe to the Hindus proper the horrible bestial worship which for a long time characterized their religion, would be to ignore all their sacred works, more especially the earlier. Though man is prone to degenerate, it is not within the bounds of possibility that a nation once blessed with divine inspiration, could descend so low as this people, unless under some strong influence from the outside. The same argument would lead us to believe that the Almighty did not, in his infinite wisdom, consider the Turans fit to receive a revelation of the truth. They were abandoned to their own devices, and the result was Shiva and Bohvani. To this delightful pair belongs everything that could raise a blush or excite horror in humanity. The amiable sect of the Thugs adored Bohvani, and strangled their victims to do her pleasure. The Japanese practice of hari-kari, is simply an offering of one's own body to Hari and Gauri; that is, Shiva and Bohvani. The rites of Juggernaut, the immolation of captives under the car; the whirling of human beings on the hooks; the burning of widows; all these things were choice oblations and adoration

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