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light of the innocent frogs who were so clamorous in their demands for a king from Jupiter. We have shown that nowhere are the sexes more on an equality than among the rudest classes, and that it has always been so. If, instead of “equality,” we use the term "liberty,” there will be no change in the circumstances, since no women can be said to enjoy more liberty than those whose “inalienable right” it is to roam the forest. But this is equally true of man. If any mortal may be said to be entirely free it is the savage in his hunting grounds, armed with his bow and arrow; nor can he cease to be a savage without surrendering a portion of that freedom!
When man attains to civilization he submits to a certain restraint on his liberty, in order that he may be protected by the state. Woman surrenders a portion of her liberty to man precisely on the same principle; as a return for the protection and support which she receives from him she renders him obedience, and does what she can to contribute to his happiness. At least, she is expected to do those things. Seeing that her husband does not wish her to do men's work, or to place herself in a position in which her virtue would be in danger, she thinks it her duty to abstain, if only to please him. This is what she is supposed to do in a well-ordered community; and most cheerfully do we admit that in general the supposition is a correct one. Nor do we think there are any women more obedient, more gentle, or more faithful, than those of our own country; none are less disposed to oppose, set at defiance, or otherwise annoy their husbands. Although there are more advocates of woman's rights among the ladies of the United States than among those of any other country, it is true, at the same time, that there are fewer Xantippes or disagreeable wives; and we believe that if the matter were duly investigated, it would be ascertained that three-fourths of the latter class, if not a still
the fullest extent, when their inhospitable country was first explored by civil. ized men. They fought in battle habitually with their husbands; but the historian tells us that they were not the less maltreated on this account:
"Les femmes tunguses, en Sibérie, vont aussi à la guerre avec leurs maris; elles n'en sont pas moins maltraitées."--Meivers, Ilist. du Sexe Feminin, en allemand, t. i., pp. 18-19.
larger proportion, are to be found among the advocates of woman's rights. Assuming this to be the fact, the question would arise, whether it would not be better, upon the whole, that our American Xantippes had pursued the course of their ancient prototype than that they do pursue. It seems that even the wife of Socrates attended pretty carefully to her domestic duties. It does not appear from the account of either Plato or Xenophon that she neglected her children, or required the philosopher to do the nursing or the dish washing. If she sometimes gave him a bath when he did not wish it, and was not particular whether it was clean or otherwise, we have the best evidence that she was attached to him nevertheless. Her deep grief at his condemnation showed that, no matter what she said or did to her husband, she was still a true woman at heart, and an affectionate. wife.
Be this as it may, it is very generally believed among the most. sensible and most intelligent classes of mankind, that women who are fond of hearing themselves speak in public, anxious: to see their names in the newspapers, as reformers, and ever ready to inveigh against man as a tyrant, rarely, if ever, make good wives. Indeed it would seem that a large portion of our young men have adopted this theory; we prefer to arrive at this conclusion, rather than to say that there are so many old maids and neglected young widows among the women's rights sisterhood, only because they have fewer personal attractions than the sex in general, and fewer womanly qualities. It is probably nearer the truth to attribute the state of things alluded to, partly to one cause and partly to another : for several honest young men, who do not seem at all wanting in courage, have assured us that they would rather remain single for ever, than marry a peripatetic female reformer, but especially a reformer of the woman's rights type.
It is true that there are many young men, and old men, too, who regard the matter in a different light; but they form but a very small minority. This is fortunate, because it is this class -- sometimes called the Miss Nancy class — that urge the women to forget that they are such. If there are more woman's rights women in the United States than in any other
country equally enlightened, it is chiefly, if not solely, because we have more of this species of men in proportion to our population. The excess is the result of causes which might be easily pointed out; but it will be sufficient for our present purpose to remark, in general terms, that our climate and mode of life have a great deal to do with that phenomenon.
We are very unwilling to give any needless pain to either the men or the women engaged in the woman's rights movement, much as we dislike it ; but, happily, it so happens that the feelings of neither are very sensitive; if the blush of modesty or delicacy ever mantles the cheek of either, after they have devoted a certain time to the cause, we think it is very seldom; and if anything like a blush does appear, we think its genuineness may be doubted.
Here we are reminded of certain facts which science has fully demonstrated. It is sometimes remarked, in jest, that this or that individual, in female garments, is but half a female; and, for a similar reason, it is remarked that this or that individual, in male garments, is but half a male--that he is half, or more than half, a female! In general the observation merely creates a smile; although it is a smile of assent to the justice of the satire, in a metaphorical sense, not one out of five hundred having the least idea that the fact may be literally true.
Now, if women are like men, or men like women, why should we blame either if it is the result of malformation, or of a lusus naturæ ? It would be much more rational, as well as more charitable, to commiserate their condition. If there are any who think that we merely jest in attempting to account for some of the woman's rights phenomena in this way, they can easily ascertain for themselves that the assertion we make on the subject is substantially correct.
From the most remote antiquity up to the middle of the eighteenth century, no doubt was entertained as to the reality of hermaphroditism ; it was universally admitted, at least among scicntific men, that in many instances both sexes were combined, in different proportions, in one individual. Not only had all naturalists and physicians, who had written treatises on man, spoken of it as an incontestible fact, but the
most eminent artists represented it both in painting and sculpture. But in the earlier part of last century, all opinions which seemed in conflict with the general course of nature, were regarded as superstitious or fabulous; and, accordingly, hermaphroditism was denied or declared doubtful. But modern science has demonstrated, that, as in numerous similar instances, the ancients were right, after all. Several works have been written on the subject within the present century; but we need only mention that of Geoffrey Saint-Hilaire.* None who examine this remarkable and learned work will entertain any doubt on the subject. Those who may not be able to procure the treatise itself, as it is scarce in this country, may find an analysis of the part of it' bearing on our present subject, in the supplement to the Encyclopédie Moderne, vol. v., article “Hermaphrodisme.”
Saint-Hilaire fully describes the different kinds of hermaphroditism, designating them respectively, as “masculine," “ feminine," " neuter," and “mixed;" and illustrating them with plates. Nor does the philosopher overlook the moral and intellectual characteristics of each variety. Even the peculiarities of the voice and gestures are clearly indicated. He shows that if many ancient authors spoke of women who became men, as instances of the marvellous, they did not do so either through ignorance, or a disposition to impose on the credulity of their readers.
Among the ancients the phenomenon under consideration was regarded as foreboding some terrible calamity in the family to which the individual exhibiting it belonged; and it may be doubted whether the moderns should not regard it in the same light, though for different reasons.
Be this as it may, the great anatomists of our day regard it as a "simple anomalie, arrête de développement,” &c. Sometimes the complications are such that it is impossible to determine whether the individual, in this condition, be male, or female. † For the proofs of this we
• Historie générale et particulière des anomalies de l'organisation chez l'homme et chez les animaux, 2 vol, in 8vo, 1856 ; ii, des Hermaphrodismes.
| L'hermaphrodism neutre comprend les cas dans lesquels les parties sexuelles ont une caractère tellement ambigu qu'il est impossible de distinguer si elles sont mâles ou femalies, en sorte qu'il parait évident que l'individu qui les possèae p'appartient à aucun sexe. -Complt de l' Ency. Mod., tome v., p. 411.
must refer to the treatises alluded to -- especially to that of M. St.-Hilaire — for we wish to abstain carefully from every remark and allusion that might have a prurient tendency, and confine ourselves exclusively to such of the scientific facts as are necessary to afford at least a reasonable clue as to what the real difficulty is, in certain cases, altogether independently of styles of garments.
In the mixed species other phenomena present themselves -phenomena which also extend to the voice, gestures, habits, &c. Again, to all external appearance, one may seem to be a man, or a woman, except so far as the habits or the conduct may excite suspicion, as intimated; and yet the experienced and skilful anatomist may be able to demonstrate that the fact is but partially true at best. * These facts are now so fully recognized, that they have been embodied in the medical jurisprudence of all the enlightened nations of Europe, so that it is by no means a rare occurrence for the physician to be called into court to tell, on his oath, if he can, what is the sex of a particular individual !t
Now, let the reader reflect for a moment, and try to remember what are the general characteristics of both the ladies and gentlemen who are the most active and zealous advocates of “woman's rights.” It is not sufficient to examine those who go about from town to town to attend meetings, get up resolutions, and deliver speeches, although we humbly think that such examinations, occasionally made, under proper auspices, by medical men of acknowledged skill, virtue, and discretion, would prove the best remedy for those revolutionary hysterics yet applied. It is, however, also necessary to see who are the chief
* "L'hermaphrodisme mixte, au contraire, mériteréelement ce nom. Un individu sera mixte s'il présente réunis des organes mâles et des organes femelles, non pas réunis chacun au complete, mais partieillement, quelques organes mâles remplaçant quelques organes femalles, et réciproquement."
+ L'hermaphrodisme donne lieu à des questions de médecine légale fort délicates et que nous ne ponvons qu'indiquer; c'est aux médecins appelés par les tribunaux à rechercher, autant que cela est possible, sur un individu vivant les caractères propres à déterminer le sexe. Toutefois nous devons dire, pour la décharge des médecins appelés à résoudre ces questions, qu'il y a des difficultés considérables et quelquefois insurmontables à préciser le sexe ; car rien à l'extérieur ne peut faire deviner l'état des organes intérieurs. Ainsi, lorsqu'à un appareil génital féminin com. plet s'ajoutent à l'intérieur quelques organes mâles, le médecin ne saurait reconnatre l'existence de ces derniers; la difficulté est encore plus grande quand l'individu est neutre.-Complément de l'Encyc. Mod. t, V., p. 411.