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of Heidelberg and Berlin (1817–20) under Daub, Schleier

macher, and Neamţler, the philosophers and historians Hegel, Creuzer, and Schlosser, exercising a considerable influence in shaping his thought. From 1820 to 1822 he was in the clerical seminary at Wittenberg, and spent the next year in private study under his father's roof at Breslau. In the autumn of 1823 he was appointed chaplain to the Prussian embassy in Rome, of which Baron Bunsen was the head. This post he exchanged in 1828 for a professorship in the Wittenberg seminary, and hence in 1837 he removed to Heidelberg as professor and director of a new clerical seminary; in 1849 he accepted an invitation to Bonn as professor and university preacher, but in 1854 he returned to Heidelberg as professor of theology and member of the Oberkirchenrath, a position he held until his death, August 20, 1867. Rothe's mental and religious development was one of continuous progress. As a youth he was the subject of deep religious feeling, with a decided bent towards a supernatural mysticism; his chosen authors were those of the romantic school, and Novalis remained his life through a special favourite. In Berlin and Wittenberg he came under the influence of Pietism as represented by such men as Stier and Tholuck, though the latter pronounced him a “very modern Christian.” He afterwards himself confessed that, though he had been a sincere, he was never a happy Pietist. In Rome, where he enjoyed the intimate friendship of Bunsen, and studied church history under the broadening influence of classieal and

ecclesiastical art, his mind broke loose from the straitened

life and narrow views of Pietism and he learned to look at Christianity in its human and universalistic aspects. From that time he began to develop and work out his great idea, the inseparable relation of religion and morals, finding-in the latter the necessary sphere and the realization of the idea of the former. He began then, and particularly after the revolution of July 1830, likewise to give a more definite form to his peculiar view of the relations of church and state. In consequence of this

enlargement of his ideas of tho world, religion, morals, Christianity, the church and the state, Rothe gradually found himself out of harmony with the Pietistic thought and life of Wittenberg, and his removal to Heidelberg in 1837 and the publication of his first important work (Anfänge der christlichen Kirché), in that year coincide with the attainment of the principal theological positions with which his name is associated. During the middle period of his career (1837–61) he led the life of a scholastic recluse, taking no active public part in ecclesiastical affairs in any way. During the last

six years of his life (1861–67), partly owing to his

liberation from great domestic cares and partly to the special circumstances of the church in Baden, he came forward publicly and actively as the advocate of a free theology and of the PROTESTANTENVEREIN (q.v.). This important change in Rothe's practice was preceded by the publication of a valuable series of theological essays (in the Studien und Kritiken for 1860), afterwards published in a separate volume (Zur Dogmatik, Gotha, 1st ed. 1863, 2d ed. 1869), on revelation and inspiration more particularly. These essays were a very searching examination of the relation of revelation to Scripture, and provoked much hostile criticism in quarters previously friendly to Rothe, where the relation was usually treated as almost one of identity. In consequence of this publication, and his advocacy of the programme of the Protestantenverein, he was classed at the end of his life amongst the more decided theological liberals mother than with the moderate orthodox party, amongst whom so many of his personal friends were to be found. Rothe was one of the most if not the most profound and, influential of modern German theologians next to Schleiermacher. Like the latter he combined with the keenest logical faculty an intensely religious spirit, while his philosophical tendencies were rather in sympathy with Hegel than Schleiermacher, and theosophic mysticism was more congenial to him than the abstractions of Spinoza, to whom Schleiermacher owed so much. He classed himself amongst the theosophists, and energetically claimed to be a convinced and happy supernaturalist in a scientific age. . A peculiarity of his thought was its systematic completeness and consistency; aphoristic, unsystematic, timidly halting speculation was to him intolerable. Though his own system may seem to contain extremely doubtful or even fantastic elements, it is allowed by all: that it is in its generál outlines, a noble massive whole, constructed by a profound, comprehensive, fearless, and logical mind. Another peculiarity of his thought was the realistic nature of his spiritualism : his abstractions are all real existences; his spiritual entities are real and corporeal; his truth is actual being. Hence Rothe, unlike Schleiermacher, lays great stress, for instance, on the personality of God, on the reality of the worlds of good and evil spirits, and on the visible second coming of Christ. Hence his religious feeling and theological speculation demanded their realization in a kingdom of God coextensive with man's nature, terrestrial history, and human society; and thus his theological system became a Theologische Ethik. It is on the work published under this title that Rothe's permanent reputation as a theologian and ethical writer will rest. The first edition, in three volumes, was published in 1845–48, and remained twelve years out of print before the second (1867–71, in five volumes) appeared. It was the author's purpose to rewrite the whole, but he had completed the first two volumes only of the new edition when death overtook him. The remainder was reprinted from the first edition by Prof. Holtzmann, with the addition of some notes and emendations left by the author.

This work begins with a general sketch of the author's system of speculative #. in its two divisions, theology proper and cosmology, the latter falling into the two subdivisions of Physik (the world'of nature) and Ethik (the world of spirit). It is the last subdivision with which the body of the work is occupied. After an analysis of the .#. consciousness, which yields the doctrine of an absolute personal and spiritual God, Rothe proceeds to deduce from his idea ..}God the process and history of creative development, which is eternally proceeding and bringing forth, as its unending purpose, worlds of spirits, partially self-creative and sharing the absolute personality of the Creator. As a thorough-going evolutionist Rothe regards the natural man as the consummation of the development of physical nature, and obtains spirit, as the personal attainment, with divine help, of those beings in whom the further creative process of moral development is carried on. His theory leaves the natural man, without hesitation, to be developed by the natural processes of animal, evolution. . The attainment of the higher stage of development is the moral and religious vocation of man; this higher stage is self-determination, the performance of every human #. as a voluntary and intelligent agent or as a person, having as its cosmical effect the subjection of all material to spiritual existences. This personal process of spiritualization is the continuation of the eternal #. work of creation. Thus the moral life and the religious life coincide, and when normal are identical; both have the same aim and are occupied with the same task, the accomplishment of the spiritualization of the world. “Piety, that it may become truth and reality, demands morality as its fulfilment, as the only concrete element in which the idea of fellowship with God is realized ; morality, that it may find its perfect unfolding, requires the aid of piety, in the light of which alone it can comprehend its own idea in all its breadth and depth.” Rothe follows Schleiermacher in dividing his ethical system into the three parts of the doctrine of moral ends (Güterlehre), or the products of moral action, the doctrine of virtue (Tugendlehre), or of the power producing moral good, and the doctrine of duty (Pflichtenlehre), or the specific form and manner in which that

ower obtains its results. The process of human development

othe regards as necessarily taking an abnormal form and passing through the phase of sin. This abnormal condition necessitates a fresh creative act, that of salvation, which was, however, from the first o of the divine plan of development. As a preparation for this salvation supernatural revelation was required for the go and revivification of the religious consciousness, and the

aviour Himself had to appear in human history as a fresh miraculous creation, born of a woman but not begotten by a man. In consequence of His supernatural birth the Saviour, or the second Adam, was free from original sin. By His own moral and religious development He made possible a relation of perfect fellowship between God and man, which was the new and highest stage of the divine creation of mankind. This stage of development inaugurated by the Saviour is attained by means of His kingdom or the community of salvation, which is both moral and religious, and in the first instance and temporarily only religious—that is, a

church. As men reach the full development of their nature, and a !. the perfection of the Saviour, the separation between the religious and the moral life will vanish, and the Christian state, as the highest. sphere of human life representing all human functions, will displace the church. “In proportion as the Saviour Christianizes the state by means of the J. must the progressive completion of the structure of the church prove the cause of its abolition.” The decline of the church is therefore not to be deplored, but recognized as the consequence of the independence and completeness of the Christian life. It is the third section of his work—the Pflichtenlehre—which is generally most highly valued, and where his full strength as an ethical thinker is displayed, without any mixture of theosophic speculation. y

Since. Rothe's death several volumes of his sermons and of his lectures (on dogmatics, the history of homiletics) and a collection of brief essays and religious meditations under the title of Stille Stunden (wittenberg, 1872) have been published. See F. Nippold, Richard Rothe, ein christliches' febensöild (2 vols., Wittenberg, 1873–74); Schenkel, “Zur Erinnerung an Dr R. Rothe,” in the Allgemeine kirchliche Zeitschrift, 1867–68; Holtzinann, “Richard Rothe," in the Jahrbuchdes Protestantenvereins, 1869; Schwarz, Zur Geschichte der neuesten Theologie (4th ed., Leipsis, 1869, pp. 417–444); Pfleiderer, Religionsphilosophie auf geschichtlicher Grundlage (2d ed., Berlin, 1884, vol. i. pp. 611-616). (J. F. s.)

ROTHERHAM, a market-town and municipal borough in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is situated at the junc. tion of the Rother with the Don navigation, on several railway lines, 5 miles north-east of Sheffield. The parish church of All Saints, occupying the site of a building dating from Anglo-Saxon times, was erected in the reign of Edward IV., and is a good specimen of Perpendicular. Among the other principal public buildings are the new market hall, the post office, the court-house, the temper ance hall, St George's Hall, the council hall, and the corporation offices. There are a large number of educational and literary institutions, including the grammar school founded in 1483, the people's charity school, the Indopendent college, the mechanics' institute, the free library, and the literary and scientific society. There is a large hospital, besides almshouses and various other charities. The town possesses extensive iron, steel, and brass works, potteries, glass works, breweries, saw mills, and rope yards. The population of the municipal borough (area 5995 acres) in 1881 was 34,782.

The town is of Roman origin, and was of some importance in Anglo-Saxon times. In the time of Edward the Confessor it possessed a market and a church. Mary queen of Scots stayed a night at Rotherham while a prisoner, as did also Charles I., when in the hands of the Scots. During the Civil War it sided with the Parliament. It was taken possession of by the Royalists in 1643, but after the victory of M. Moor was yielded up to a Getachment of the Parliamentary forces. The townships of Rotherham and Kimberworth were incorporated as a municipal borough in August 1871, the adjacent, suburbs being included in 1879. The corporation act as the sanitary authority, and own the waterworks, gasworks, and markets. They have introduced a system of main drainage, and have also provided a public park and a free library,

ROTHESAY, a royal burgh, and the principal town of the county of Bute, Scotland, is situated in the island of Bute, at the head of a well-sheltered and spacious bay in the Firth of Clyde, 40 miles W. of Glasgow and 18 S.W. of Greenock, with which there is frequent communication by steamers. The bay affords good anchorage in any wind, and there are also a good harbour and pier. The town is the headquarters of an extensive fishing district, and is much frequented as a watering place. Besides two hydropathic establishments, it has several hotels, and numerous lodging houses. Facing the bay there is an extensive esplanade. In the centre of the town are the ruins of the ancient castle, supposed by some to have been erected in 1098 by Magnus Barefoot, and by others at the same date by the Scots to defend themselves against the Norwegians. The village which grew up round the castle was made a royal burgh by Robert III., who created his eldest son David duke of Rothsay. During the Commonwealth the castle was garrisoned by Cromwell's troops. It was burned by the followers of Argyll in 1685, and remained neglected till the rubbish was cleared away by the marquis of Bute in 1816. The principal the Thomson institute. The corporation consists of a provost, three bailies, a dean of guild, a treasurer, and twelve councillors. The population of the royal burgh in 1871 was 8027 and in 1881 it was 8291.

modern buildings are the aquarium, the town-hall and and envy. By the employment of carrier pigeons and of county buildings, the public halls, the academy, and fast-sailing boats of his own for the transmission of news

ROTHSCHILD, the name of a Jewish family which

has acquired an unexampled position from the magnitude of its financial transactions. The original name was Bauer, the founder of the house being MAYER ANSELM (1743–1812), the son of Anselm Moses. Bauer, a small jewish merchant of Frankfort-on-the-Main. His father wished him to become a rābbi, but he preferred business, and ultimately set up as a money lender at the sign of the “Red Shield” (Rothschild) in the Frankfort Judengasse. He had already acquired some standing as . a. banker when his numismatic tastes obtained for him the friendship of William, ninth landgrave and afterwards elector of Hesse-Cassel, who in 1801 made him his agent. In the following year Rothschild negotiated his first great Government loan, ten million thalers for the Danish Government. When the landgrave was compelled to flee from his capital on the entry of the French, he placed his silver and other bulky treasures in the hands of Rothschild, who, not without considerable risk, took charge of them. and buried them, it is said in a corner of his garden, whence he dug them up as opportunity arose for ão of them. . This he did to such advantage as to be able afterwards to return their value to the elector at 5 per cent. interest. He died at Fränkfort 19th September 1812, leaving ten children, five sons and five daughters: Branches of the business were established at Vienna, London, Paris, and Naples, each being in charge of one of the sons, the chief of the firm always residing at Frankfort, where, in accordance with the wish of the founder, all important consultations are held. . By , a system of cooperation and joint counsels, aided by the skilful employment of subordinate agents, they obtained unexampled opportunities of acquiring an accurate know; ledge of the condition of the financial. market, and practically embraced the whole of Europe within their financial network. The unity of the interests of the several members of the firm has been preserved by the system of intermarriages. which has been ... the general practice of the descendants of the five brothers, and the house has thus grown in solidity and influence with every succeeding generation. Each of the brothers received in 1815 from Austria the privilege of hereditary. landowners, and in 1822 they were created barons by the same country. The charge of, the Frankfort house devolved on the eldest, ANSELM MAYER (1773–1855), born 12th June 1773, who was chosen a member of the royal Prussian privy council of commerce, and, in 1820, Bavarian consul and court banker. The Vienna branch was undertaken by SolomoN (1774–1826), born 9th December 1774, ywho entered into intimate relations with Prince Metternich, which contributed in no small degree to bring about the connexion of the firm with the allied powers. . The third brother, NATHAN.MAYER (1777–1836), born 16th September 1777, has, however, generally been regarded as the financial genius of the family, and the chief originator of the transactions which have created for the house its unexampled position in the financial world. He came to Manchester. about 1800 to act às a purchaser for his father of . manufactured goods; but at the end of five years, he removed to London, where he found full scope for his financial genius. The boldness and skill of his transactions, which caused him at first to be regarded as rash and unsafe by the leading banking firms and financial merchants, latterly awakened their admiration

he was able to utilize to the best advantage his special sources of information, while no one was a greater adept in the art of promoting the rise and fall of the stocks. The colossal influence of the house dates from an operation of his in 1810. In that year Wellington made some drafts which the English Government could not meet ; these were purchased by Rothschild at a liberal discount, and renewed to the Government, which finally redeemed at par. From this time the house became associated with the allied powers in the struggle against Napoleon, it being chiefly through it that they were able to negotiate loans to carry on the war. Rothschild never lost faith in the ultimate overthrow of Napoleon, his all being virtually staked on the issue of the contest. He is said to have been present at the battle of Waterloo, and to have watched the varying fortunes of the day with feverish eagerness. Being able to transmit to London private information of the allied success several hours before it reached the public, he effected an immense profit by the purchase of stock, which had been greatly depressed on account of the news of Blucher's defeat two. days previously. Rothschild was the first to popularize foreign loans in Britain by fixing the rate in sterling money and making the dividends payable in London and not in foreign capitals. Latterly he became the financial agent of nearly every civilized Government, although persistently declining-contracts for Spain or the American States. He did not confine himself to operations on a large scale, but on the contrary made it a principle to despise or neglect no feasible opportunity of transacting business, while at the same time his operations gradually extended to every quarter of the globe. He died 28th July 1836, and was succeeded in the management of the London house by his son LionEL (1808–1879), born 22d November 1808, whose name will always be associated with the removal of the civil disabilities of the Jews. He was elected a member for the City of London in 1847, and again in 1849 and 1852, but it was not till 1858 that the joint operation of an Act of Parliament and a resolution of the House of Commons, allowing the omission from the oath of the words to which as a Jew he conscientiously objected, rendered it possible for him to take his seat. He continued to represent the city of London till 1874. JAcoB (1792–1868), the youngest of the original brothers, was intrusted with the important mission of starting the business in Paris after the restora

...tion of the Bourbons, for whom he negotiated large loans.

At the Revolution of 1848 he was a heavy loser, and had also to be protected for a time by a special guard. It was by his capital that the earliest railroads were constructed in France; the profits he obtained from the speculation were very large. He died 15th November 1868, The Naples branch was superintended by another of the brothers, KARL (1780–1855). . It was always the least important of the five, and after the annexation of Naples to Italy in 1860 it was discontinued. See Das Haus Rothschild, 1858; Picciotto, Sketches of Anglo-Jewish History, 1875; Francis, Chronicles and Characters of the Stock Exchange, 1853; Treskow, Biographische Notizen über Nathan Meyer

Rothschild nebst scinem Testament, 1837; Roqueplan, Le Baron James de Rothschild, 1868.

ROTHWELL, an urban sanitary district in the West Riding of Yorkshire, situated in a pleasant valley four miles south of Leeds. It is of great antiquity, and soon after the Conquest was granted as a dependency of the castle of Pontefract to the Lacys, who erected at it a baronial residence of which there are still some remains. The church of the Holy Trinity is an old structuro in the Later English style with embattled parapet. There are a mechanics' institute and a working men's club. Coal and stone are obtained in the neighbourhood, and the town possesses match works and rope and twine factories. The population of the urban sanitary district (area 3302 acres) in 1871 was 3733, and in 1881 it was 5105. ROTIFERA. The Rotifera (or Rotatoria) form a small, in many respects well-defined, but somewhat isolated class of the animal kingdom. They are here treated of separately, partly on account of the difficulty of placing them in one of the large phyla, partly on account of their special interest to microscopists. Now familiarly known as “wheel animalcules” from the wheel-like motion produced by the rings of cilia which generally occur in the head region, the so-called rotatory organs, they were first discovered by Leeuwenhoek (1), to whom we also owe the discovery of Bacteria and ciliate


Infusoria. Leeuwenhoek described the Rotifer vulgaris in

1702, and he subsequently described Melicerta ringens and other species. A great variety of forms were described by other observers, but they were not separated as a class from the unicellular organisms (Protozoa) with which they usually occur until the appearance of Ehrenberg's great monograph (2), which contained a mass of detail regarding their structure. The classification there put forward by Ehrenberg is still widely adopted, but numerous observers have since added to our knowledge of the anatomy of the group (3). At the present day few groups of the animal kingdom are so well known to the microscopist, few groups present more interesting affinities to the morphologist, and few multicellular animals such a low physiological condition. General Anatomy.—The Rotifera are multicellular animals of microscopic size which present a coelom. They

are bilaterally symmetrical and present no true metameric'

segmentation. A head region is generally well marked, and most forms present a definite tail region. This tail region has been termed the “pseudopodium." It varies

very much in the extent to which it is developed. It attains its highest development in forms like Philodina, which affect a leech-like method of progression and use it as a means of attachment. We may pass from this through a series of forms where it becomes less and less highly developed. In such forms as Brachionus it serves as a directive organ in swimming, while in a large number of other forms it is only represented by a pair of terminal styles or flaps. In the sessile forms it becomes a contractile pedicle with a suctorial extremity. A pseudopodium' is entirely absent in Asplanchna, Triarthra, Polyarthra, and a few other genera. The pseudopodium, when well developed, is a very muscular organ, and it may contain a pair of glands (fig. 2, A, gl) which secrete an adhesive material. The surface of \ne body is covered by a firm homogeneous structureless cuticle. This cuticle may become hardened by a further development of chitin, but no calcareous deposits ever take place in it. The cuticle remains softest in those forms which live in tubes. Among the free-living forms the degree of hardening varies considerably. In some cases contraction of the body merely throws the cuticle into wrinkles (Notommata, Asplanchna); in others définite ring-like joints are produced which telescope into one another during contraction; while in others again it becomes quite firm and rigid and resembles the carapace of one of the Entomostraca; it is then termed a “lorica.” The lorica may be prolonged at various points into spinas, which may attain a considerable length. The surface may be variously modified, being in some cases smooth, in others

* These numbers refer to the bibliography at p. 8.

marked, dotted, ridged, or sculptured in various ways (fig. 1, K). The curved spines of Philodina aculeata (fig. 1, g) and the long rigid spines of Triarthra are further developments in this direction. The so-called sette of Polyarthra on the other hand are more complex in nature, and are moved by muscles, and thus approach the “limbs” of Pedalion.

Fig. 1.-A, Foscularia, campanulata, an adult male, drawn from a dead specimen (after Hudson): t, testis; or, eye-spots. B., Foscularia appendiculata, an adult female (after Gegenbaur): a, the ciliated flexible proboscis. C, Stephanoceros eichhornit: a, the urceolus. D, Microcodon clavus, ventral view (after Grenacher): m, mouth; a, bristles; r, architroch; s, lateral sense-organs. E, Polyarthra platyptera: or, eye-spot; r' isolated tufts representing a cephalotroch; r, branchiotroch; a, b, and c, three pairs of appendages which are moved by the muscles m. F, another figure of Polyarthra, to show the position which the appendages may take up. G, Philodina aculeata : oc, eye-spot; s, calcar. H, Actinurus neptunius. oc, eye-spot; s, calcar. I, Asplanchna steboldii, male, viewed from the abdominal surface : a, anterior short arms; b, posterior longer arms; m, mouth; r", cephalotrochic tufts; r. branchiotroch. J, Asplanchna sieboldii, female; letters as before. K, Noteus quadricornis, to show the extent to which the lorica may become sculptured. (All, except where otherwise stated, from Pritchard.)

Several genera present an external casing or sheath or tube which is termed an “urceolus.” In Floscularia and Stephanoceros the urceolus is gelatinous and perfectly hyaline; in Conochilus numerous individuals live in such a hyaline urceolus arranged in a radiating manner. The urceolus, which is secreted by the animal itself, may become covered with foreign particles, and in one species, the well-known Melicerta ringens, the animal builds up its urceolus with pellets which it manufactures from foreign

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