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educational institutions comprise an academy of art and
to the great increase of navigation, and commerce the
He died on January 11, 1762, and was buried in the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields. Roubiliac was very largely employed for portrait statues and busts, and especially for. sepulchral monuments in Westminster Abbey and elsewhere. His chief works in the abbey are the monuments of Handel, Admiral Warren, Marshal Wade, Mrs Nightingale, and the duke of Argyll, the last of these being the first work which established Roubiliac's fame as a sculptor. The statues of George I., Sir Isaac Newton, and the duke of Somerset at Cambridge, and of George II. in Golden Square, London, were also his work, as well as many other important pieces of portrait sculpture. Trinity College, Cambridge, possesses a series of busts of distinguished members of the college by him. Roubiliac possessed much skill in portraiture, and was technically a real master of his art, but unhappily he lived at a time when it had reached a very low ebb. His figures are uneasy, devoid of dignity and sculpturesque breadth, and his draperies are treated in a manner more suited to painting than sculpture. His excessive striving after dramatic effect takes away from that repose of attitude which is so necessary for a portrait in marble. His most celebrated work, the Nightingale monument, in the north transept of Westminster Abbey, a marvel of technical skill, is only saved from being ludicrous by its ghastly hideousness. On this the dying wife is represented as sinking in the arms of her husband, who in vain strives to ward off a dart which Death is aiming at her. The lower part of the monument, on which the two portrait figures stand, is shaped like a tomb, out of the opening door of which Death, as a half-veiled skeleton, is bursting forth. Wonderful patience and anatomical realism are lavished on the marble bones of this hideous figure, and the whole of the grim conception is carried out with much skill, but in the worst possible taste. The statue of Handel in the south transept is well modelled, but the attitude is affected and the face void of any real expression. It is a striking proof of the degraded taste of the age that these painful works when first set up were enthusiastically admired. ROUCHER, JEAN ANTOINE (1745–1794), a French poet, to whom a melancholy fate and some descriptive verse equal to anything written during at least threequarters of a century by any of his countrymen except André Chénier, gave some reputation, was born on February 17, 1745 at Montpellier, and perished by the guillotine at Paris on July 25, 1794. He wrote an epithalamium on Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, gained the favour of Turgot, and obtained a salt-tax collectorship. His main poem was entitled Les Mois; it appeared in 1779, was praised in MS., damned in print, and restored to a just appreciation by the students of literature of the present century. It has the drawbacks of merely didacticdescriptive poetry on the great scale, but much grace and spirit in parts. Roucher was by no means antirevolutionary, but ill-luck and perhaps his unpopular employment made him a victim of the Revolution. He lay in prison for nearly a year before his death, and went to it on the same tumbril with Chénier. The malicious wit of Rivarol's mot on the ill-success of Les Mois, “C'est le plus beau maufrage du siècle,” is not intelligible unless it is said that one of the most elaborate passages describes a shipwreck. ROUEN, a 'city of France, the ancient capital of Normandy, and now the administrative centre of the department of Seine Inférieure, the seat of an arch: bishopric and a court of appeal, and the headquarters of the third corps d'armée, stands on a level site on the right bank of the Seine in 49° 26' N. lat. and 1° 6' E. long, at the point where it is joined by the Aubette and
the small Rivière de Robec; it has also crept some dis. tance up the hills which enclose the valley on the right, and has an extension on the plain on the left bank. The faubourgs by which it is surrounded are, reckoning from the east, Martainville (on the left bank of the Robec), St Hilaire, Beauvoisine, Bouvreuil, and Cauchoise; and the portion which lies on the left bank of the Seine is known as the Faubourg St Sever. Between the old town and the faubourgs runs a line of boulevards. Communication between the two banks of the river is maintained by ferryboats and by two bridges; the upper bridge, a stone struc. ture, is divided into two parts by the Lacroix island and decorated by a statue of Corneille; the lower is an iron suspension bridge which opens in the middle to let masted vessels pass. The railway from Havre to Paris crosses the Seine a little above Rouen, and having passed by a tunnel under the higher quarters of the city reaches a station on the north at a distance of 87 miles from Paris and 55 from Havre. Another station at Martainville is the terminus of the line from Rouen to Amiens; and at St Sever are those of the lines to Paris and to Orleans by Elbeuf. Since about 1860 wide streets have been driven through the old town, and tramway lines now traverse the whole city and its environs. Rouen, which is 78 miles from the sea, stands fourth in the list of French ports, coming next to Marseilles, Havre, and Bordeaux. Embankments constructed along the lower Seine have forced the river to deepen its own channel, and the land thus reclaimed has more than repaid the expenses incurred. The port is now accessible to vessels drawing 21 feet of water, and by means of easy dredgings this will be increased to from 25 feet to 28 according to the tide. The expansion of the traffic as the improvements have advanced is shown by the following returns: whereas in 1856 the number of vessels entered and cleared was 6220, with an aggregate burden of 570,314 tons, the corresponding figures were 451 1 aud 748,076 in 1876, and 5.189 and 1,438,055 in 1880. What is now wanted is an increased amount of quay accommodation, the old line of quays scarcely exceeding 1 mile in length. The building of new quays and repairing-docks for large vessels is in active progress; the port is being dredged and deepened; and schemes are under consideration for a slip, a petroleum dock, and corn elevators." Rouen has regular steamboat communication with Bor. deaux, Spain, Algeria, London, Hull, Goole, Plymouth, Bristol, and Canada. A sunken chain allows boats to be towed up to Paris and beyond. The population of the six cantons of Rouen in 1881 was 105,906, but if the suburbs are included the figure may be stated at about 150,000. The imports landed at Rouen include cottons, wheat, maize, and petroleum from America; coal and iron from England; marble, oils, wines, and dried fruits from Italy; wines, wools, ores, and metals from Spain; grain and wool from the Black Sea; grapes from the Levant; rice from India; coffee from the French colonies; oil seeds, timber, dyewoods, foreign textile fabrics, Dutch cheese, &c. The articles of export comprise grain, table fruits, oil-seeds and oilcake, sugar, olive oil, palm oil, timber, hemp, linen, and wool, marble, granite, hewn stone, plaster and building materials, sulphur, coal, pig-iron, steel, copper, lead, zinc, Salt, dyestuffs and other chemical products, wines, brandy, ciders, earthenware and glassware, machinery, packing-paper, &c. Cotton spinning and weaving are carried on in the town, and especially the manufacture of rouenneries (cotton fabrics woven with
dyed yarn). In this connexion the department of Seine Inférieure gives employment to 200,000 workmen, most of them in Rouen and
* See De Coene, Congrès de l'Association Française pour l'avance. ment des sciences, Rouen, 1883.
its neighbourhood, and makes use of 30,000 tons of cotton annually. In 1876 there were in the Rouen district 1,099,261 spindles engaged in cotton-spinning, and 9251’ power-looms. Hand-loom weaving is prosecuted (mainly in the country districts) by 13,000 workmen. In the rouennerie department 190 manufacturers were engaged, producing annually to the value of £2,400,000. In the manufacture of printed cotton and woollen goods 22 establishments and 5000 workmen are employed. The annual production of printed calico amounts to 1,000,000 pieces, each 105 metres (about 115 yards) long; 22 establishments with 700 workmen are devoted to the dyeing of cotton cloth, and 32 establishments with 1200 workmen to the dyeing of cotton thread, the industry being specially favoured by the quality of the water of Rouen. There are also 3 soap works, 7 chemical works, manufacturing soda, vitriol, and dyestuffs, an 10 iron foundries. Engineering works manufacture steam-engines, spinning-machines, and weaving-looms, agricultural machines, sewing-machines, &c., which are sold throughout France and exported to other countries to a total value of £360,000. There is an establishment at Déville for refining copper and manufacturing copper pipes. Other works at Rouen are distilleries, oil mills, bleacheries and cloth-dressing establishinents, tanneries, and ship-building yards. The town is also famous for its confectionery, especially sucres de pomme. Among the public institutions aré extensive poorhouses (1800 beds in the hospice général), several theatres, a public library (118,000 volumes and 2500 MSS.), a theological faculty, a preparatory
France by Philip Augustus in 1204 did no damage to the prosperity of Rouen, although its inhabitants submitted to their new master only after a siege of nearly three months. To this period belong, if not the commencement, at least the rapid erection of the most important building in the town, the cathedral of Notre Dame, whose vast pile, erected between 1200 and 1220 by an architect called Ingelram or Enguerrand, underwent so many alterations, restorations, and extensions that it took its final form only in the 16th century. . It is in plan a Latin cross 427 feet in length, with aisles completely surrounding it and giving access to the three great chapels of the choir. The west façade and those of the transept are of extreme richness. Each was surmounted by two towers, of which only one—the Butter Tower (Tour de Beurre)— was completed. The western façade, frequently enlarged, embellished, or restored from its first construction to the present time, has two charming side doorways of the close of the 12th century, a great central doorway, a rose window, and countless arcades and Gothic pinnacles and turrets of the close of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. The width of the front is increased by the projection of the two towers: that on the left hand, the Tour SaintRomain, was commenced about 1200, and raised to a greater height in 1465–1477; that on the right hand, the finer, has a height of 260 feet, and takes its name of Butter Tower from the fact that it was erected between 1485, and 1507 by means of the moneys paid b
the faithful for permission to eat butter in Lent. On the north
school of medicine and pharmacy, a preparatory school for higher instruction in science and literature, and schools of agricultyure, botany, and forestry, painting and drawing schools, &c. Besides the Grand Cours, which runs along the bank of the Seine above the town and is lined with magnificent elms, the public promenades comprise the Cours Boieldieu, with the composer's statue, the Solferino garden in the heart of the B. town, and the botanical gardens at St Sever. (G. M.E.) History.—Ratuma or RatuInacos, the original name of Rouen, was modified by the Romans into Rotomagus, and by the writers of media val Latin into Rodomum, of which the present maine is a corruption. Under Caesar and the early emperors the town was the capital of the Veliocas. sians, a people of secondary
3d century, and a little later the see of an arch
rank, and it did not attain to Tolow DE La solo any eminence till it was made __* |\ | the centre of Lugdunensis *śāli: Secunda at the close of the × § |||
, all A No.
bishop. Rouen was largely
Plan of Rouen:
side of the cathedral are various accessory buildings dating from the Middle Ages, and the Booksellers' Portal, corresponding to the Portail de la Calende in the south transept. Both portals are adorned with statues, and both, as well as the towers which flank them, date from the reigns of St Louis and Philip the Fair. Above the transept rises the central tower, which was rebuilt in the 15th and 16th centuries, and had before its destruction by fire in 1822 a height of 430 feet. The iron spire added in 1876, though unfortunately much too slender, has raised it to a height of 485 feet, and thus made it the highest erection in Europe after the |. of Cologne cathedral. While more harmonious in its style than the exterior, the interior of Notre Dame de Rouen presents nothing peculiar in its architecture, with the exception of the false gallery along the nave with passages running round the pillars; but the artistic curiosities are numerous and varied. In the choir may be noted a fine series of 13th-century stained-glass windows, carved stalls of the 15th century, the tombs of the English kings Henry II. and Richard I., that of Bishop Maurille, who built the larger part of the present structure, an elegant Gothic staircase, and various tombs of archbishops and nobles. Philip Augustus built a castle at Rouen, but it was rather a fortress than a palace, and the kings of France never treated it as a residence; a round keep called Joan of Arc's Tower still stands. On the other hand, nothing remains of the castle erected by Henry V. of England when he took possession of Rouen in 1418 after a sall;
inary siege; he proposed making it one of his Continental resiences, but it was never completed. It was in Philip Augustus's castle that Joan of Arc was imprisoned and tried, and one of the ublic squares was the place where she was burned alive in 1431. o. that year began a series of attempts on the part of the French to recapture the town. Ricardville in 1432 and Xaintrailles in 1436 failed in spite of the secret connivance of the inhabitants. In 1449 astronger and better-planned expedition was successful, and Somerset, the English commander, was obliged, in order to secure an honourable capitulation, to surrender the principal fortified places in Normandy. The English rule, though badly supported by the citizens, had not been without its influence on the prosperity of Rouen. It was then that the present church of St Ouen was continued and almost completed; the foundation was laid in 1811, but the choir alone had been constructed in the 14th century. In ople of the juxtaposition of the second and third or “radiant” and “flamboyant” styles of Gothic, the building taken altogether presentsin its general lines the most perfect unity—a unity which even the modern addition of a façade with two bell towers has failed to mar, though no regard was had to the original plans, , St Ouen is the largest church erected in France during the War of the Hundred Years; in length (450 feet) it exceeds the cathedral. The central tower, not unlike the Butter Tower, with which it is contemporary, is 265 feet high; the two new towers with their spires are somewhat lower. Apart from its enormous dimensions and the richness of its southern portal, St Ouen has nothing that need long, detain the visitor; its style is cold and formal; the interior, bare and stripped of its ancient stained glass, was further despoiled in 1562 and in 1791 of its artistic treasures and of almost all its old church-furniture, The organ dates from 1630, and the rather handsome roodscreen from the 18th century. The close of the 15th century and the first half of the 16th–the reigns of Charles VIII., Louis XII., Francis I., and Henry II., and the episcopates of Cardinal Estoutteville (1453–1483), Cardinal Georges d'Amboise 1494–1510), and his nephew of the same name (1511–50)—rendered uen for nearly a hundred years the metropolis of art and taste in France; and it was one of the first towns where the splendours of the Renaissance burst forth. At this time the church of St Mâclou was erected, a building that can o be brought into comparison with the cathedral and St Ouen, but is justly celebrated for the value and variety of its artistic treasures, such as the carved work of the principal doors, partly executed by Jean Goujon, the beautiful stained glass, and an organ-loft reached by an open-work staircase. The o 285 feet high, is a structure of the present century. Beside the church is the old parish cemetery, called the Attre of Saint Maclou, surrounded by charming Renaissance galleries and famous for its danse macabre formed by a series of sculptured groups. Other churches of the same period—St Godard, St Patrice, St Vincent—are no less interesting from the profusion of their architectural details than from their magnificent 16thcentury stained-glass windows. There are two glass windows in St 3. and a regular collection in St Patrice; but the latter, though the most famous, are in the eyes of connoisseurs of less worth than the stained glass in St Vincent, due to two incomparable artists of Beauvais, Engrand and Jean Le Prince,—the two principal subjects treated by them being the Gifts of Mercy and the Glorification of the Virgin. St Godard contains, besides, old frescos worthy of note. The church of St Laurent, no longer used for worship, and the tower of St André are both of 16th-century origin. At the same period the gathedral received great embellishments, the central flèche was erected, and the portals were decorated with new sculptures, Georges d'Amboise, the virtuous minister of Louis XII., chose the chapel of the Virgin for his place of burial; he caused his mausoleum, constructed after the plans of the architect Roland le Roux, to be composed entirely of marble, as well as his statue, which he ordered from Jean Goujon. Georges d'Amboise the second was, according to his desire, interred in his uncle's tomb, but his statue is of much less value. Near this tomb are two others erected for the lords of Brézé; both are very remarkable; the oldest belongs to the Gothic style; the other, the tomb of Diana of Poitiers's husband, is a Renaissance structure of the time of Henry II., but, contrary to what was long believed, contains nothing from the hand of Jean Goujon. Under Louis XII, the archbishops of Rouen also rebuilt their palace at the side of the cathedral; but in spite of the richness of its architecture this lordiy mansion cannot compete with the “palace of justice” begun in the same year, 1499, when the exchequer of Normandy, which had been established as Rouen in 1302, was erected into a parlement, though the title was not adopted till i315. This sumptuous building is in the Gothic style; but the Hôtel de Bourgtheroulde, which dates from the time of Francis I., is undisguisedly of the Renaissance, and is justly celebrated for its bas-reliefs, the subjects of which are borrowed from two uite different orders of things—the allegories from Petrarch's }. and the interview of the Field of the Cloth of Gold between Henry VIII. and Francis I. Many other secular Renaissance o inf Rouen bear witness to the great commercial prosperity of its citizens and to their keen appreciation of the
arts:—numerous private houses in stone and especially in wood; the gate of the great clock; and a unique structure, the “fie;te” of St Romain, a sort of pulpit from which every year a peison condemned to death raised before the people the shrine or fierte (feretrum) of St Romain, and then received pardon and liberty. This splendour of the arts began to decline during the wars of religion; in 1562 the town was sacked by the Protestants, which did not prevent the League from obtaining so firm a footing there that Henry IV., after having vainly besieged it, did not pbtain entrance till long after his abjuration. To the 18th century belong the exchange and the claustral buildings of the abbey of St Ouen, transformed into an hôtel de ville. Much more insportant works have been executed in recent times, but in great part at the expense of the historic and picturesque features of the town. On the other hand, handsome structures of various kinds have been erected in the interests of §. utility or embellishment—churches, civil and military establishments, fountains, statues, &c.; and many.old buildings have been carefully restored or completed. Rouen, moreover, has recently been provided with museums of antiquities, of fine arts, of ceramic art, of natural history, and of industry, the first two being very important. During the Franco-German War the city was occupied by the invaders from 5th December 1870 to 22d July 1871, and had to submit to heavy requisitions, Among the famous men born at Rouen are the brothers Corneille, Fontenelle, the journalists Armand Carrel and De Willemessant, the composer Boieldieu, the painters Jouvenet, Restout, and Géricault, the architect Blondel, Dulong the physicist, and La Salle the American explorer. (A. S.-P.) *
ROUGE. This name is applied to various colouring substances of a brilliant carmine tint, especially when used as cosmetics. The least harmful of these preparations are such as have for their basis carthamine, obtained from the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius). The Chinese prepare a rouge, said to be from safflower, which, spread on the cards on which it is sold, has a brilliant metallic green lustre, but when moistened and applied to the skin assumes a delicate carmine tint. Jewellér's rouge for polishing gold and silver plate is a fine red oxide of iron prepared by calcination from sulphate of iron (green vitriol).
ROUGET DE LISLE, CLAUDE Joseph (1760–1836), one of the most noteworthy of those authors whom a single short piece of work has made famous, was born on 10th May 1760, at Lons-le-Saunier. He entered the army as an engineer and attained the rank of captain. He wrote complimentary verses pretty early, and appears to have been a good musician. The song which has immor. talized him, the Marseillaise, was composed at Strasburg, where Rouget de Lisle was quartered in April 1792, and he is said to have composed both the words and the music in a fit of patriotic excitement after a public dinner. The piece was at first called Chant de l'armée du Rhin, and only received its name of Marseillaise from its adoption by the Provençal volunteers whom Barbaroux introduced into Paris, and who were prominent in the storming of the Tuileries. The author himself was unfavourably affected by that very event. He was a moderate republican, and was cashiered and thrown into prison; but the counterrevolution set him at liberty. Little is recorded of his later years, and he received no pension or other mark of favour till the accession of Louis Philippe. He died at Choisy on the 26th June 1836.
The Marseillaise (of which as usually given six-sevenths only are Rouget's) is so well known that no elaborate criticism of it is necessary. The extraordinarily stirring character of the air and its ingenious adaptation to the words serve to disguise the alternate poverty and bombast of the words themselves... As poetry the sixth stanza alona has much merit. Rouget de Lisle wrote a few
other songs of the same kind, and set a good many of others' Writing to music. He also produced a play or two and some translations.
But his chief literary monument is a slender and rather rare little
volzme entitled Essais cn Vers et en Prose (Paris, 1796). This contains the Marseillaise, a proso tale of the sentimental kind called Adelaide et Monville, and a collection of occasional poems of various styles and dates, from which the author's poetic faculty can be fairly judged. It is humble enough. Rouget, was a mere follower of standard models, imitating by turns J. B. Rousseau, La Fontaine, and Voltaire, and exaggerating the artificial languago of ois time." To Tom 2: Lucy, Zhich turns on a romantic story of the English army in America, he has contrived without in the least knowing it to make a pathetic subject supremely ludicrous. But he seems to have been a very well meaning and harmless person, and he had one moment of remarkable inspiration. ROULERS, or RousselAERE, a town of Belgium, in the province of West Flanders, on the Mandelbeke, a tributary of the Lys, 22% miles south of Ostend on the railway to Courtrai. From time immemorial it has been the seat of a great weaving industry, which now produces both cotton, union, and linen goods; and it also manufac. tures invarious other departments. The principal buildings are the town-house, the college, and the church of St Michel with its conspicuous Gothic tower. The population was 16,345 in 1874, and 17,219 in 1884. Roulers is mentioned in 822 as Roslar and in 847 as Rollare. , Baldwin VIII., count of Flanders, died in a house in the principal square of the town in 1120 on his return from the battle of Angers. In 1794 Roulers was the scene of a conflict between the Austrians and the French. ROUM (RUM) is the name by which the Arabs call the Romans, i.e., all subjects of the Roman power. Bilád alRúm, “the lands of the Romans,” accordingly means the Roman empire. The parts of the old empire conquered by the Arabs were regarded as having ceased to be Roman, but the Western Christian lands were still called lands of the Rûm, without reference to the fact that they had in great part ceased to pay any allegiance to the “king of the Rüm,” i.e., the Byzantine emperor. When Ibn Jobair takes a passage in a Genoese vessel he speaks of the crew as Romans; and in Spain a “Rümiya” meant a “Christian slave-girl.” Sometimes all Europe is included in the lands of the Rûm ; at other times the northern nations are excluded; sometimes again the word means the Byzantine empire; and, finally, the kingdom founded by the Seljūks, in lands won by them from Byzantium, is the kingdom of the Seljäks of Rûm, so that Rüm comes to take the restricted sense of Asia Minor. So Abulfeda uses the term. Roumelia and Roumania in like manner mean no more than the “Roman country” in a speciel limitation. ROUMANIA, a kingdom in the south-east of Europe between the Carpathians, the Pruth, the Black Sea, and the Danube. The Pruth and the Kilia mouth of the Danube now form the frontier with Russia. West of Silistria the Danube is the boundary between Roumania and Bulgaria, while to the east of that point the boundary is formed by an irregular line passing east by south to the coast about ten miles to the south of Mangalia. The territory thus shut off between the Danube and the Black Sea is known as the DoBRUDJA (q.v.), and differs in its physical features and products from the rest of the kingdom. It was given to Roumania at the close of the last Russo-Turkish War as a compensation for the territory of Bessarabia, east of the Pruth, which was then restored to Russia. The area of the kingdom is estimated at about 49,250 square miles, which is rather less than that of England without Wales. The greatest length of the kingdom is from east to west near the parallel of 45°, along which the length is about 350 miles. The line stretching from north-west to south-east between the extreme points of the kingdom is about fifteen miles shorter. The crescent-shaped portion of the kingdom lying between the Danube and Pruth and the Carpathians is tolerably uniform in its physical features. The southern part of the area is a plain continuous with that of southern Russia. Towards the interior the surface rises gradually but slowly until we come to the spurs of the Carpathians. The Roumanian frontier on this side runs for the most part along the very crest of the mountains, which have peaks rising to from 6000 to 8000 feet and upwards. The lowest part of this plain is that which
is the dreariest and least productive. Large tracts of it are marshy and subject to inundation, and even beyond the marshy districts the aspect of the country remains extremely uninviting. Agriculture is neglected; coarse grasses occupy large areas; and the most. conspicuous feature in the landscape is probably a rude well, such as is seen in the pusstas of Hungary and some parts of southern Russia, where the general aspect of the country is so like what we find here. Farther inland however, the appearance of the surface improves: agriculture becomes more general, trees (willows, alders, and poplars) more abundant; on the still higher ground nearer the Carpathians the outward signs of comfort and prosperity become more and more apparent; the vine clothes the hill slopes; plums, peaches, and southern fruits are grown in profusion; large forests of oak, beech, and elm reach to the hill tops, and various minerals form an important addition to the present and prospective resources of the country. At elevations too high for the foliage trees just mentioned these are succeeded by pines and firs, birches and larches, which crown the mountains to a height of 5000 or 6000 feet. Extensive as the plains of Roumania are, 40 per cent. of the entire surface is more than, a thousand feet above sea-level, while the greater part of the northern (or Moldavian) half of the crescent varies from 300 to 1000 feet, almost all the rest of Moldavia being still more elevated.
The superficial geology of Roumania, so far as it is Geologo
known, is extren.ely simple, at least on the left bank of the Danube. Quaternary deposits are spread over all the plains. Among these the most important is the yellow loess, which covers such large areas in Hungary also, and which in Roumania attains in places a depth of 150 to 300 feet. In certain parts the black soil of southern Russia extends into Roumania, and is important on account of its richness, though its depth is nowhere above 3 feet. Advancing inland one meets next with Miocene and Eocene deposits, until, in ascending the slopes of the Carpathians, Secondary, Primary, and crystalline rocks are seen to crop out in succession. The desolate plateau of the Dobrudja contrasts with the region on the left of the Danube in its geology as in other respects. Its basis consists of crystalline rocks, but these are covered with sedimentary formations of various ages. On the north this plateau, which is hilly, and even mountainous, sinks down rather abruptly to the delta of . the Danube, a congeries of alluvial marshes occupied chiefly by aquatic and marsh-loving birds.
Of the rivers of Roumania by far the most important Rivers
is the Danube, which is navigable for large vessels throughout its Roumanian reach, the first obstruction to navigation, the celebrated Iron Gates, occurring just where it enters Roumanian territory. The breadth of the river is of some consequence in view of the fact that it is a frontier stream, and the marshes on the left bank have at least this advantage that they enable it to serve all the more effectually as a natural boundary. The plains on the left are traversed by numerous winding tributaries of the Danube, but of these the only one of importance as a means of communication is the Pruth, which is navigable for small grain-carrying vessels. The others—the Sereth, Jalomitza, Dambovitza, Olta—are sluggish streams, often half-dry, but yet at certain seasons subject to inundations, which unfortunately occur at a time when the crops are so far advanced as to be liable to be much damaged. In consequence of this the Government has bestowed muck pains on the regulation of these streams, and the works for this purpose are rendered further serviceable by the fact that the IRoumanian rivers can be turned to account (or irrigation,