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and bark, and shipbuilding is carried on as well as fishing. There is a large market every alternate Wednesday, and considerable business in cattle, sheep, corn, wool, and hops is transacted. Rye is a quaint, compactly-built town perched upon the rock to which for centuries it was restricted, but in the course of the last half-century it has gradually extended itself over the northern slopes beyond the town wall. It is excellently drained, abundantly supplied with clear spring water, and very healthy. The church, said to be the largest parish church in England, is of very mixed architecture, chiefly Transitional, Norman, and Early English ; the nave and high chancel were judiciously restored in 1882, according to designs by the late Mr G. E. Street. Of the old fortifications there still remain portions of the town wall, much hidden by newer buildings, a strong quadrangular tower built by William of Ypres, earl of Kent, and lord warden in the time of Stephen, and now forming part of the police station, and a handsome gate with a round tower on each side, known as the Sandgate, at the entrance into Rye from the London road. Rye ceased in 1885 to be a parliamentary borough, but gives its name to the eastern division of the county. ' The population in 1881 was 4224. Of the early history of Rye little is known. In the mediaeval French chronicles it is always mentioned as “La Rie.” Having been conferred upon the abbey of Fécamp by Edward the Confessor, it was taken back by King Henry III. into his own lands, “for the better defence of his realm,” and received from that sovereign the full rights and privileges of a Cinque Port under the title of “Ancient Town.” }. consequence of the frequent incursions of the French, by whom it was sacked and burnt three times in, the 14th century, it was fortified by order of Edward III. on the landward side, the steep precipitous sides of the rock affording ample protection towards the sea. In addition to the naval services rendered by Rye as a Cinque Port under the Plantagenet and Tudor sovereigns, it was a principal port of communication with France in times of peace,—sor which reason successive bands of Huguenots fled thither between 1562 and 1685, many of whom settled at Rye and have left representatives now living. RYEZHITZA, a town of European Russia at the head of a district in the Vitebsk government, in 56° 30' N. lat. and 27° 21' E. long., 198 miles north-west from Vitebsk on the railway between St Petersburg and Warsaw, near the Ryezhitza, which falls into Lake Luban. Its population increased from 7306 (2902 Jews) in 1867 to about 9000 in 1881; but its importance is mainly historical. The cathedral is a modern building (1846).

Ryezhitza, or, as it is called in the Livonian chronicles, Roziten, was founded in 1285 by Wilhelm von Harburg to keep in subjection the Lithuanians and Letts. The castle was continually the object of hostile attacks. In 1559 the Livonian order, exhausted by the war with Russia, gave it in pawn to Poland, and, though it was captured by the Russians in 1567 and 1577, and had its fortifications dismantled by the Swedes during the war of 1656– 11660, it continued Polish till 1772, when White Russia was united with the Russian empire. In early times Rvezhitza was a large and beautiful town.

RYLAND, WILLIAM WYNNE (1738–1783), engraver, was born in London in July 1738, the son of an engraver and copper-plate printer. He studied under Ravenet, and in Paris under Boucher and J. P. le Bas. After spending five years on the Continent he returned to England, and having engraved portraits of George III. and Lord Bute after Ramsay (a commission declined by Strange), and a portrait of Queen Charlotte and the Princess Royal after Francis Cotes, R.A., he was appointed engraver to the king. In 1766 he became a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists, and he exhibited with them and in the Royal Academy. In his later life Ryland abandoned lineengraving, and introduced “chalk-engraving,” in which the line is composed of stippled dots, a method by means of which he attained great excellence, and in which he transcribed Mortimer's King John Signing Magna Charta, ‘and copied the drawings of the old masters and the works

of Angelica Kauffman. He traded largely in prints, but in consequence of his extravagant habits his affairs became involved; he was convicted of forging bills upon the East India Company, and, after attempting to commit suicide, was executed at Tyburn on the 29th of August 1783. A short memoir of Ryland was published the year after his death. RYMER, THOMAS (1641-1713), historiographer royal, was the younger son of Ralph Rymer, lord of the manor of Brafferton in Yorkshire, described by Clarendon as “possessed of a good estate’ and executed for his share in the “Presbyterian rising” of 1663. Thomas was probably born at Yafforth Hall early in 1641, and was educated at a private school kept by Thomas Smelt, a noted Royalist, with whom Rymer was “a great favourite,” and “well known for his great critical skill in human learning, especially in poetry and history.” -1 He was admitted as pensionarius minor at Sidne Sussex College, Cambridge, on April 29, 1658, but left the university without taking a degree. On May 2, 1666, he became a member of Gray's Inn, and was called to the bar on June 16, 1673. His first appearance in print was as translator o: Cicero's Prince (1668), from the Latin treatise (1608) drawn up for I'rince Henry. He also translated Rapin's Reflections on Aristotle's Treatise of Poesie (1674), and followed the principles there set forth in a tragedy in verse, licensed September 13, 1677, called Edgar, or the English Monarch, which was not, however, very successful. The printed editions of 1678, 1691, and 1693 belong to the same issue, with new title-pages. Rymer's views on the drama were again given to the world in the shape of a printed letter to Fleetwood Shepheard, the friend of Prior, under the title of The Traordies of the Last Age Considered (1678). To Ovid's Epistles Translated by Several Hands (1680), with preface by Dryden, “Penelope to Ulysses” was contributed by Rymer, who was also one of the “hands” who Englished the Plutarch of 1683–86. The life of Nicias fell to his share. He furnished a preface to Whitelocke's Memorials of English Affairs (1682), and wrote in 1681 A General Draught and Prospect of the Government of Europe, reprinted in 1689 and 1714 as Of the Antiquity, Power, and Decay of Parliaments, where, ignorant of his future dignity, the critic had the misfortune to observe, “You are not to expect truth from an historiographer royal.” He contributed three pieces to the collection of Poems to the Memory of Edmund Waller (1688), afterwards reprinted in Dryden's Miscellany Poems, and is said to have written the Latin inscription on Waller's monument in Beaconsfield churchyard. He produced a congratulatory poem upon the arrival of Queen Mary in 1689. His next piece of authorship was to translate the sixth elegy of the third book of Ovid's Tristia for Dryden's Miscellany Poems (1692, p. 148). On the death of Thomas Shadwell in 1692 Rymer received the appointment of historiographer royal, at a yearly salary of £200. Immediately afterwards appeared his Short View of Tragedy (1693), criticizing Shakespeare and Ben Jonson, which produced The Impartial Critick (1693) of Dennis, the epigram of Dryden,” and the judgment of Macaulay that Rymer was “the worst critic that ever lived.” Within eight months of his official appointment Rymer was directed (August 26, 1693) to carry

* See Hickes, Memoirs of John Kettlewell, 1718, pp. 10–14.

* “The corruption of a poet is the generation of a critic” (Ded. of the Third Miscellany, in Works, 1821, xii. p. 49), which is much more pointed than Beaconsfield's reference to critics as “men who have failed in literature and art” (LQthair, chap. xxxv.) or Balzac's sly hit at Mérimée in similar terms. The poet's remarks on the Tragedies of the Last Age have been reprinted in his Works, 1821, xv. pp. 383-96, and in Johnson's Life of Drydz-S See also Dryden's Works, i. 377. vi. 25) xi. 60 xiii. 20.

out that great national undertaking with which his name will always be honourably connected, and of which there is reason to believe that Lords Somers and Halifax were the original promoters. The Codex Juris Gentium Diplo. maticus of Leibnitz was taken by the editor as the model of the Foedera. The plan was to publish all records of alliances and other transactions in which England was concerned with foreign powers from 1101 to the time of publication, limiting the collection to original documents in the royal archives and the great national libraries. Unfortunately, this was not uniformly carried out, and the work contains some extracts from printed chronicles. From 1694 he corresponded with Leibnitz, by whom he was greatly influenced with respect to the plan and formation of the Foedera. While collecting materials, Rymer unwisely engraved a spurious charter of King Malcolm, acknowledging that Scotland was held in homage from Edward the Confessor. When this came to be known, the Scottish antiquaries were extremely indignant. G. Redpath published a MS. on the independence of the Scottish crown, by Sir T. Craig, entitled Scotland's Sovereignty Asserted (1695), and the subject was referred to by Bishop Nicolson in his Scottish Historical Library (1702). This led Rymer to address three Letters to the Bishop of Carlisle (1702), explaining his action, and discussing other antiquarian matters. The first and second letters are usually found together; the third is extremely rare. Rymer had now been for some years working with great industry, but was constantly obliged to petition the crown for money to carry on the undertaking. Up to August 1698 he had expended £1253, and had only received £500 on account. At last, on November 20, 1704, was issued the first folio volume of the Foedera, Conventiones, Litteræ et cujuscunque generis Acta Publica inter reges Angliae et alios quoswis imperatores, reges, doc., ab A.D. 1101 ad nostra usque tempora habita aut tractata. The publication proceeded with great rapidity, and fifteen volumes were brought out by Rymer in nine years. Two hundred and fifty copies were printed; but, as nearly all of them were presented to persons of distinction, the work soon became so scarce that it was priced by booksellers at one hundred guineas. A hundred and twenty sheets of the fifteenth volume and the copy for the remainder were burnt at a fire at William Bowyer's, the printer, on January 30, 1712–13. Rymer died shortly after the appearance of this volume, but he had prepared materials for carrying the work down to the end of the reign of James I. These were placed in the hands of Robert Sanderson, his assistant. For the greater part of his life Rymer derived his chief subsistence from a mortgage assigned to him by his father. His miscellaneous literary work could not have been very profitable. At one time he was reduced to offer his MSS. for a new edition for sale to the earl of Oxford. About 1703 his affairs became more settled, and he afterwards regularly received his salary as historiographer, besides an additional £200 a year as editor of the Foedera. Twentyfive copies of each volume were also allotted to him. He died at Arundel Street, Strand, December 14, 1713, and was buried in the church of St Clement Danes. His will was dated July 10, 1713. Tonson issued an edition of Rochester's Works (1714), with a short preface by the late historiographer. Another posthumous publication was in a miscellaneous collection called Curious Amusements, by M. B. (1714), which included “some translations from Greek, Latin, and Italian poets, by T. Rymer.” Some of his poetical pieces were also inserted in J. Nichols's Select Collection (1780–86, 8 vols.).

Two more volumes of the Foedera were issued by Sanderson in 1715. and 1717, and the last )hree volumes (xviii., xix., and xx.) by

the same editor, but upon a slightly different plan, in 1726–35. The latter volumes were published by Tomson, all the former by Churchill. ... Under Rymer it was carried down to 1586, and continued by Sanderson to 1654. The rarity and importance of the work induced Tonson to obtain a licence for a second edition, and George Holmes, deputy keeper of the Tower records, was appointed editor. The new edition appeared between 1727 and 1735. The last three volumes are the same in both issues. There are some corrections, enumerated in a volume, The Emendations in the new edition of Mr Ilymer's Foedera, printed by Tonson in 1730, but in other respects the second is inferior to the first edition. A third edition, embodying Holmes's collation, was commenced at The Hague in 1737 and finished in 1745 It is in smaller type than the others, and is compressed within ten folio volumes. The arrangement is rather more convenient; there is some additional matter; the index ls better; and oil the whole it is to be preferred to either of the previous editions. When the volumes of the Faedera first appeared they were analysed by Leclerc and Rapin in the Bibliothèque Choisie and Hibliothèque Ancienne et Moderne. Rapin's articles were collected together, and appended, under the title of Abregé historique des actes publiques de l'Angleterre, to the Hague edition. A translation, called Acta Regia, was polio by Stephen Whatley, 1726–7, 4 vols., 8vo, reprinted both in 8vo and folio, the latter edition containing an analysis of the cancelled sheets, relating to the journals of the first Parliament of Charles I., of the 18th volume of the Fæðcra. In 1808 the Record Commissioners appointed Dr Adam Clarke to o a new and improved edition of the Facdera. Six parts, arge folio, edited by Clarke, Caley, and Holbrooke, were published between 1816 and 1830. Considerable additions were made, but the editing was performed in so unsatisfactory a manner that the publication was suspended in the middle of printing a seventh part. The latter portion, bringing the work down to 1383, was ultimately issued in 1869. The wide learning and untiring labours of Rymer have received the warmest praise from historians. Sir T. D. Hardy styles the Poedera “a work of which this nation has every reason to be proud, for with all its blemishes—and what work, is faultless —it has no rival in its class” (Syllabus, vol. ii., xxxvi.), and Mr J. B. Mullinger calls it “a collection of the highest value and authority” (Gardiner and Mullinger's Introduction to English History, p. 224). The best account of Rymer is to be found in the prefaces to Sir T. D. Hardy's Syllabus, 1869-86, 3 vols. 8vo. There is an unpublished life by Des Maizeaux (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. No. 4223), and a few memoranda in 13W hop Kennet's collections (Lansd. MS. No. 987). In Caulfield's Portraits, &c., 1819, i. 50, may be seen an engraving of Rymer, with a description of a satirical print. Rymer's two critical works on the drama are uiscussed by Sir T. N. Talfourd in the Retrospectire Review, 1820, vol. i. p. 1-15. Sir T. D. Hardy's Syllabus gives in English a condensed notice of each instrument in the several editions of the Faedera, arranged in chronological order. The third volume contains a complete index of names and places, with a catalogue of the volumes of transcripts collected for the Record edition of the Foedera. In 1869 the Record Office printed, for private distribution, Appendices A to E “to a report on the Foedera intended to have been submitted by C. Purton Cooper to the Late Commissioners of Public Records," 3 vols. 8vo (including accounts of MSS. in foreign archives relating to Great Britain, with facsimiles). In the British Museum is preserved (Add. MS. 24,699) a folio volume of reports and papers relating to the Record edition. Rymer left extensive materials for a new edition of the Fa dera, bound in 59 vols. folio, and embracing the period from 1115 to 1698. This was the collection offered to the earl of Oxford. It was purchased by the Treasury for £215 and is now in the British Museum (Add. MSS. Nos. 4573 to 4630, and 18,911). A catalogue and index may be consulted in the 17th volume of Tonson's edition of the Foedera. The Public Record Office possesses a MS. volume, compiled by Robert Lemon about 1800, containing instruments in the Patent Rolls omitted by Rymer. In the same place may be seen a volume of reports, orders, &c., on the Faedera, 1808–11. (H. R. T.) RZHEFF, RSHIEFF, RJEv, or RzhoFF, a town of European Russia at the head of a district in the Tver government, in 56° 16' N. lat. and 34° 21' E. long., 89 miles southwest of Tver, occupies the bluffs on both banks of the Volga (here 350 feet wide) near the confluence of the river Bazuza. It is the terminus of a branch line from the St Petersburg and Moscow Railway, has a population of 18,569 (1880; 19,660 in 1866), carries on a variety of manufactures—hemp-spinning, malting, brewing, shipbuilding, &c.—and is the centre of a great transit trade between the provinces of the lower Volga, Orel, Kaluga, and Smolensk, and the ports of St Petersburg and Riga.

Rzhest was already in existence in the 12th century, when it belonged to the principality of Smolensk and stood on the highway between Novgorod and Kieff. Under the rulers of Novgorod it become from 1225 a subordinate principality, and in the 15th century the two portions of the town were held by two independent rinces, whose names are still preserved in the designations Knyaz edorovskii and Knyaz Dimitrievskii, given respectively to the left and the right bank of the Volga. In 1368 Rzhest was captured by Vladimir Andreevitch, and in 1375 it stood a three weeks' seige and had its suburb burned by the same prince. It was made a district town in 1775.

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represents the hard open (or fricative) sound produced by bringing the blade of the tongue close to the front palate, immediately behind the gums, or rather, this is the normal position for S, as slight varieties can be produced by bringing the tongue farther back. By the “blade” is meant the pointed end of the tongue, not the mere point, which at the same part of the palate produces R. This position differs little from that for TH, into which S passes in a lisping pronunciation; a larger part of the surface of the tongue is brought near to the palate for TH than for S. The symbol which represents the soft open sound corresponding to S is Z, though in practice S often stands for both. The history of our symbol S is easy up to a certain point. It is the rounded form of 5, rounded at a very early period for convenience of writing, for the change is apparent in the old Italian alphabet of Caere, and still more on the recently discovered vase of Formello; and even in the scribbling of the Greeks at Abu Simbel—the oldest, or nearly the oldest, bit of Greek epigraphy—perfectly rounded forms stand side by side with the angular ones. The common Greek form X was obtained by adding a fourth stroke, and gradually making the top and bottom ones horizontal. When, however, we wish to identify the Greek symbol of three strokes with its Phoenician counterpart, the difficulty begins. The Phoenicians had four symbols for sibilants, known in Hebrew as Zayin, Samekh, Sade, and Shin ; the last of these at a very early date represented two sounds, the English sh, and another sound which resembled that of Samekh and ultimately became indistinguishable from it, both being pronounced as the English s. The Greeks did not want all these symbols, consequently in different parts of Greece one or other— not the same—Phoenician symbol fell into disuse. One of these, M or M called San, though lost in Ionic, appears in old Doric inscriptions, as those of Thera, Melos, and Crete, Argos, Corinth, and Corcyra ; but the later Doric form is the usual Sigma; prosably San was too like the nasal M. There is no doubt that in form Zeta represents Zayin, and that Xi represents Samekh. Moreover, Zeta and Zayin stand seventh in the Greek and Phoenician alphabets respectively, and Xi and Samekh each fifteenth. Again, the form of San with three strokes corresponds fairly with Sade, and Sigma is moderately like Shin; but here the evidence of position comes in again to strengthen a somewhat weak case, for in the old Italian alphabets San has the place of Sade, the simpler form occurring in the Caere alphabet, the fuller in that of the Formello vase; in both Sigma (rounded in form) has the place of Shin. These identifications would be certain if the names cor. responded as well as the forms; but they clearly do not : Zeta and Sade (not Zayin) seem to hold together in sound, and Sigma(as has often been suggested) looks like a “popular etymology” for Samekh. But the objection from difference of names is not fatal. All names which are thought of habitually in rows or sets tend to be modified under the influence of analogy; and analogy has certainly been at work here, for Xi, which is a purely Greek name, is, like Psi, and like Chi and Phi, due to the older Pi. Similarly Eta and Theta have probably made Zeta; but it must be allowed that the metamorphosis of Sade is more intelligible (as a matter of sound-change) than that of Zayin. Probably we must have recourse to a different principle to explain at least some part of our difficulty. We may suppose that in some part of Greece the sounds

denoted originally by Sade and Zayin became indistinguishable; there would then exist for a time one sound but two names. It would be a matter of little moment which name should survive; thus Sade (or Zeta) might supersede Zayin, or one name might survive in one district—as San in the Doric, but Sigma in the rest of Greece. This suggestion is made by Dr Taylor (The Alphabet, ii. 100). The history of the sounds, as well as of the forms, of the Greek sibilants is difficult. Probably Sigma was generally hard—our s in sign. But Zeta did not originally denote the corresponding 2: rather it was dz; some say dj, as in “John,” but this is not likely. Xi was probably a strong sibilant with a weak guttural, as X was in Latin. If the sound 2 existed in Greek, as is probable, it was denoted by Sigma. In Italy, also, we must infer that the soft sibilant was heard too little to need a special symbol, because 2, which exists in the old alphabets of Caere and Formello, was lost early enough to leave a place for the newly-made Italian symbol G. When Z was restored, it was placed at the end of the alphabet and doubtless with the value of Greek Z in the Greek words in which alone it was used. One Latin s—probably z—became the trilled r between two vowels, e.g., in “Papirius” for “Papisius,” “arboris” for “arbosis.” In English the symbol s alone existed till 2 was introduced from France with words of French origin, as “zeal,” “zone.” An attempt was made to employ it at the end of plural nouns, where the sound is regularly heard except when the last sound of the noun is hard, e.g., “bedz.” (beds), but “hops”; but this was not maintained, nor -even consistently done, for the symbol was used even when the sound must have been s. We regularly write s for both sounds,-e.g., in “lose” and “loose,” “curs” and “curse,” “hers” and “hearse.” When there is a distinction in spelling the s commonly has the value of z\-e.g., “vies” and “vice,” “pays” and “pace,” “his” and “hiss.” S has the sound of sh in “sure,” “sugar,” and some other words; this is due to the palatal sound heard before the u. Sh, in spite of its spelling, is a single sound, the position 6f which differs from that for s only in a slight retraction of the point of the tongue; it is commonly found in English words which originally had sk,+e.g., “shall,” O.E. sceal; “shabby,” a doublet of “scabby”; “fish,” O.E. fisk. The sound is the same as that of French ch in “château,” “chef,” “sécher,” where it is due to assibilation of original K. SAADI. See SADí. SAADLA, or SAADIAs (Heb. Seadyah, Arab. Sa’idi), was the most accomplished, learned, and noble gaon (head of the academy) of Sūrā (see RAB). Mar Rab Seadyah b. Yoseph” was born in the Fayyúm, Upper Egypt, in 892 and died at Sūrā in 942. Of his teachers only the Jew Abū Kethir is positively known by name,” but he must have had at least three more teachers of considerable learning, one a Karaite,” one a Mohammedan, and one a Christian, as his acquaintance with the literature of these four religious bodies testifies. His pre-eminence over his

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contemporaries is indicated in the fact that he was the
only gaon who had not been educated and then advanced
by degrees in the academy, to the highest dignity of which
he was called from a far-off country, but best appears
in the excellence of his many works, which extend over
most branches of learning known in his time. And his
learning was exceeded by his manifold virtues. His love
of truth and justice was made more conspicuous by the
darkness of the corruption amid which he lived. When
the rāsh gåluthi (“prince of the captivity,” the highest
dignitary of the Jews in Babylonia, and to some extent of
those of the whole world) attempted to wrest judgment in
a certain case, and first asked, then requested, and finally
demanded the signature" of the gaon of Sūrā in a threaten-
ing manner, Seadyah refused it, fearless of consequences.
David b. Zakkai, the rêsh giluthi, deposed him and
chose another gaon in his stead. A reconciliation took
place some years afterwards, and Seadyah was reinstated
in his old dignity. And, although his health had been
fatally undermined by the behaviour of the rêsh gålutha
and his son, Seadyah, when his former opponent died,
was indefatigable in his endeavours to have this very son
of his once mortal enemy placed on the throne of his
fathers. But the new prince of the captivity enjoyed his
dignity for little more than half a year. He left behind
him a boy, twelve years of age, whom Se'adyah took into
his own house and treated in every respect as his own
child. This learning and these virtues endeared Seadyah
not merely to his contemporaries but also to the best
men of succeeding ages. Behayye b. Yoseph (the author
of the Hoboth Hallebaboth), Rashi, Seadyah (the author
•f the commentary on Daniel in the Rabbinic Bible), David
Kimhi, Behayye b. Asher (the author of Kad Hakkemah),
all appeal to him as an authority not to be questioned.
Even Ibn ‘Ezra defers more to him than to any other
authority. To this day Jewish and Christian scholars alike
express for him the highest admiration.
The numerous works which are ascribed to him may be con-
veniently divided into four classes.
I. Genuine and still extant Works.--(1) Arabic translations of,
and in part commentaries” on, books of the Bible : (a) the Penta-
touch (printed in Hebrew characters, Constantinople, 1546, fol.,
and in Arabic characters in the Paris and London polyglotts); (b)
Isaiah (printed in Arabic characters from Hebrew letters of the
Bodleian MS. Uri 156,” by Paulus, Jena, 1790-91, 8vo); (c) Psalms
(Ewald, Ueber die arabisch geschriebenen. Werke jüdischer Sprach-
gelehrten, Stuttgart, 1844, 8vo); (d) Proverbs (Bodleian MS. Uri
15); (e) Job (Uri 45); (f) Canticles (Merx, Die Saadjanische Ueber-
setzung des Hohen Liedes ins Arabische, Heidelberg, 1882, 8vo).
(2) Hebrew Lexicography : Seventy (90 or 91) śraš Āeyóueva to be
found in the Bible, published from the Bodl. MS. Hunt. 573, by
Dukes (Z. K. M., v. 6) and by Benjacob (Debarim 'Attikim, i.,
Leipsic, 1844). (3) Talmudic Literature: (a) Decisions (incorpo-
rated in 'Ittur, Venice, 1608, fol. ; and in the book of Responsa,
Sha'are Sedek, Salonica, 1792, 4to); (b) On the laws of inheritance

(Bodl. MS. Hunt. 630). (4) Liturgy, both in prose and poetry: (a) Siddur (Bodleian MS. Uri 261); * (b) Arabischer Midrasch (!)

* To make the legal decisions of the rèsh giluthã more respected, the signatures of the geonim of Sūrā and Pumbadithã were desirable. A specimen of a legal decision by David b. Zakkai signed on the authority of Rab Se'adyah Gaon is to be found in Frankel-Grätz, Monatsschrift, xxxi. pp. 167-170. * If we may argue from the known to the unknown, Seadyan's translations, whether they were called tafsir or sharh, contained more than a mere translation. From Ibn 'Ezra's preface to his commentary on the Pentateuch and from the Arabic comm. on the Psalms published in excerpt by Ewald we see that Rab Seadyah was in the habit of explaining in addition to translating. Compare also Munk, “Notice sur Saadia,” in Cahen, La Bible (Isaie), Paris, 1838, 8vo, p. 77, note 1. - *In the copyist's subscription to this MS. the actual reading is not nNYoy (Rapoport), but Throny; this should be fins-y, as Munk prints it (“Notice,” p. 108). The Bodleian MSS. are referred to in this article from personal inspection. * The original codex on brownish paper, in square characters of

Babylonian handwriting (14th cent.), is defective at beginning and end. The supplement at the beginning, containing also later matter.

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zu dro Zehn Gcboten, in Hebrew letters (MS. Jellinek of Vienna,
with Hebrew and German translation by W. Eisenstädter, Vienna,
1868, 8vo). (5). Religious Philosophy: (a) Commentary on the
Scpher Yesirah, MS. Uri 370 (Opp. Add., 4to, 89), contains the car.
lier part of a Heb. trans, in a modern hand; (b) Kitāb al-Andal
Aca'!:I'liqādál (Landauer, Leyden, 1880, 8vo), translated into Hebrew
by Yehudah Ibn Tibbon (editio princeps, Constantinople, 1562, 4to),
and by R. Berekhyah Hannakdan, author of the Mishcic Shoaii,
(printed only in part; see Dukes, Beiträge, pp. 20, 22); nine
chapters have been translated into German (Fürst, Leipsic, 1845,
#'. o parts into English (Two Treatiscs, by P. Allix, London,
a 01, SVO).
II. Works now lost, but the cristence of which is testifical to by
Contemporary and later authors.—(1) An Árabic translation of ani
in part commentary on, most, if not all, the other books of the
Bible.” (2) Lexical Treatises: Book of Interpretations (Sepher
Pithronim, or Collection (Iggeron)." (3) Grammatical Treatises: (a)
Elegancy of the Hebrew Tongue—(a) Treatise on the Changes, (3)
Treatise on the Combinations, (y) Treatise on Dagcsh and Rapheh,
(3) Treatise on the Lettersy, T, IT, N7; (b) Treatise on Punctuations;
(c) Treatise on Right Reading";-it is not impossible that the first
four constituted one work and the last two another work. (4)
Talmudic Literature : (a) Translation of the Mishnah 10; (b) Meth-
odology of the (Babylonian) Talmud II; (c) Treatise on Bills 1*; (d)
Treatise on Deposits”; (6) Treatise on Oathsia; (f) Treatise on
Prohibited Degrees”; (g) Treatise on Impura ct Pura, including
Hilckh9th Niddah";-it is very possible that those marked c to
sconstituted one book, just as the treatise marked g constituted one
book. (5) Calendaric Literature: Sophor Ha'ibiour (Treatise on
Intercalation).” (6) Apologetics: Treatise on Investigations.18 (7)
Polemics: (a) against Karaism—(a) 'Anan,” (3) Ibn Sakkawiyyah,”
(Y). Ibn Zitta (or Zutta)*; (b) against the Rabbanito Hivvi al-
Balkhi"; (c) against the Karaite Ben Asher (the completer of the
Massoreth ; see L.-B. d. Or., x. 684). (8) The nature of the Sepher
Haqqalui cited by Rabad II. and Ab, b. Hivva in his Sepher Ha'illur
is not clear.
III. Works ascribed to Sc'adyah the authorship of which is not
softciently proven.—(1) The commentary on Canticles edited by
Yishak Ibn 'Akrish (Constantinople, 1577, 4to), and that published
by L. Margaliyyoth at Frankfort-on-Odér, 17773. (2) The well-
known piece of didactic poetry which gives account of all the letters
of the Bible, how many times they occur, &c. (editio princeps,
Venice, 1538, at the end of Elias Levita's Massorctii Hammaso ).
IV. Works ascribed to Se'adyah by mistake.—(1) The Commentary
on Daniel commonly found in the Rabbinic Bibles belongs to an:
other Rab Seadyah, who lived at least two hundred years later,
and was a native either of France or the south of Germany. (2)
The Commentary on the Sepher Yesirah, printed with the text and
three other commentaries at Mantua in i562, 4to. (3) The Book
on Lots (Sopher Haggoraloth), often printed separately and in con-
junction with similar works. (4) Eben Happilosophim (Lapis Philo-
sophorum), ascribed to him by R. Mosheh Butrial (Mantua edition
of the Sepher Yesirah as above). (S. M. S.-S.)

is in S. Arabian handwriting. The well-known “Ten reasons for Sounding the Trumpet on the Day of Memorial” are not found in this Siddur (against Rapoport, ut supra, note 21). The three poetical pieces published as five by Rosenberg (Kobes, ii., Berlin, 1856) form an integral part of the Siddur, but bear on the surface marks of having been taken from a second-hand, if not a third-hand, copy, as the editor admits with regard to the “second petition.” The “Two Petitions” must have served Ibn Gebirol (AviceBRON) as a model for the latter

or liturgical part of his mory TS, just as he and others after him
silently utilized Se'adyah's philosophy.
* See Hoboth Hallehaboth (preface) and Silbub (Travels) of R. Petb-
ahyah of Ratisbon (London, 1861, 8vo, p. 22).
* L.-B. d. Orients, x. coll, 516, 541, 684.
7 Ibid., coll. 516, 518. 8 See Rashi on Psalm xlv. 10.
9 L.-B. d. Or., x. 518. 19 Sibbub (as in note 5 above).
* See Shem IIaggedolim (Vilna, 1852, 8vo), ii. leaf 16a, col. 2.
* See Sha'are Sedek (ut supra), leaf 17b.
* See R. Menahem b. Shelomoh lebeth Meir (commonly called
Meiri) on Aboth (Vienna, 1854, 8vo, Introduction, p. 17). -
14 See Rapoport, l.c., note 20.
* See Pinsker, Likkute Kadmoniyyoth (Vienna, 1860, p. 174, note
1, in Nispahim). * See Rapoport, l.c., note 19.
17 See L.-B. d. Or., xii. coll. 101, 102.
* See Sion (Frankfort-on-Main, 1842-43, 8vo), ii. p. 137.
* See Pinsker (ut supra), p. 103. * Sion (as before).
* On this commentator see Ibn 'Ezra on Exodus xxi. 24. From
this passage we learn that Se'adyah and Ben Zitta were contemporaries,
and even had oral controversies with one another.
* See Halikhoth Kedem, Amsterdam, 1846, p. 71. Hivvi al-Balkhi
had raised strong objections against the truth of Scripture in his Two
Hundred Questions, or Objections to the Bible.
* The editions “Prag”, 1782 (Steinschneider), and Nowydwor, 1783
(Zedner), are probably the same as that of Frankfort with different titles.

SAALFELD, a busy little town of Germany,in the eastern norn of the crescent-shaped duchy of Saxe-Meiningen, is picturesquely situated on the left bank of the Saale (here spanned by a bridge), 24 miles south of Weimar and 77 miles south-west of Leipsic. One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld was the capital of the now extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, and contains some interesting old buildings. Among these are the former residential palace, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine monastery of St Peter, destroyed during the Peasants' War; the Gothic church of St John, dating from the 13th century; the quaint town house, built in 1533-37; and the Kitzerstein, a shooting lodge said to have been originally erected by the emperor Henry I., though the present building is not older than the 16th century. But perhaps the most interesting relic of the past in Saalfeld is the striking ruin of the Sorbenburg or Hoher Schwarm, a strong castle said to have been built by Charlemagne to protect his borders from the Slavonic hordes. Its destruction took place in 1290, under Rudolf of Hapsburg. Saalfeld is situated in one of the busiest parts of Meiningen, and carries on a number of brisk industries, including the manufacture of sewing-machines, colours, wax-cloth and wire-cloth, brewing, and iron-founding. It has an active trade in iron, slate, wood, and wooden goods, and there are ochre and iron mines in the neighbourhood. The population in 1880 was 7458. Springing up under the wing of the Sorbenburg, Saalfeld early became an imperial demesne, and received various benefits at the hands of successive emperors. . After a somewhat chequered career, the town became the capital of the duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, founded in 1680 by the youngest son of the duke of Gotha ; but in 1735, when the succession to the duchy of Coburg was assigned to the dukes of Saalfeld, their residence was removed to Coburg. In 1826 the united duchies merged by inheritance in the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen. SAARBRUCKEN, an important industrial and commercial town in Prussia, on the left bank of the Saar, a navigable tributary of the Moselle, is situated 49 miles east of Metz, at the south end of one of the most extensive coalfields in Europe, to which it has given its name. With the town of St Johann, immediately opposite on the right bank of the river, here spanned by two bridges, Saarbrücken forms in reality a single community, with a united population of nearly 22,000. St Johann, though now the larger, is the more recent town, being in fact the creation of the important railways whose junction is fixed there. Saarbrücken itself is not directly on any main line. The industries of St Johann-Saarbrücken include wool-spinning, brewing, and the manufacture of tobacco, chemicals, tin, and stoneware. The trade is chiefly connected with the produce of the neighbouring coal-mines and that of the numerous important iron and glass works of the district. The Saarbrücken coal-field extends over 70 square miles; and its annual output is about 6 million tons. Of this total the Prussian state mines yield about 5,200,000 tons, Prussian private mines 100,000 tons, the mines in Lorraine 500,000 tons, and mines in Rhenish Bavaria 200,000 tons. In 1880 the population of Saarbrücken alone was 9514, and of St Johann 12,346. Till 1233 Saarbrücken was in the possession of the eld counts of Ardennes; from 1881 till 1793 it was the residence of the princes of Nassau-Saarbrücken ; from 1793 till 1815 it was in the possession of the French ; and since 1815 it has been Prussian. St Johann is said to have been founded as an outwork to Saarbrücken in 1046, and to have received town-rights in 1321. In the FrancoPrussian War of 1870-71 Saarbrücken was seized by the French on 2d August 1870, but the first German victory, on the heights of Spicheren, 3 miles to the south, relieved it four days later.

SAARDAM. See ZAANDAM.

SAARGEMUND (Fr. Soo, equemines), an industrial ‘own and railway junction of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace-Lorraine, is situated at the confluence

of the Blies and the Saar, 40 miles east of Metz. It carries on considerable manufactures of silk, plush, porcelain, and earthenware, and is a chief depôt for the papier-mache boxes (mostly snuff-boxes) which are made in great quantity in the neighbourhood. To the south lies the district lunatic asylum of Steinbacherhof. The town, which is garrisoned by four squadrons of cavalry, in 1880 had a population of 9573, chiefly Roman Catholics. SAAVEDRA, ANGEL DE, DUKE of Rivas (1791-1865), Spanish poet and politician, was born at Cordova in 1791, and fought with bravery in the Spanish War of Independence. From 1813 to 1820 he lived in retirement in Andalucia, but in the latter year he sided actively with the revolutionary party, and in consequence had to go into exile in 1823. He lived successively in England, Malta, and France until 1834, when he received permission, to return to Spain, shortly afterwards succeeding his brother as duke of Rivas. In 1836 he became minister of the interior under Isturiz, and along with his chief had again to leave the country. Having returned with Maria Christina in 1844, he again held a portfolio for a short time in 1854; and during the last two decades of his life he was ambassador at Naples, Paris, and Florence for considerable periods. He died in 1865. In 1813 he published Ensayos poeticos, and between that date and his first exile several tragedies of his composition (Aliatar, 1814; El Duque d'Aquitania, 1814; Lanuza, 1822) were put upon the stage. Tanto vales quanto tienes, a comedy, appeared in 1834, Don Alvaro, a tragedy, in 1835, and two other dramatic compositions in 1842. Saavedra was also the author of El Moro Exposito, a narrative poem in ballad metre (two volumes), and Florinda, an

epic romance. SAAVEDRA, MIGUEL DE CERVANTEs. See CER. WANTES. SAAVEDRA FAXARDO, DIEGo DE (1584-1648), diplomatist and man of letters, was born of a noble family at Algezares in the Spanish province of Murcia in 1584. Having been educated for the church at Salamanca, and admitted to the priesthood, he accompanied Cardinal Borgia, the Spanish ambassador, to Rome in the capacity of secretary. . Ultimately he rose to high rank in the diplomatic service, and was Spanish plenipotentiary at Ratisbon in 1636 and at Münster in 1645. He was nominated to the supreme council of the Indies in 1646, but not lozg afterwards retired to a monastery, where he died in 1648. In 1640 he published a treatise entitled Einpresas politicas, 6 idea de un principe politico cristiano representado en cien empresas, a hundred short essays, in which he discusses the education of a prince, his relation and duties to those around him, and so forth, primarily intended for and dedicated to the son of Philip IV. It is sententious in style and characterized by the curious learning of the time, and is still read and admired in Spain. It passed through a number of editions and was translated into several languages, the English version being by Astry (2 vols., 8vo, London, 1700). An unfinished historical work entitled Corona Gotica, Castellana, y Austriaca políticamente ilustrada, appeared in 1646. Another work by Saavedra, only second in popularity to the Empresas, his Republica Literaria, was published posthumously in 1670; it discusses in a somewhat mocking tone some of the leading characters in the ancient and modern world of letters. Collected editions of his works appeared at Antwerp in 1677-78, and again at Madrid in 1789-90; see also vol. xxv. of the Bibl. de Aut. Esp. (1853).

SAAZ (Bohemian Žatec), a manufacturing and commercial town in the north of Bohemia, is situated on the right bank of the Eger, 42 miles north-west of Prague. The suspension bridge, 210 feet long, which here spans the river. was constructed in 1826 aid is one of the oldest of the kind in Bohemia. Saaz, which claims to have existed as early as the 8th century, contains a number of ancient churches, of which one is said to date from 1206, and five others from before the close of the 14th century. The town-house was built in 1559. A technical school was added in 1878 to the already fairly numerous educational institutions. Nails, leather, beetroot-sugar, and pasteboard are among the chief manufactures of Saaz,

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