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naturalistic school, which appears to have been inaugurated by Masolino and Masaccio. Some few painters, such as Fra Angelico (see fig. 4) and his pupil Benozzo Gozzoli, produced more purely sacred and decorative work, following the lead of Orcagna. As Baron Rumohr has pointed out, the main bulk of the Florentine 15th-century painters may be divided into three groups with different characteristics. The first, including Masolino, Masaccio, Lippo Lippi, Botticelli, Filippino Lippi, and their pupils, aimed especially at strong action, dramatic force, and passionate expression (see figs. 5 and 6). The second, including Baldovinetti, Ros- --~~ selli, Ghirlandaio, and his pupils, are remarkable for realistic truth and vigorous individuality (see fig. 7). To the third | belong Ghiberti, who began lifeas apainter, Pollaiuolo," Verroc chio, and his pupils Leonardo da Vinci |

and Lorenzo di Credi, —a group largely influenced by the prac-joo. tice of the arts of the to goldsmith and the so sculptor. Signorelli, whose chief works : are at Orvieto and 3 Monte Oliveto near go --- --Siena, was remark-FIG. 10. –Baptism of Christ, by Piero della able for his know- Francesca. (National Gallery.)

ledge and masterly treatment of the nude (see fig. 8), and had much influence on the early development of Michelangelo, whose gigantic genius in later life produced the most original and powerful works that the modern world has seen (see fig. 9). Andrea del Sarto was one of the last artists of the golden age of painting in Florence; the soft beauty of his works is, however, often marred by a monotonous mannerism. To him are wrongly attributed many paintings by Puligo and other scholars,

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Fig. 11.-The Adoration of the Shepherds, by Fiore (Gallery at Perugia.) who imitatéd his style with various degrees of closeness. The 16th century in Florence was a period of the most rapid decline and was for long chiefly remarkable for its feeble caricatures of Michelangelo's inimitable style. Between the end of the 14th and the beginning of the * It is interesting to note, how Ant. Pollaiuolo's fine figure of St Sebastian in the National Gallery (London) resembles the statue of the

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16th century the Umbrian school produced many painters of great importance grouped around a number of different centres, such as Gubbio, where Ottaviano Nelli lived; San Severino, with its two Lorenzos; Fabriano, famed for its able masters Allegretto Nuzi and Gentile da . Fabriano; Foligno, los whence Niccolo took his name; and above * all Borgo San Sepol- || cro, where Piero della Francesca was born. Piero was one of the to most charming of all painters for his delicate modelling, ten-so der colour, and beauty of expression (see fig. . 10). His masterpiece, a large altar-painting so of the Madonna en-so thromed, with stand-o % ing saints at the side to §o and in frontakneeling ..., # % o: portrait of Duke Fed- Fig. 12-centre of triptych, by Perugino, erigo da Montefeltro,

painted for the Certosa near Pavia. (Na tional Gallery.)

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ria.

same saint in Lucca cathedral by Matteo Civitale.

* The attribution of this magnificent picture to Fra Carnovale rests wholly on a statement, evidently erroneous, of Pungileoni; and hence many other works by Piero, such as the St Michael in the National Gallery, are wrongly given to Carnovale. It is doubtful whether any genuine picture by the latter is now known ; if the Brera picture were really by him he would not only be greater than his master Piero, but would be one of the chief painters of the 15th century.

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Padua.

Arezzo.

Venice.

him are attributed many of

Gentile da Fabriano worked in the purely religious and richly decorative style that characterized Fra Angelico at Perugia. Fiorenzo di Lorenzo (see fig, 11) and Bonfigli prepared the way for Perugino (see fig. 12) and his pupils Pinturicchio, Raphael, Lo Spagna, and others. Timoteo Viti was another Umbrian painter of great ability, whose portrait by Raphael in black and red chalk is one of the most beautiful of the drawings in the Print Room of the British Museum. The Paduan school is chiefly remarkable for the great name of Andrea Mantegna, the pupil of Squarcione; his firm and sculpturesque draw- so Soo ing is combined with great so beauty of colour and vigorous expression (see fig. 13). His pupil Montagna also studied under Gian. Bellini || at Venice. Andrea Mantegna influenced and was influenced by the Venetian school; to

the early paintings of his brother-in-law Gian. Bellini, such as the Vatican Pietà, and other works more remarkable for vigour than for grace. The school of Arezzo was k. early in its development. . Margaritone, who is absurdly : overpraised by his fellow- || townsman Wasari, was an || artist of the most feeble abilities,

4.— Centre of retalle, by tury Arezzo produced such Crivelli, 1476. (National Galable painters as Spinello di lery.) Luca, Niccolo di Gerini, and Lorenzo di Bicci. In the 15th century it possessed no native school worth recording.

Venice did not come into prominence till the 15th century; the Vivarini ramily of Murano were at work about the middle of it, and -o-o-o-o: - # were perhaps influ- enced by the German style of a con- || temporary painter # from Cologne, known as Johannes Alemanmus, who had settled in Venice. Some years later the technical methods of Flanders were introduced by Antonello of Messina, who is H said to have learnt B the secret of an oil fi medium from the Van Eycks." Crivelli, an able though E mannered painter of E=== the second half of Fig.15 Portrait of Doge Lorelano, by Gian. the 15th century, Bellini. (National Gallery.) adhered to an earlier type than his contemporaries (see fig. 14). Gian. Bellini is one of the chief glories of -— -—--

1 Antonello certainly possessed technical knowledge beyond that of lis contemporaries in Venice, namely, that of glazing in transparent oil colours over a tempera ground, and he must either in Italy or in Flanders have come in contact with some painter of the Flemish school ; many of the chief Flemish painters visited Italy in the 15th century.

the Venetian school (see fig. 15); as are also in a secondary degree his brother Gentile and his pupil Vittore

Fig. 16.-So-called Sacred and Profane Love, by Titian.
(Borghese Gallery, Itome.)

Carpaccio.” In the following century Venice possessed a
school which for glory of colour and technical power has
never been rivalled, [. -T -
though it soon lost - -
the swcct religious
sentiment of the car-lo.
lier Venetians. The 3
chief names of this
epoch are Palma
Vecchio, Giorgione,
Titian (see fig. 16), #
and Lorenzo Lotto, i.
—the last a magnifi-S
cent portrait painter,
a branch of art in #
which Venice occu- #/
pied the highest
rank. In the 16th
century Tintoretto
and Paul Veronese
were supreme (see
fig. 17). In the 17th
and 18th centuries |

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Venice produced = - some fairly good Fig. 17.—Various saints, by Paul Veronese. work. (Brera Gallery, Milan.)

The Brescian school has bequeathed two very illustrious Brescia.

names, Moretto and his pupil Moroni, both portrait painters of extraordinary power during the 16th century (see fig. 18). Mo- Hisłoń - retto also painted - = some fine large altar-pieces, remarkable for their delicate silver-grey # tones and refined modelling. Romanino was an extremely able painter of frescos as well as so of casel pictures. The school of Verona, which existed from the 13th to the 17th century, contains few names of highest import-o ance; except that of Pisanello, the chief of ==zoza were painters of the FIG. 18.—Portrait of a Tailor, by Meroni. end of the 15th and (National Gallery.) the early part of the 16th century, as Domenico and Francesco Morone, Bonsignori, Girolamo dai Libri, and Cavaz

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Verona.

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The small school of Cremona occupies only a subordi-Cremona.

zola. Paul Veronese, though at first he painted in his native town, soon attached himself to the Venetian school.

Ferrara possessed a small native school in the 15th and 16th centuries, Cosimo Tura, Ercole Grandi, Dosso Dossi, and Garofalo being among the chief artists. The paintings of this school are often vigorous in drawing, but rather mannered, and usually somewhat hard in colour. After

Pietà, by Francia. (National Gallery.) 1470 there was an intimate connexion between the schools of Ferrara and Bologna. The Bologna school existed, though not in a very characteristic form, in the 14th century. francia and Lorenzo Costa of Ferrara were its chief painters at the end of the 15th century (see fig. 19). It was, however, in the 16th and 17th centuries that Bologna took a leading place as a school of Italian painting, the beginning of Ś which dates from about 1480, when several able painters from Ferrara settled in Bologna. The three Caracci, Guido (see fig. 20), Domeni- chino, and Guercino were the most Fig 29-Boo Homo, by admired painters of their time, and go (National Galcontinued to be esteemed far be "o yond their reak value till about the middle of the 19th century. Since then, however, the strong reaction in favour of earlier art has gone to the other extreme, and the real merits of the Bolognese school, such as their powerful , drawing Fo o --~~~~ and skilful though f o visibly scholastic composition, are now usually overlooked. o Both Modena and Parma possessed mediocre painters in the 14th and 15th cen-4

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nate position. Boccaccino was its ablest painter; his rare works are remarkable for conscientious finish, combined with some provincial mannerism.

In the 15th and early part of the 16th century Milan Milàp .

had one of the most important schools in Italy. Its first member of any note was Vincenzo Foppa, who was painting in 1457 and was the founder of the early school. Ambrogio Bor. gognone (born c. 1455) was an artist of great merit and strong religious sentiment. He o followed in the foot-o o steps of Foppa, and his o § pictures are remarkable to for the calm beauty of the faces, and for their delicate colour (see fig. 22), which recalls the manner of Piero della Francesca. Leonardo o --da Vinci, though trained Fig. 22. Mystic Marriage of St in Florence, may be said Catherine of Alexandria and St Catherto have created the ine of Siena to Christ, by Ambrogio later Milanese school.

Borgognone. (National Gallery.)

Fig. 23 shows one of the very few pictures by his hand which still exist. The marvellous and almost universal genius of Leo- ov

nardo caused his
influence to be
powerfully ex-
tended, not only
among his im-
mediate pupils,
but also among to
almost all the
Lombard paint
ers of his own
and the succeed
ing generation
His closest fol
lowers were Sa-
laino, Luini,
sare da
Beltraffio,
Marco d’Oggi-o
ono, and in as
lesser degree An
drea Solario
Gaudenzio Fer-o

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rari, and So doma, who introduced a newstyle The Mad ith the Rocl .. - - - - FIG. 23. —The Madonna Wi he Rocks, by Leogo"go. nardo da Vinci. (National Gallery.)

also studied in Flanders, and in Venice under Gian. Bellini, so that a curiously composite style is visible in some of his magnificent portraits (see fig. 24). Most of the pictures and many drawings usually attributed to Da Vinci are really the work of his pupils and imitators. Luini, in his magnificent frescos, was one of the last painters who preserved the religious dignity and simplicity of the older mediaeval schools. Fresco painting was practised by the Milanese after it had been generally abandoned elsewhere.

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Rome. Rome has always been remarkable for its absence of can exceed the vivid truthfulness and exquisite work native talent in any of the manship of the por- --- s fine arts, and nearly all the traits by the younger S members of the so-called 2% Holbein (see fig. 27), Roman school came from who also painted very other cities. This school at . beautiful religious first consisted of the per- : * pictures. Since his sonal pupils of Raphael,- time Germany has Fran. Penni, Da Imola, Giu- produced few motelio Romano, and Del Vaga. worthy painters. In Sassoferrato and Carlo Ma- the 19th century ratta were feeble but very Overbeck was remarkpopular painters in the 17th able for an attempt century. *...* to revive the long . Maples. The early history of the 3 S. o. dead religious spirit Neapolitan school is mostly \{* -...: 3:* * in painting, and he , mythical; it had no indi- Fig. 24–Portrait of a Votion attained much popuvidual existence till the 16th §. on.” “” larity,which, however - - National Gallery) » - » century, and then chiefly has now almost wholly in the person of Caravaggio. During the 15th cen- died away. tury many works of the Van Eycks and other Flemish painters were imported into Naples; some of these 3. Flemish. -were afterwards claimed by the vanity of native writers Hubert and Jan o, MN]o The War. as paintings by early Neapolitan artists, f van Eyck, who were FIG. 27.-Portrait of an Unknown Lady, by . ginary names and his- [. - painting at the be- Holbein. (The Hague Gallery.) * tories were invented. F: ginning of the 15th century, were artists of the very The Spaniard Ribera, highest rank; with I o & Salvator IRosa, and H their unrivalled tech- Giordano were its chief l; mical skill, their exmembers in the 17th H. quisite finish, and the century. splendour of their f colour, they produced 2. German. - - - - - works which in some German It was especially at || || respects even sur*hool Cologne in Westphalia || passed those of any

and in the Thine pro-
vinces generally that
German painting was
developed at an early
time. William of Col. 4.
ogne, who died about fly
1378, painted panels ||
with much delic)cy and
richness of colour (see
fig. 25). A number of
large and highly finished Éjobs. -: toot
altarpieces were painted Fig. 25.-St. Veronica, by William of
in this part of Germany Cologne, (National Gallery.)
during the 15th century, but the names of very few of the
painters of that time FT- ----- o
are known. Artists H - -
such as Schongauer, H.
Von Meckenen, Cra-
mach, , and other
were more at home
in the engraving of
copper and wood |
than in painting, and
to some extent the lo
same might be said
of Albert Dürer, an
artist of the highest
and most varied ta-
lents, who especially||
excelled as a portraits
painter (see fig. 26). o o
The Hans Holbeins, r s r onso . b w o
f: cl” a - S- 'I'TG. ..—I’ortrait of a Senator, by el
*** o Dürer. (National Gallery.)

attained the highest rank as portrait painters; nothing

of the Italian paint-
ers. Probably no
other artists ever
lavished time and
patient labour quite
to the same extent;
to which Jan van o
Eyck did upon some
of his works, such -- -
as the Arnolfini and Fig. 2S-Portrait, by Jiu, Van Eyck; 1433.
other portraits in the (National Gallery.)
National Gallery (see fig. 28), and the Madonna with the
—r- -----

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Later Flemish art.

loveliest pictures in the world, l-oth as a figure painting and from its exquisite miniature landscape and town in the distance, all glowing with the warm light of the setting sun. The elder Van der Weyden was a most able pupil of the Van Eycks; he occasionally practised a very different technical method from that usually employed in Flanders, that is to say, he painted in pure tempera colours on unprimed linen, the flesh tints especially being laid on extremely thin, so that the texture of the linen remains unhidden. Other colours, such as a smalto blue used for

draperies, are applied in greater body, and the whole is A very perfect example The

left uncovered by any varnish. of this exists in the National Gallery (see fig. 29). special method used - with such success by the Van Eycks and their school was to paint the whole pic-f ture carefully in tempera and then to glaze it over in trans- | parent oil colours; the use of oil 1 as a medium was common in the 13th century and even earlier (see MURAL DEcoRATION). Too the school of the * Van Eycks belong a number of other £ zo- - - very talented paint- FIG. 30.-St Mary Magdalene, attributed to ers, who inherited the younger Van der Weyden. (National much of their mar- Gallery.) vellous delicacy of finish and richness of colour; the chief of these were Memling, Van der Meire, and the younger Van der Weyden, to whom is attributed No. 654 in the National Gallery (see fig. 30). The colour of this lovely picture is magnificent beyond all description. Quintin Matsys (Massys) and - - Gheerardt David also produced works of great beauty and extraordinary finished execution.” At the beginning of the 16th century Flemish art began to, lose rapidly in vigour, a weaker style being substituted under the influence of Italy. To this period belong Mabuse, Van Orley, and Patimir, who appear to have been so, special admirers of Raphael's latest manmer. In the latter half of the century Antonij Mor, usually known Fig. 21.-Portrait by Robens, known as the as Antonio Moro, was “Chapeau de Poil.” (National Gallery.) a portrait painter of the very highest rank. A por

1 Elaborate directions for painting in oil are given by the German monk Theophilus (Sched, div. art., i. 37, 38), who wrote in the 12th century.

2 Though the elder Van der Weyden and other Flemish painters of liis time visited Italy, the Italian style of painting appears to have had very little influence on their vigorous works. The weaker Flemish painters of the 16th century, on the contrary, were close initators of the Italians and produced pictures of a rather feebly pretty type.

trait of Queen Mary of England at Madrid, and one of a youth of the Farnese family at Parma, are real masterpieces of portraiture. He to spent some time in England. The Breu- || ghel family in the 16th and 17th centuries produced feeble works finished with microscopic detail. Rubens and his pupil Vandyck in the 17th century were among the greatest portrait painters the world has ever seen (see figs, 31 and 32), and had many able fol- o lowers on the Con- or

tinent and in Eng-FIG.32—Portrait of Cornelius Vander Geest, land. by Vandyck or Rubens. (National Gallery.)"

4, Dutch.

This school was chiefly remarkable for its painters of Dutch genre subjects, often treated with a very ignoble realism, school especially by the various members of the Teniers family. Rembrandt, the greatest painter of the school, developed a quite original style, remarkable for the force "hown in his effective treatment of light and shade. The vigorous life and technical skill shown in some of his portraits have never been surpassed (see fig. 33). As a rule, how- oft ever, he cared but little for colour, and used the etching needle with special enjoyment and dexterity. Terburg, Gerhard Dou (Douw), and Wouwerman had more sense of beauty, and worked with the most sominiature-like deli- F13, 33.-Portrait of an Old Woman, by cacy. Another school Rembrandt. (National Gallery.) excelled in landscape, cspecially Ruysdael and Hobbema (see figs. 34 and 33). Vandevelde was remarkable fol

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Fig. 34.—Landscape, by Ruysdael. (National Gallery.) his sea-pieces, and Paul Potter for quiet pastoral scene: with exquisitely painted cattle. Throughout the 17th

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