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the monument is called a Dolmen (daul, a table, and inden, a stone). This megalithic chamber is sometimes partially or wholly imbedded in a mound of earth or stones so as to form a tunnulus or cairn. As, however, there are many tumuli and cairns which do not contain megalithic chambers, we have only partially to deal with them under the category of rude stone monuments.
Menhirs.—IRude monoliths fixed on end (see vol. ii. p. 383,
sig. 1) have been used in all ages for a valiety of purposes, commemorative and religious. Stone pillars were also used ceremonially on the accession of kings and chiefs. In Scotland, when stones were thus used, they were called Tanist Stones, the most celebrated of which was the Lia Fail, formerly at Scone (now at Westminster Abbey), on which the kings of Scotland used to be crowned. We read also of Hare or Hoer Stones, Cambus or Caulus Stones, Cat (cath, battle) Stones, “Witch Stanes, ’’ ‘‘Druid Stanes,” &c. The IIawk's Stane, or Sarum Falcon is, at St Madoes, Perthshire, was erected in memory of the defeat of the Danes at Luncatty, and a monolith now standing on the field of Flodden is said to mark the place where King James fell. When menhirs were grouped together their number was often significant, e.g., twelve (Josh. iv. 5) or seven (Herod., iii. 8). Some standing stones are found to have been artificially perforated, and these superstition has invested with sone curious functions. As examples of this class may be mentioned the famous Stone of Odin, near the circle of Stennis, the Clach-Charra, or Stone of Wen-geance, at Onich near Balachulish in Argyllshire, and Men-en-tol in Cornwall. Two rule Inonoliths in Scotland bear inscriptions,—the famous Newton Stone in the district of Garioch, and the Cat Stane near Edinburgh. Many others have cup-marks and spirals or concentric circles. In Ireland, Wales, and the north of Scotland, they are occasionally found with ogam inscriptions, and in the north-east of Scotland (Pictland) with symbolical figures, which were subsequently continued on the beautifully sculptured stones of early Christian date which are )eculiar to that locality. Menhirs are found in all megalithic countries. In the British ;Isles they are very abundant, more especially in the less cultivated districts. In France over 1600 isolated examples have been recorded, of which about the half, and by far the Inost remarkable, are within the five departments which constitute Drittany. In the rest of France they are generally small, and not to be compared in grandeur to those of Brittany. At Locmariaquer (Morbihan) is the largest menhir in the world. It is in the form of a rude but smooth-sided obelisk, and lies on the ground broken into four ortions, the aggregate length of which amounts to 20:50 metres (about 67 feet). It was made of granite, foreign to the neighbourlood, and its weight, according to the most recent calculations, amounted to 347,531 kilogrammes or 342 tons (L'IIomme, 1885, p. 193). The next largest menhir is at Plésidy (Côtes-du-Nord), measuring about 37 feet in height. Then follows a list of sixtyseven gradually diminishing to 16 feet in height, of which the first ten (all above 26 feet) are in Brittany. As regards form, these menhirs vary greatly. Some are cylindrical, as the well-known “pierre du champ Dolent” at Dol (height 30 feet), and that of Cadiou in Finistère (28 fect); while that of Penmarch (26 feet) takes the shape of a partially expanded fan. On the introduction of Christianity into France its adherents appear to have made use of these menhirs at an early period; many of them at present support a cross, and some a Madonna. The scattered positions of some monoliths and the no less singular grouping of others show that, although they were sometimes used as landmarks, this was only a secondary function. It is not uncommon to find a monolith overtopping a tumulus, thus simulating the Bauta (grave or battle) Stones of Scandinavia. In England, monoliths are often associated with the stone circles, as the king's Stone at Stanton Drew, Long Meg at Little Salkeld, the Ring Stone at Avebury, &c. One of the finest British monoliths stands in the churchyard of Rudston, Yorkshire. Examples of a large size are inct with in Algeria, Morocco, India, Central Asia, &c. Alignments.-The most celebrated monuments of this class are in the vicinity of Carnac in Brittany. They are situated in groups at Ménec, Kermario, Kerlescant, Erdeven, and St Barbe—all
within a few miles of each other, and in the centre of a district
containing the most remarkable megalithic remains in the world. The first three groups are supposed by some archaeologists to be merely portions of one original and continuous series of alignments, which extended nearly 2 miles in length in a uniform direction from south-west to north-east. Commencing at the village of Ménec, the menhirs are arranged in eleven rows. At first they stand from 10 to 13 feet above the ground, but, as we advance, they become gradually smaller till they attain only 3 or 4 feet, when they cease altogether. After a vacant space of about 350
ards we come to the Kermario group, which contains only ten
ines, but they are nearly of the same magnitude as at the beginning of the former group. After a still greater interval the menhirs
again appear, but this time in thirteen rows, at the village of IXcrlescant. In 1881 M. Felix Gaillard, Plouharnel, made a plan of the alignments at Erdeven, which shows that, out of a total of 1120 menhirs which originally constituted the group, 290 are still standing, 740 fallen, and 90 removed. The menhirs here may be traced for nearly a mile, but their linear arrangement is not so distinct, nor are the stones so large as those at Carnac. About fifty alignments are knöwn in France. At Penmarch there is one containing over two hundred menhirs arranged in four rows. Others, however, are formed of only a single row of stones, as at Kerdouadec, Leuré, and Camaret. The first is 480 m. in length, and terminates at its southern extremity in a kind of croix gammée. At Leuré three short lines meet at right angles. Tho third is situated on: the rising ground between the town of Camaret and the point of Toulinguet. It consists of a base line, some 600 yards long, with forty-one stones (others have apparently been removed), and two perpendicular lines as short offsets. Close to it are a dollmen and a prostrate menhir. These monoliths are all of coarse quartz and of small size, only one, at Leuré, reaching a height of 9 feet. Alignments are also found in other countries. In the Pyrenees they are generally in single sile, mostly straight, but sometimes reptiliform. One at Peyrelade (Billière) runs in a straight line from north to south for nearly 300 yards, and contains ninety-three stones, some of which are of great size. At St Columb in Col nwall, thore is one called the Nine Maidens, which is formed of eight quartz stones, extending in a perfectly straight line for 262 feet. In Britain they are more frequghtly arranged in double file, or in avenues, leading to or from other megalithic monume such as still exist, or formerly existed, at the circles of Avebury, Stonehenge, Shap, Callernish, &c. The only example in England; comparable to the great alignments of Carnac is in the Valo of the White Horse in 13erkshire. Iscre the stones, numbering about eight hundred, are grouped in three divisions, and cxtend over an irregular parallelogram which measures from 500 to 600 yards in length and from 250 to 300 yards in breadth. Sir IIenry Dryden describes groups of a similar character in Caithness, as at GarryWhin, Camster, Yarhouse, and the “many stoues” at Clyth. Alignments in single and multiple rows have also been observed in Shetland, India, Algeria, &c. Cromlechs.-Enclosures (cnceintes) formed of rude monoliths, placed at intervals of a few yards, have generally a circul, r or oval shape. Rectangular forms are, however, not unknown, examples of which may be seen at Curcunno (Morbihan), near the celebrated dolmen of that name, and at Saint Just (Ille-etVilaine). The former measures 37 by 27 yards, and is now coinposed of twenty-two menhirs, all of which are standing (some fallen ones having been recently restored by the Government). About a dozen menhirs would appear fo be wanting. A donkeyshoe-shaped enclosure has been described by Sir Henry Dryden, in the parish of Latheron, Caithness. It is 226 feet long and 110 sect wide in the middle, and the two extremities are 85 feet apart." Stone circles are frequently arranged concentrically, as may bo seen in the circle at Kenmore, near Aberfeldy, Perthshire, as well as in many other Scotch, Irish, and Scandinavian examples. More rarely one large circle surrounds secondary groups, without having a common centre, as was the case at Avebury, where the outer circle, 1200 feet in diameter, included two others, cach of which contained an inner concentric circle. At Boscawen, in Cornwall, there is a group of circles confusedly attached, and, as it were, partially overlapping each other. Circles may also be connected by an alignment or avenue, as at Stanton Drew, Dartmoor, &c. Cromlechs are often associated with other megalithic monuments; thus at the lead of the great Carnac alignments are the remains of a large circle which can be readily traced, notwithstanding that some houses are constructed within its area. In the I3ritish Isles and the north of Europe cromlechs frequently surround the dolmens, tumuli, or cairns. A few examples of a dolmen surrounded by one or more concentric circles have also becn recorded by M. Cartailhac, in the departinent of Aveyron in France. Outside the cromlech there is also frequently to be found a circular ditch or vallum, as at Avebury, Stonehenge, Arbor Low, Brogar, &c. The most remarkable megalithic monument of this class now extant is Stonchenge, which dissers, however, from its congeners in having the stones of its second inner circle partially hewn and attached by large transverse lintels. The largest cromlech in France stands on the Ile-aux-Moines (Morbihan), in the village of Kergonan. About half of it is destroyed by the encroachment of the houses. . The remaining semi-circumference (slightly elliptical) contains thirty-six menhirs from 6 to 10 feet high, and its diameter is about 100 metres (328 feet). Only a few of the British cromlechs exceed these diniensions, among which may be mentioned Avebury (1260 by 1170 feet), Stonehenge (outer circle 300 fect, inner-106 feet), Stanton Drew (360 feet), Brogar (345 feet), Long Meg and her Daughters (330 feet). One near Dumfrics, called the Twelve Apostles, also closely approaches the 100-metre size ; but, generally speaking, the Scotch and Irish examples are of smaller proportions, rarely
exceeding 100 feet in diameter. That most of the smaller circles have been used as sepulchres has been repeatedly proved by actual excavations, whicl. showed that interments had taken place within their area. It is difficult, however, to believe that this could have been the main object of the larger ones. At Mayborough, near Penrith, there is a circle entirely composed of an immense aggregation of small stones in the form of a gigantic ring enclosing a flat area, about 300 feet in diameter. Near the centre there is a fine monolith, one of several known to have formerly stood there. Of the same type is the Giant's Ring near Belfast, only the ring in this instance is made of earth, and it is considerably larger in diameter (580 feet); the central object is a fine dolmen. It is more probable that such enclosures were used, like many of our modern churches, for the double purpose of burying the dead and addressing the living. Dolmens.—In its simplest form a dolmen consists of three, four, or five stone supports, covered over with one selected megalith called a capstone or table. A well-known example of this kind in England is Kit's Cotty House, between Rochester and Maidstone, which is formed of three large supports, with a capstone measuring 11 by 8 feet. From this simple form there is an endless variety cf Aupward gradations till we reach the so-called Gaint Graves and Grottes aux Fées, which are constructed of numerous supports and
several capstones. A dolmen (allée couverte) situated in a plant
ation at the outskirts of the town of Saumur is composed of four flat supports on each side, with one at the end, and four capstones. The largest capstone measures 7:5 metres in length, 7 in breadth, and 1 in o. The chamber is 18 metres long, 6.5 broad, and 3 high. Another near Essé, called “la Roche aux Fées,” is equally long, and is constructed of thirty supports, with eight capstones, including the vestibule. Dolmens of this kind are extremely rare in the British Isles, the only one approaching then being Calliagh Birra's House in-Ireland. These (generally known as allées couvertes) and many other examples of the simple dolmen show no evidence of having been covered over with a mound. When there was a mound it necessitated, in the larger ones, an entrance passage, which was constructed, like the chamber, of a series of side stones or supports and capstones. Some archaeologists maintain that all dolmens were formerly covered with a cairn or tumulus, —a theory which undoubtedly derives some favour from the condition of many examples still extant, especially in France, where all stages of degradation are seen, from a partial to a com. plete state of denudation. The allées couvertes of France, Germany, and the Channel Islands had their entrance at the end; but, on the other hand, the Hunnebedden of Holland had both ends closed and the entrance was on the side facing the sun. The covered dolmens are extremely variable in shape, circular, oval, quadrangular, or irregular. The entrance gallery may be attached to the end, as in the Grotte de Gavr'inis, or to the side, as in the Gaint's Grave (Jettestuer) at Oem mear Roskilde. In other instances there is no distinct chamber, but a long passage gradually widening from the entrance; and this may be bent at an angle, as in the dolmen du Rocher (Morbihan). Again, there may be several chambers cummunicating with one entrance, or two or three separate chambers having separate entrances, and all imbedded in the same tumulus. An excellent example of this kind is the artially destroyed tumulus of Rondosec, near Plouharnal railway station, which contains three separate dolmens. That such variations are not due to altered customs, in consequence of wideness of geographical range, is shown by M. de Mortillet, who gives plans of no less than sixteen differently shaped dolmens (Musée préhis. “so 58), all within a confined district in Morbihan. No dollmens exist in eastern Europe beyond Saxony. They reappear, however, in the Crimea and Circassia, whence §ey have been traced through Central Asia to India, where they are widely distributed. , Similar megalithic structures have also been recog. nized and described by travellers in Palestine, Arabia, Persia, Australia, the Penrhyn, Islands, Madagascar, Peru, &c., The irregular manner in which dolmens are distributed along the western parts of Europe has led to the theory that all these megalithic structures were erected by a special people, but as to the when, whence, and whither of this singular race there is no knowledge whatever. Though the European dolmens have a strong family likeness, however widely"apart, they present some characteristic differences in the various countries in which they are found. In Scandinavia they are confined to the Danish lands and a few provinces in the south of Sweden. Here the exposed dolmens are often on artificial mounds, and surrounded by cromlechs which are either circular (runddysser) or oval (langdysser). In Sweden the sepulture. & galerie is very rarely entirely covered up as in the giant graves of Denmark. - Hanover, Oldenburg, and Mecklenburg are very rich in the remains of these monuments. At Riestedt, near Uelzen in Hanover, there is, on the summit of a tumulus, a very singular dolmen of oblong form, which measures about 40 feet long and over 6 feet in breadth. Another at Naschendorf, noar Wismar, consists of a mound surrounded by a large circle of stones and a
covered chamber on , its summit. Remains of a megalithic structure at Rudenbeck, in Mecklenburg, though now imperfect, show that originally it was constructed like an allée couverte. It had four supports on each side, two at one end (the other end forming the entrance), and two large capstones. The length had been about 20 feet, breadth 7% feet, and height from the floor to the under-surface of roof about 3 feet. According to Bonstetten, no less than two hundred of these monuments are found distributed over the three provinces of Lüneburg, Osnabrück, and Stade ; and the most gigantic examples in Germany are in the duchy of Oldenburg. In Holland, with one or two exceptions, they are confined to the province of Drenthe, where between fifty and sixty still exist. Here they get the name of Hunneledden (Huns' beds). The Borger Hunnebed, the largest of this group, is 70 feet long and 14 feet wide. In its original condition it contained forty-five stones, ten of which were capstones. They are all now denuded, but some show evidence of having been surrounded with a mound containing an entrance passage. Only one dolmen has been recorded in Belgium; but in France their number amounts to 3410. They are irregularly distributed over seventy-eight departments, six hundred and eighteen being in Brittany. In the centre of the country they are also numerous, no less than four hundred and thirty-five being recorded in Aveyron, but they are of much o: than in the former locality. From the Pyrenees the dolmens are sparsely traced along the north coast of Spain and through Portugal to Andalusia, where they occur in considerable numbers. Crossin into Africa they are found in large groups in Morocco, Algeria, an Tunis. General Faidherbe writes of having examined five or six thousand at the cemeteries of Bou Merzoug, Wady Berda, Tebessa, Gastal, &c." In the Channel Islands every species of megalithic monument is met with. At Mont Cochon, near St Helier, there was lately discovered in a mound of blown sand an allée converte, and close to it a stone circle surrounding a dolmen.” In the British Isles they are met with in many localities, particularly in the west of England, Anglesey, the Isle of Man, Ireland, and Scotland. In the country last named, however, they are not the most striking feature among its rude stone monuments—the stone circles and cisted cairns having largely superseded them. In the absence of historical knowledge all these megalithie structures were formerly regarded as of Celtic origin. By some they were supposed to have been constructed by the Druids, the so-called priests of the Celts; and hence they were often described, especially since the time of Aubrey and Stukely, under the name of Celtic or Druidical monuments. But this theory is disproved by the fact that the ethnographical range of the Celtic races does not correspond with the geographical distribution of these rude stone monuments. Thus, for example, in Europe, not to speak of their localization in non-Celtic countries, the megaliths occupy an elolated stretch of territory on its western seaboard extending from i. to North Africa. This area crosses at right angles the lands supposed to have been occupied by the Celtic or Aryan races on their westward waves of migration. There can be no doubt from investigations of the contents of dolmens that their primary object was sepulchral, and that the megalithic chambers, with entrance passages, were used as family vaults. Against the theory that any of them were ever used as altars there is prima facie evidence in the care taken to have the smoothest and flattest surface of the stones composing the chamber always turned inwards. Moreover, cup marks, and other primitive markings when found on the capstones or supports, are almost invariably on their inside, as, for example, at the §. of Keriaval, Kercado, Dolau Marchant, Gavr'inis (Morbihan), and the great tumulus at New Grange (Ireland). From its position in the centre of a large circular enclosure no dolmen could be more suggestive of public sacrifices than that within the Giant's Ring near Belfast; yet nothing could be more inappropriate for such a purpose than its capstone, which is in fact a large granite boulder presenting on its upper side an unusually rounded surface. No chronological sequence can be detected in the evolution o' the rude stone monuments, with perhaps the exception of the primitive cist which gave origin to the allées couvertes, *" graves, &c., and these again to the tumuli with microlithic bu chambers. Much less can their appearance in different countries be said to indicate contemporaneity. The dolmens of Africa are often found to contain objects peculiar to the Iron Age, and it is said that in some parts of India the people are still in the habit of erecting dolmens and other megalithic monuments. Scandinavian archaeologists assign their dolmens exclusively to the Stone Age. It would therefore appear as if a subsequent stage of degradation occurred, when a tamer style of interment ensued, and the 13ronze Age barrows replaced the dolmens, and these again gave way to the Iron Age burials—the ship-barrows and large tumuli of the vikir. ss, as manifested in the three tumuli of Thor, Odin, and Freya at
1 Compte Rendu du Congrés Internaţional d'Anth. et d’Arch., Brurelles, p. 408. 2 Société Jerseaise, 9° Bulletin, 1884.
Gamla o: and the Gokstad mound on the Sandefiord, the scene of the recent discovery of the viking ship. Literature.—Fergusson, Rude Stone Monuments; Compte Tendu du Congrés International d'Anthropologie et d'Archéologie Préhistoriques; by G. de Mortillet, Les Études Prehistoriques; Lubbock, Prehistoric Times; Incentaire des Monuments Megalithiques de France; Bonstetten, Essai sur les Dolmens; Proceedings, &c., of the various antiquarian societies. R. M.U.)
RUDOLPH. I. (1218–1291), German king, eldest son of Albert IV., count of Hapsburg, was born on the 1st May 1218. By marriage and in other ways he greatly extended his hereditary dominions, so that when he became king he was lord not only of Hapsburg but of the counties of Kyburg and Lenzburg and of the landgraviate of Alsace. At different times he carried on war with the bishop of Strasburg, the abbot of St Gall, and the city of Basel. He was engaged in his second struggle with Basel in 1273 when Frederick, burgrave of Nuremberg, brought the intelligence that he had been elected to the German crown. Basel at once submitted, and Rudolph went to Aix-laChapelle, where he was crowned on the 28th October 1273. The princes had become so independent during the Great Interregnum that they would have preferred to have no supreme ruler; but Pope Gregory X. had threatened that if they did not elect a king he would himself appoint one. The pope now cordially supported Rudolph, who proved to be much more energetic than the electors had anticipated. Having secured the friendship of the palsgrave Louis and Duke Albert of Saxony by allowing them to marry his daughters, he advanced against Ottocar, king of Bohemia, and Henry, duke of Bavaria, both of whom had refused to do him homage. Henry was soon won over to the new king's side, and then Ottocar had to sue for peace. His request was granted only on condition that he should cede Austria, Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola. By and by Ottocar again rebelled, and was slain in 1278 in a battle fought on the Marchfield. Rudolph gave Bohemia and Moravia to Wenceslaus, Ottocar's son; but Austria, Styria, and Carniola he granted to his own sons, Albert and Rudolph. Carinthia was given to Meinhard, count of Tyrol, who agreed that if his descendants in the male line died out the land should pass to Rudolph's family. Tudolph compelled Otho, count of Upper Burgundy, and other nobles, who tried to make themselves independent of the German crown, to acknowledge his supremacy; and he recovered certain fiefs in what is now Switzerland, which had been seized by the count of Savoy. He also restored peace in Bohemia, and gave his daughter in marriage to the young king, Wenceslaus. He often visited troubled parts of the kingdom, settling local disputes, and destroying the towers of robber barons. On the whole, his rule was a beneficent one, but he did not succeed in re-establishing the authority of the crown, nor did he see how great an element of strength he might have found in an alliance with the cities. The clectors he was forced to confirm in the possession of important rights, which were maintained under his successors. His reign is memorable chiefly because he was the founder of the greatness of the house of Hapsburg. In 1281 his first wife died, and in 1284 he married Elizabeth, daughter of Hugo IV., duke of Burgundy. He died at Germersheim on the 15th July 1291. See Lorenz, Deutsche Geschichte im 13 und 14 Jahrh. (1867);
Huber, Rudolf vor scincr Thronbesteigung (in the Almanach der kaiserlichen Akademic, 1873); Hirn, Ioudolf von IIabsburg (1874).
RUDOLPH II. (1552–1612), Holy Roman emperor, was the son of the emperor Maximilian II., and was born on the 18th July 1552. In 1572 he obtained the crown of Hungary, in 1575 that of Bohemia, with the title “King of the Romans"; and in 1576, after his father's death, he became emperor. He was of an indolent and melancholy disposition, and preferred the study of astrology and alchemy to the responsibilities of government. He
surrendered himself absolutely to the control of the Jesuits, under whose influence he had been brought up at the gloomy court of Spain; and in his hereditary lands they laboured assiduously to destroy Protestantism. The Protestants were deprived of the right of public worship in Vienna and other towns; their schools were closed, and many of their preachers banished. Almost all public offices, too, were placed in the hands of Roman Catholics. In the lands which Rudolph ruled, not by hereditary right, but as emperor, his advisers could exercise less authority; but there also they did what they could to foster the Catholic reaction. In 1607 Maximilian, duke of Bavaria, was allowed to seize the imperial city Donauwörth, the Protestant inhabitants of which had quarrelled with the abbot. This and other high-handed proceedings alarmed the Protestants of Germany, and in 1608, under the leadership of Frederick IV., elector of the Palatinate, they formed a confederation called the Union for the protection of their interests. The Catholic princes, guided by Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, responded by forming the League. Civil war seemed inevitable, but it was postponed by the murder of Henry IV. of France, who had promised to support the Union, and by the death of the elector Frederick IV. Meanwhile, the greatest confusion prevailed in Hungary, due in part to religious oppression, in part to a war with the Turks. In 1604 the Hungarians rebelled, and peace was not restored until 1606, when Matthias, the emperor's brother, with the sanction of his younger brothers, who acknowledged him as head of the family, came to terms both with the Hungarians and with the sultan. Matthias allied himself with the Protestants, and compelled Rudolph to give up to him Hungary, Moravia, and the greater part of Austria. The emperor then tried to strengthen his position by granting to the nobles, knights, and towns of Bohemia perfect religious freedom, with the right to build Protestant churches and schools on their own and on the royal lands. Even after they had obtained the letter of majesty in which these concessions were embodied, the Bohemians did not trust Rudolph ; and, when at his request the archduke Leopold appeared in their country with an army, they invited Matthias to come to their aid. Matthias went, and the emperor had no alternative but to resign to him in 1611 the remainder of his hereditary territories. Rudolph died on the 20th January 1612. See Kurz, Geschichte Ocsterreichs unter Kaiser Rudolf (1821); Gindely, Ioudolf II. und scine Zeit (1863–65). RUDOLSTADT, capital of the German principality of Schwarzburg-Rudólstadt, and chief residence of the prince, is situated on the left bank of the Saale, 18 miles due south of Weimar, in one of the most beautiful districts of Thuringia. The picturesque little town is a favourite summer watering-place, with pine baths, as well as a frequented tourist resort. Besides containing the Government buildings of the little principality, Rudolstadt is fairly well provided with schools and other institutions, including a library of 60,000 volumes. The residence of the prince is in the Heidecksburg, a palace on an eminence 200 feet above the Saale, rebuilt after a fire in 1735, and containing various show apartments. The Ludwigsburg, another palace within the town built in 1742, accommodates the natural history collections belonging to the prince. The principal church dates from the end of the 15th century. In the Anger, a tree-shaded public park between the town and the river, is the theatre: Various memorials in and near the town commemorate the visits of Schiller to the neighbourhood in 1787 and 1788. The industries of the district include the manufacture of porcelain and of dyestuffs, wool-spinning, and bell-found. ing. The population (4100 in 1817) was 8747 in 1880.
The name of Rudolstadt occurs in an inventory of the abbey of . Hersfeld in the year 800. After passing through the possession of the German emperor and of the rulers of Orlamünde and Weimar, it cane into the hands of the dukes of Schwarzburg in 1355. Its town rights were confirmed in 1404; and since 1599 it has been the residence of the ruling house.
RUEDA, LoPE DE. See DRAMA, vol. vii. p. 420. RUFF, a bird so called from the very beautiful and
remarkable frill of elongated feathers that, just before the rouse suspicion of any abnormal peculiarity.
breeding-season, grow thickly round the neck of the male, who is considerably larger than the female, known as the Reeve. In many respects this species, the Tringa pugnaz of Linnaeus and the Machetes pugnac of the majority of modern ornithologists, is one of the most singular in existence, and yet its singularities have been very ill appreciated by zoological writers in general." These singularities would require almost a volume to
describe properly. " The best account of them is unques. tionably that given in 1813 by Montagu (Suppl. Orn. Dictionary), who seems to have been particularly struck by the extraordinary peculiarities of the species, and, to investigate them, expressly visited the fens of Lincolnshire, possibly excited thereto by the example of Pennant, whose Information, personally collected there in 1769, was of a kind to provoke further inquiry, while Daniel (Rural Sparts, iii. p. 234) had added some other particulars, and subsequently Graves in 1816 repeated in the same district the experience of his predecessors. Since that time the great changes produced by the drafmage of the fen-country have banished this species from nearly the whole of it, so that Lubbock (Obs. Fauna of Norfolk, pp. 68–73) and Mr Stevenson (Birds of Norfolk, ii. pp. 261–271) can alone be cited as modern witnesses of its habits in England,
* Mr Darwin, though frequently citing (Descent of Man and Sexual Selection, i. pp. 270, 306; ii. pp. 41, 42, 48, 81, 84, 100, 111) the Ruff as a witness in various capacities, most unfortunately seems never to have had its peculiarities presented to him in such a form that he could fully perceive their bearings. However, the significance of the lesson that the Ruff may teach was hardly conceivable before he began to write; but the fact is not the less to be regretted that he never elucidated its importance, not only in regard to “Sexual Selection,” but more especially with respect to “Polymorphism.” He appears not to have consulted Montagu's original account of this bird, and seems to have known it only by the excerpt given by Macgillivray, in which were not included the important passages on the extreme diversity of plumage exhibited by the males—that author passing over this wonderful peculiarity in a paragraph of less than a score of lines.
of the possessions while the trade of netting or snaring Ruffs, and fattening
them for the table has for many years practically ceased. The cock-bird, when out of his nuptial attire, or, to use the fenman's expression, when he has not “his show on,” and the hen at all seasons, offer no very remarkable deviation from ordinary Sandpipers, and outwardly” there is nothing, except the unequal size of the two sexes, to But when spring comes all is changed. In a surprisingly short time the feathers clothing the face of the male are shed, and their place is taken by papilla or small caruncles of bright yellow or pale pink. From each side of his head sprouts a tuft of stiff curled feathers, giving the appearance of long ears, while the feathers of the throat change colour, and beneath and aróund it sprouts the frill or ruff already mentioned as giving the bird his name. The feathers which form this remarkable adornment, quite unique among birds, are, like those of the “ear-tufts,” stiff and incurved at the end, but much longer—measuring more than two inches. They are closely arrayed, capable of depression or elevation, and form a shield to the front of the breast impenetrable by the bill of a rival.” More extraordinary than this, from one point of view, is the great variety of coloration that obtains in these temporary outgrowths. It has often been said that no one ever saw two Ruffs alike. That is perhaps an over-statement; but, considering the really few colours that the birds exhibit, the variation is something marvellous, so that fifty examples or more may be compared without finding a very close resemblance between any two of them, while the individual variation is increased by the “ear-tufts,” which generally differ in colour from the frill, and thus produce a combination of diversity. The colours range from deep black to pure white, passing through chestnut or bay, and many tints of brown or ashy-grey, while often the feathers are more or less closely barred with some darker shade, and the black is very frequently glossed with violet, blue, or green—or, in addition, spangled with white, grey, or gold-colour. The white, on the other hand, is not rarely freckled, streaked, or barred with grey, rufousbrown, or black. In some examples the barring is most regularly concentric, in others more or less broken-up or undulating, and the latter may be said of the streaks. It was ascertained by Montagu, and has since been confirmed by the still wider experience and if possible more carefully conducted observation of Mr Bartlett, that every Ruff in each successive year assumes tufts and frill exactly the same in colour and markings as those he wore in the preceding season; and thus, polymorphic as is the male as a species, as an individual he is unchangeable in his wedding garment —a lesson that might possibly be applied to many other birds. The white frill is said to be the rarest. That all this wonderful “show’ is the consequence of the polygamous habit of the Ruff can scarcely be doubted. No other species of Limicoline bird has, so far as is known, any tendency to it. Indeed, in many species of Limicola, as the Dotterel, the GoDWITs (vol. x. p. 720), Phalaropes, and perhaps some others, the female is larger and more brightly coloured than the male, who in such cases seems to take upon himself some at least of the domestic duties. Both Montagu and Graves, to say nothing of other writers, state that the Ruffs, in England, were far more numerous than the Reeves; and their testimony can hardly be doubted; though in Germany Naumann (Vög. Deutschland's, vii. p. * Internally there is a great difference in the form of the posterior margin of the sternum, as long ago remarked by Nitzsch. * This “rust” has been compared to -that of Elizabethan or Jacobean costume, but it is essentially different, since that was open in front and widest and most projecting behind, whereas the bird's
decorative apparel is most developed in front and at the sides and scarcely exists behind.
b44) considers that this is only the case in the earlier part of the season, and that later the females greatly outnumber the males. It remains to say that the moral characteristics of the Ruff exceed even anything that might be inferred from what has been already stated. IBy no one have they been more happily described than by Wolley, in a communication to Hewitson (Eggs of Brit. Birds, 3d ed., p. 346), as follows:– “The Ruff, like other fine gentlemen, takes much more trouble with his courtship than with his duties as a husband. Whilst the Recwes are sitting on their eggs, scattered about the swamps, he is to be seen far away slitting about in flocks, and on the ground dancing and sparring with his companions. Before they are confined to their nests, it is wonderful with what devotion the females are attended by their gay followers, who seem to be cach trying to be more attentive than the rest. Nothing can be more expressive of humility and ardent love than some of the actions of the Ruff. He throws himself prostrate on the ground, with every feather on his body standing up and quivering; but he seems as if he were afraid of coming too near his mistress. If she flies off, He starts up in an instant to arrive before her at the next place of alighting, and all his actions are full of life and spirit. But none of his spirit is expended in care for his family. He never comes to see after an enemy. In the [Lapland] marshes, a Reeve now and then slies near with a scarcely audible ka-ka-kuk ; but she seems a dull bird, and makes no noisy attack on an invader.” Want of space forbids a fuller account of this extremely interesting species. Its breeding-grounds extend from Great Britain" across northern Europe and Asia ; but the Birds become less numerous towards the east. They winter in India, reaching even Ceylon, and Africa as far as the Cape of Good Hope. The Russ also occasionally visits Iceland, and there are several well-authenticated records of its occurrence on the eastern coast of the United States, while an example is stated (Ibis, 1875, p. 332) to have been received from the northern part of South America. (A. N.) RUFINUS, TYRANNIUs (TURRANIUs, Tora NUs), the well-known contemporary of Jerome, was born at or near Aquileia about the year 345. In early life he studied rhetoric, and while still comparatively young he entered the cloister as a catechumen, receiving baptism about 370. About the same time a casual visit of Jerome to Aquileia led to the formation of a close and intimate friendship loetween the two students, and shortly after Jerome's departure for the East Rufinus also was drawn thither (in 372 or 373) by his interest in its theology and monasticism. Be first settled in Egypt, hearing the lectures of Didymus, the Origenistic teacher at Alexandria, and also cultivating friendly relations with Macarius and other ascetics in the desert. In Egypt, if not even before leaving Italy, he had become intimately acquainted with Melania, a wealthy and devout. Roman matron, who since the death of her husband liad devoted all her means to religious and charitable works; and when she removed to Palestine, taking with Her a number of clergy and monks on whom the persecutions of Valens had borne heavily, Rufinus ultimately (about 378) followed her. While his patroness lived in a convent of her own in Jerusalem, Toufinus, in close cooperation with her and at her expense, gathered together a number of monks in a monastery on the Mount of Olives, devoting himself at the same time with much ardour to the study of Greek theology. When Jerome came to reside at Bethlehem in 386 the friendship formed at Aquileia was renewed. Another of the intimates of Rufinus was John, Bishop of Jerusalem, and formerly a Nitrian monk, by whom he was ordained to the priesthood in 390. In 394, in consequence of the attack upon the doctrines of Origen made by Epiphanius of Salamis during a visit to Jerusalem, a fierce quarrel broke out, which found Rufinus and Jerome ranged on different sides; and, though three
*...In England of late years it has been known to breed only in one locality, the name or situation of which it is not desirable to publish.
years afterwards a formal reconciliation was brought about between Jerome and John through the intervention of third parties, the breach between Jerome and Rufinus remained unhealed. In the autumn of 397 Rufinus embarked for Rome, where, finding that.the theological controversies of the East were exciting much interest and curiosity, he published a Latin translation of the Apology of Pamphilus for Origen, and also (398-399) a somewhat free rendering of the rept 3px?v of that author himself. In the preface to the latter work he had referred to Jerome as an admirer of Origen, and as having already translated some of his works; this allusion proved very annoying to the subject of it, who was now exceedingly sensitive as to his reputation for orthodoxy, and the consequence was a bitter pamphlet war, very wonderful to the modern onlooker, who finds it. difficult to see anything discreditable in the accusation against a Biblical scholar that he had once thought well of Origen, or in the countercharge against a translator that he had avowedly exercised editorial functions as well. Some time during the pontificate of Anastasius (398-402) Rufinus was summoned from Aquileia to Rome to vindicate his orthodoxy, but he excused himself from personal attendance in a written Apologia profide sua the pope in his reply expressly condemned Origen, but leniently left the question of Rufinus's orthodoxy to his own conscience. In 408 we find Rufinus at the monastery of Pinetum (in the Campagna?); thence he was driven by the arriyal, of Alaric to Sicily, being accompanied by Melania in his flight. In Sicily he was engaged in translating the Homilies of Origen when he died in 410. The original works of Rufinus are—(1) De Adulteratione Librorum Origemis—an appendix to his translation of tho Apology of Pamphilus, and intended to show that many of the features in Origen's teaching which were then held to be objectionable ariso from interpolations and falsifications of the genuine text; (2) De Benedictionibus XII Patriarcharum Libri II,_an exposition of Gen. xlix.; (3) Apologia S. Invectivarum in Hicronymun Libr; II; (4) Apologia pro Fide Sua ad Anastasium Pontificem; (5) IIistoria Eremitica—consisting of the lives of thirty-three monks of the Nitrian desert; (6) Erpositio Symboli. The Historiae Ecclesiasticæ Libri XI of Rufinus consist partly of a free translation of Eusebius (10 books in 9) and partly of a continuation (bks. x. and xi.) down to the time of Theodosius the Great. Tho other translations of Rufinus are—(1) the Instituta Monachorum and some of the Huntlics of Basil; (2) the Apology of Pamphilus, referred to above ; (3) Origen's Principia; (4) Origen's Homilies (Gen.—Kings, also Cant. and Rom.); (5) Opuscula of Gregory of Nazianzus; (6) the Sententic of Sixtus, an unknown Greek philosopher; (7) the Sententio of Evagrius; (8) the Clementine Recognitions (the only form in which that work is now cxtant); (9) the Canon Paschalis of Anatolius Alexandrinus. Vallarsi's uncompleted edition of Rufinus (vol. i., fol., Verona, 1745) contains the De Benedictionibus, the Apologies, the Erpositio Symboli, the Historia Eremnitica, and the two original books of the Irist. Eccl. See also Migne, Patrol. (vol. xxi., of the Latin series). For the translations, see tho various editions of Origen, Eusebius, &c. RUGBY, a market-town of Warwickshire, is finely situated on a table-land rising from the southern bank of the Avon, at the junction of several railway lines, and near the Grand Junction Canal, 30 miles E.S.E. of Birmingham, and 20 S.S.W. of Leicester. It is a well
built town, with a large number of nodern houses erected
for private residences. It occupies a gravel site, is well drained, and has a good supply of water. It owes its importance to the grammar school, built and endowed by Laurence Sheriff, a merchant grocer and servant to Queen Elizabeth, and a native of the neighbouring village of Brownsover. The endowment consisted of the parsonage of Brownsover, Sheriff's mansion house in Rugby, and onethird (8 acres) of his estate in Middlesex, near the Foundling Hospital, London, which, being let on building leases, gradually increased to about £5000 a year. The full endowment was obtained in 1653. The school originally stood opposite the parish church, and was removed to its