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present site on the south side of the town between 1740 and 1750. In 1809 it was rebuilt from designs by Hakewill; the chapel, dedicated to St Lawrence, was added in 1820. At the tercentenary of the school in 1867 subscriptions were set on foot for founding scholarships, building additional schoolrooms, rebuilding or enlarging the chapel, and other objects. The chapel was rebuilt and reconsecrated in 1872. A swimming bath was erected in 1876; the Temple observatory, containing a fine equatorial refractor by Alvan Clark, was built in 1877, and the Temple reading room with the art museum in 1878. The workshops underneath the gymnasium were opened in 1880, and a new big school and class rooms were erected in 1885. There are three major and four minor exhibitions for students to any university in the United Kingdom. From about 70 in 1777 the numbers attending the school have increased to over 400. A great impulse was given to the progress of the school during the headmastership of Dr Arnold, 1827–1842. The best known of Arnold's successors are Tait, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, and Temple, the present bishop of London. The parish church of St Andrew's is, with the exception of the tower and the north arcade in the nave, entirely modern, having been built from designs by Mr Butterfield at a cost of £22,000, and reconsecrated in 1879. The daughter church of the Holy Trinity, a handsome building by Sir Gilbert Scott, in close proximity to St Andrew's, was erected in 1853. St Marie's Catholic Church is in the Early English style. A town-hall was erected in 1858, at a cost of £7000. There are a number of charities, including Laurence Sheriff's almshouses (founded 1567), Elborow's almshouses (1707), Miss Butlin's almshouses (1851), and the hospital of St Cross, opened in 1884, at a cost of £20,000. A public recreation ground was provided by the local government board in 1877. The town has an important cattle market. The population of the urban sanitary district (area 1617 acres) in 1871 was 8385, and in 1881 it was 98.91.
Rugby was originally a hanlet of the adjoining parish of Cliftonon-Dunsmore, and is separately treated of as such in Domesday Book. Ernaldus de Bosco (Ernald de Bois), lord of the manor of Clifton, seems to have erected the first chapel in Rugby, in the reign of Stephen, about 1140. It was afterwards granted by him, with certain lands, to endow the abbey of St Mary, Leicester, which grant was confirmed by his successors and by royal charter of Henry II. In the second year of King John (1200) a suit took }. between Henry de Rokeby, lord of the manor of Rugby, and
aul, abbot of St Mary, Leicester, which resulted in the former obtaining possession of the advowson of Rugby, on condition of homage and service to the abbot of Leicester. By virtue of this agreement the chapel was converted into a parish church, and the vicarage into a rectory. In 1350 Ralph, Lord Stafford, became possessed of the manor and advowson of Rugby, and considerably enlarged the parish church. Subsequent alterations, notably in 1814 and 1831, left little of this structure remaining except the tower and north arcade in the nave. The advowson of Rugby is now the property of the earl of Craven ; and the late rector was widely known and honoured as “the poet pastor,” John Moultrie.
RUGE, ARNOLD (1803–1880), German philosophical and political writer, was born at Bergen, in the island of Rügen, on the 13th September 1803. He studied at Halle, Jena, and Heidelberg, and became an enthusiastic adherent of the party which sought to create a free and united Germany. For his zeal in this cause he had to spend five years in the fortress of Kolberg, where he devoted himself to the study of classical writers, especially Plato and the Greek poets. On his releasø in 1830, he published Schill und die Seinen, a tragedy, and a translation of (Edipus in Colonus. Ruge settled in Halle, where in 1838, in association with his friend Echtermayer, he founded the Hallesche Jahrbücher für deutsche Kunst und Wissenschaft. In this periodical, which soon took a very high place, he discussed all the great questions which were then agitating the best minds in Europe, dealing
with them from the point of view of the Hegelian philosophy, interpreted in the most liberal sense. The Jahrbücher was detested by the orthodox party in Prussia; but, as it was published in Leipsic, the editors fancied that it was beyond the reach of the Prussian Government. In 1840, however, soon after the accession of King Frederick William IV., they were ordered, on account of the name of the periodical, to have it printed in Halle, subject to the censorship there. Thereupon Ruge went to Dresden, and the Jahrbücher (with which Echtermayer was no longer connected) continued to appear in Leipsic, but with the title Deutsche Jahrbücher, and without the names of the editors. It now became more liberal than ever, and in 1843 was suppressed by the Saxon Covernment. In Paris Iługe tried to act with Karl Marx as co-editor of the Deutsch-Francósische Jahrbücher, but the two friends soon parted, Ruge having little sympathy with Marx's socialist theories. Ruge next associated himself with a publishing firm in Zürich, and when it was put down he attempted to establish a firm of his own in Leipsic, but his scheme was thwarted by the Saxon Government. In the revolutionary movement of 1848 Ruge played a prominent part. He organized the Extreme Left in the Frankfort parliament, and for some time he lived in Berlin as the editor of the Reform, in which he advocated the opinions of the Left in the Prussian National Assembly. The career of the Reform being cut short by the Prussian Government, Ruge soon afterwards visited Paris, hoping to establish, through his friend Ledru-Rollin, some relations between German and French republicans; but in 1849 both Ledru-Rollin and Ruge had to take refuge in London. Here, in company with Mazzini and other advanced politicians, they formed a “European Democratic Committee.” From this committee Rugé soon withdrew, and in 1850 he went to Brighton, where he supported himself by working both as a teacher in schools and as a writer. He took a passionate interest in the events of 1866 and 1870, and as a publicist vigorously supported the cause of Prussia against Austria, and that of Germany against France. In his last years he received from the German Government a pension of 3000 marks. He died on the 31st December 1880. Ruge was a man of generous sympathies and an able writer, but he did not produce any work of enduring importance. In 1846–48 his Gesammelte Schrificm were published in ten volumes. After this time ho wrote, among other books, Unscr. System, Revolutionsnovellen, Die Loge des Humanismus, and Aus früherer Zeit (his memoirs). IJe also wrote many poems, and several dramas and romances, and translated into German various English works, including the Letters of Junius and Buckle's History of Civilization. RÚGEN, the largest island belonging to Gerimany, is situated in the Baltic Sea, immediately opposite the town of Stralsund, 13 miles off the , north-west coast of Pomerania in Prussia, from which it is separated by the narrow Strelsasund. Its shape is exceedingly irregular, and its coast-line is broken by very numerous bays and peninsulas, sometimes of considerable size. The general name is applied by the natives only to the roughly triangular main trunk of the island, while the larger peninsulas, the landward extremities of which taper to very narrow necks of land, are considered to be as distinct from Rügen as the various adjacent smaller islands which are also statistically included under the name. The chief peninsulas are those of Jasmund and Wittow on the north, and Mönchgut, at one time the property of the monastery, of Eldena, on the south-east; and the chief neighbouring islands are Unmanz and Hiddensoe, both of the northwest coast. The greatest length of Rügen from north to south is 32 miles; its greatest breadth is 25% miles; and its area is 377 square miles. The surface gradually rises towards the west to Rugard (335 feet), the “eye of Rügen,” near Bergen, but the highest point is the Herthaburg (505 feet) in Jasmund. Erratic blocks are scattered throughout the island, and the roads are made with granite. Though much of Rügen is flat and sandy, the fine beech-woods which cover great part of it and the northern coast scenery combine with the convenient seabathing offered by the various villages round the coast to attract large numbers of visitors annually. The most beautiful and attractive part of the island is the peninsula of Jasmund, which terminates to the north in the Stubenkammer (from two Slavonic words meaning “rock steps”), a sheer chalk cliff by the sea, the summit of which, known as the Königsstuhl, is 420 feet above sea-level. The east of Jasmund is clothed with an extensive beech-wood called the Stubbenitz, in which lies the Burg or Hertha Lake. Connected with Jasmund only by the narrow isthmus of Schabe to the west is the peninsula of Wittow, the most fertile part of the island. At its north-west extremity rises the height of Arcona, with a lighthouse. The official capital of the island is Bergen (3662 inhabitants), connected since 1883 with Stralsund by a railway and ferry. The other chief places are Garz (2014), Sagard (1447), Gingst (1285), and Putbus (1752). The last is the old capital of a barony of the princes of Putbus. Sassnitz, Göhren, and Putbus are among the favourite bathing resorts. Schoritz was the birthplace of the patriot and poet, Arndt (1769–1860). Ecclesiastically, Rügen is divided into 27 parishes, in which the pastoral succession is said to be almost hereditary. The inhabitants are distinguished from those of the mainland by peculiarities of dialect, costume, and habits; and even the various peninsulas differ from each other in these particulars. The peninsula of Mönchgut has best preserved its peculiarities; but there too primitive simplicity is yielding to the influence of the annual stream of summer visitors. The inhabitants rear some cattle, and Rügen has long been famous for its geese; but the only really considerable industry is fishing, the herring-fishery being especially important. Rügen, with the neighbouring islands, forms a governmental department, with a population (1880) of 46,115. The original Germanic inhabitants of Rügen were dispossessed by Slavs; and there are still various relics of the long reign of paganism that ensued. In the Stubbenitz and elsewhere Huns' or giants' graves (see p. 52, supra) are common; and near the Hertha Lake are the ruins of an ancient edifice which some have sought (though perhaps erroneously) to identify with the shrine of the neathen deity Hertha or Nerthus, referred to by Tacitus. On Arcona in Wittow are the remains of an ancient fortress, enclosing a temple of the four-headed god Svantevit, which was destroyed in 1168 by the Danish king Waldemar I., when he made himself master of the island. From that date until 1325 Rügen was ruled by a succession of native princes, at first under Danish supremacy; and, after being for a century and a half the possession of a branch of the ruling family in Pomerania, it was finally united with that province in 1478, and passed with it into the possession of Sweden in 1648. With the rest of Western Pomerania Rügen has belonged to Prussia since 1815. RUHNKEN, DAVID (1723–1798), one of the most illustrious scholars of the Netherlands, was of German origin, having been born in J’omerania in 1723. His parents had him educated for the church, but after a residence of two years at the university of Wittenberg, he determined to live the life of a scholar. His biographer (Wyttenbach) somewhat quaintly exhorts all studious youths who feel the inner call as Ruhnken did to show the same boldness in crossing the wishes of their parents. At Wittenberg, Ruhnken lived in close intimacy with the two most distinguished professors, Ritter and Berger, who fired his passion for things ancient, and guided his studies. To them he owed a thorough grounding in ancient history and Roman antiquities and literature; and from them he learned what distinguished him among the scholars of his
time, a pure and at the same time a vivid Latin style. At Wittenberg, too, Ruhnken derived valuable mental training from study in mathematics and Roman law. Probably nothing would have severed him from his surroundings there but a desire which daily grew upon him to explore the inmost recesses of Greek literature. Neither at Wittenberg nor at any other German university was Greek in that age seriously studied. It was taught in the main to students in divinity for the sake of the Greek Testament and the early fathers of the church,-taught as a necessary appendage to Hebrew and Syriac, and generally by the same professors. F. A. Wolf is the real creator of Greek scholarship in modern Germany, and Porson's gibe that “the Germans in Greek are sadly to seek” was barbed with truth. It is significant of the state of Hellenie studies in Germany in 1743 that their leading exponents were Gesner and Ernesti. Ruhnken was well advised by his friends at Wittenberg to seek the university of Leyden, where, stimulated by the influence of Bentley, the great scholar Tiberius Hemsterhuis had founded the only real school of Greek learning which had existed on the Continent since the days of Joseph Scaliger and Isaac Casaubon. Perhaps no two men of letters ever lived in closer friendship than Hemsterhuis and Ruhnken during the twenty-three years which passed from Ruhnken's arrival in the Netherlands in 1743 to the death of Hemsterhuis in 1766. A few years made it clear that Ruhnken and Valckenaer were the two pupils of the great master on whom his inheritance must devolve. As his reputation spread, many efforts were made to attract Ruhnken back to Germany, but the air of freedom which he drew in the Netherlands was more to him than all the flesh-pots his native land could offer. Indeed, after settling in Leyden, he only left the country once, when he spent a year in Paris, ransacking the public libraries (1755). For work achieved, this year of Ruhnken may compare even with the famous year which Ritschl spent in Italy. In 1757 Ruhnken was appointed lecturer in Greek, to assist Hemsterhuis, and in 1761 he succeeded Oudendorp, with the title of “ordinary professor of history and eloquence,” but practically as Latin professor. This promotion drew on him the enmity of some native Netherlanders, who deemed themselves (not without some show of reason) to possess stronger claims for a chair of Latin. The only defence made by Ruhnken was to publish works on Latin literature which eclipsed and silenced his rivals. In 1766 Walckenaer succeeded Hemsterhuis in the Greek chair. The intimacy between the two colleagues was only broken by Walckenaer's death in 1785, and stood without strain the test of common candidature for the office (an important one at Leyden) of university librarian, in which Ruhmken was successful. Ruhnken's later years were clouded by severe domestic misfortune, and by the political commotions which, after the outbreak of the war with England in 1780, troubled the Netherlands without ceasing, and threatened to extinguish the university of Leyden. The year of Ruhnken's death was 1798. Personally, he was as far as possible removed from being a recluse or a pedant. He had a well-knit and even handsome frame, attractive manners (though sometimes tinged with irony), and a nature simple and healthy, and open to impressions from all sides. Fond. of Society, he cared little to what rank his associates belonged, if they were genuine men in whom he might find something to learn. His biographer even says of him in his early days that he knew how to sacrifice to the Sirens without proving traitor to the Muses. Life in the open air had a great attraction for him ; he was fond of sport, and would sometimes devote to it two or three days in the week. In his bearing towards other scholars Ruhnken was generous and dignified, distributing literary aid with a free hand, and meeting onslaughts for the most part with a smile. It would be difficult to point out in the history of scholarship the name of another man who so thoroughly possessed the S(17)007” woré. In the records of learning Ruhnken occupies an important position. He forms a principal link in the chain which connects Bentley with the modern scholarship of the Continent. The spirit and the aims of Hemsterhuis, the great reviver of Continental learning, were committed to his trust, and were faithfully maintained. He greatly widened the circle of those who valued taste and precision in classical scholarship. He powerfully aided the emancipation of Greek studies from theology; nor must it be forgotten that he first in modern times dared to think of rescuing Plato from the hands of the professed philosophers—men presumptuous enough to interpret the ancient sage with little or no knowledge of the language in which he wrote. Ruhnken's principal works are editions of (1) Timaeus's Loricon of Platonic Words, (2) Thalelæus and other Greek commentators on Roman law, (3) Rutilius Lupus and other grammarians, (4) Welleius Paterculus, (5) the works of Murctus. He also occupied himself much with the history of Greek literature, particularly the oratorical literature, with the Homeric hymns, the scholia on Plat), and the Greek and Roman grammarians and rhetoricians. A dis. covery famous in its time was that in the text of the work of Apsines on rhetoric a large piece of a work by Longinus was embedded. Recent views of the writings attributed to Longinus have lessened the interest of this discovery without lessening its merit. The biography of Ruhmken was written by his great pupil Wyttenbach, soon after his death. (J. S. It.) RUHRORT, a busy trading town in Prussia, is situated at the junction of the Ruhr and Rhine, in the midst of a productive coal district, 15 miles north of Düsseldorf. Ruhrort has the largest river harbour in Germany, with very extensive quays; and most of the 1% million tons of coal which are annually exported from the neighbourhood are despatched in the fleet of steam-tugs and barges which belong to the port. About one half of the coal goes to Holland, and the rest to towns on the upper Rhine. Grain and timber are also exported. In 1881 11,282 craft, carrying 1,791,213 tons, left the harbour. The goods traffic between Ruhrort and Homberg on the opposite bank of the Rhine is carried on by large steam ferry boats, in which the railway waggons are placed with the help of towers, 128 feet high, on each side of the river. The industries of the town include active shipbuilding, iron and tin working, and the making of cordage and machinery. The inhabitants numbered 1443 in 1816, and 9130 in 1880. Ruhrort formerly belonged to Cleves: it received town rights in 1587. RULHIERE, or RULHIEREs, CLAUDE CARLoMAN DE (1735–1791), poet and historian, was born at Bondy in 1735, and died at Paris in 1791. He was for a time a soldier, and served under Richelieu in Germany. But at twenty-five he accompanied Breteuil to St Petersburg as secretary of legation. Here he actually saw the revolution which seated Catherine II. on the throne, and thus obtained the facts of his best-known and best work, the short sketch called Anecdotes sur la Joevolution de Russie en 1762. It was not published till after the empress's death. The later years of Rulhière's life were spent either in Paris, where he held an appointment in the foreign office and went much into society, or else in travelling over Germany and Poland. The distracted affairs of this latter country gave him the subject of his longest work, Histoire de l'Anarchie de Pologne (1807), which was never finished, and which the patriotism of its latest editor, M. Ostrowski, has rather unjustifiably rebaptized Révolutions de Pologne. Ruihière was made an Academician in 1787.
Besides the historical works mentioned, he wrote one on the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1788).
Rulhior, as an historian has much merit of style and arrangement, and the short sketch of the Russian revolution is justly ranked among the masterpieces of the kind in French. Öf the larger Poland Carlyle, as justly, complains that its allowance of fact is too small in prol ortion to its bulk. The author was also a fertile writor of cers de Société, short satires, epigrams, &c., which show much point and polish, and he had a considerable reputation among the witty and ill-natured group also containing Chamfort, Rivarol, Champcenetz, &c. On the other hand he has the credit of being long and disinterestedly assiduous in caring for J. J. Rousseau in his morose old age, until Rousseau as usual quarrelled with him.
Rushière's works were published by Anguis in 1sio (Paris, 6 vols. 8vo). The Russian Revolution may be found in the Chefs-d'oeuvre Historiques of the Collection Didot, and the Poland, with title altered as above, in the same Collection.
RUM is a spirituous liquor, prepared from molasses, skimmings of the boiling house, and other saccharine bye. products, and the refuse juice of the cane-sugar manufacture. Its distillation, which is a simple process, may be conducted in connexion with any canc-sugar establishment, but the rum which comes to the American and European markets is chiefly the produce of the West India Islands and Guiana. The ordinary method of working in the West Indies is the following. A wash is prepared consisting of sugar skimmings 4 parts, lees of still or dunder 5 parts, and molasses 1 part, the quantity prepared being equal to the capacity of the still in use. Dunder consists of the residue of the still from previous distillations, and it takes the place of a ferment, besides which the acetic acid it contains, derived from the fermenting wash of previous operations, has a favourable influence on the progress of attenuation. The wash prepared as above is placed in the fermenting vat, where, according to weather and other conditions, the fermentation proceeds more or less briskly; but usually a week or ten days is the period required for attenuation, during which time the scum formed is removed from the surface of the vat twice daily. When sufficiently attenuated, the wash is run into the still, which is generally of a simple construction, and distilled off, the first product being “low wines,” which on redistillation come over as “high wines” or strong rum. When a Pontefex still is used, which contains two intermediate “retorts” between the still and the worm, a strong spirit is obtained at the first distillation. The charge of wash yields from 10 to 12 per cent. of rum, of an average strength of 25° over proof. Pure distilled rum is an entirely colourless liquid, but as imported and sold it generally has a deep brown colour imparted by caramel or by storage in sherry casks. It has a peculiar aroma, derived principally from the presence of a minute proportion of butyric ether. Rum varies very considerably in quality, the finest being known as Jamaica rum, whether it is the product of that island or not. An inferior quality of rum is known among the French as tasia; and the lowest quality, into the wash for which debris of sugar cane enters, is called negro rum, and is mostly consumed by the coloured workers in the sugar houses and distilleries. The planters sometimes put rinds. and slices of pine-apple into the barrels in which rum is matured, to improve and add to its flavour, and occasionally anise and other flavouring ingredients are also used. The spirit prepared from molasses of beet-sugar factories cannot be classed with rum. The product has a highly disagreeable odour and taste, and it can only be rendered fit for consumption by repeated distillation and concentration to a high degree of strength, whereby the spirit is rendered “silent,” or has only a faint rum flavour. In this condition it is used for mixing with strongly flavoured rum, and for the preparation of a fictitious rum, the flavour of which is due to “rum essence,”—a mixture of artificial ether, birch bark oil, and other substances. Cancsugar molasses enters largely into the materials from which
ARRACK (q.v.), the spirit of Java and the Indian Archipelago, is prepared, but its flavour depends more on palmtree toddy, which also is a constituent of the wash. The imports of rum into the United Kingdom and the home consumption have been decreasing for a number of years." RUMFORD, Count. See THOMPson, SIR BENJAMIN.
RÚMs. Mohammed b. Mohammed b. Husain albalkhi, better known as Mauláná Jalāl-uddín Rûms, the greatest Sáfic poet of Persia, was born on the 30th of September 1207 (604 A.H. 6th of Rabi’ I.) at Balkh, in Khorāsān, where his family had resided from time immemorial, rich in property and public renown. He claimed descent from the caliph Abúbekr, and from the Khwārism sháh Sultán Alá-uddín b. Tukush (1199–1220), whose only daughter, Malika-i-Jahán, had been married to Jalāl-uddín’s grandfather. Her son, Mohammed, commonly called Baháuddín Walad, was a famous doctor of Balkh, who, to escape the jealousy with which the sultan viewed his influence, emigrated to Asia Minor in 1212. Young Jalāl-uddín was only five years old at that time, but the signs of his
future greatness in spiritual matters began already to mani
fest themselves in precocious knowledge and in ecstasies and visions. After residing for some time at Malatsyah and afterwards at Erzinján in Armenia, Bahá-uddín was called to Lárindah in Asia Minor, as principal of the local college, and there young Jalāl-uddín, who had meanwhile grown under the careful tuition of his father in wisdom and holiness, attained his maturity, and married in 1226 Jauhar Khātūn, the daughter of Lálá Sharaf-uddín of Samarkand. Finally, Bahá-uddín was invited to Iconium by ‘Alā-uddín Kaikubád (1219–1236), the sultán of Asia Minor, or, as it is commonly called in the East, Rùm, whence Jalāl-uddín’s surname (takhallus) Rūms.
After Bahá-uddín’s death in 1231, Jalāl-uddín went to Aleppo and Damascus for a short time to study, but, as the mere positive sciences in which he had been particularly trained failed to satisfy him, on his return to Iconium, where he became by and by professor of four separate colleges, he took for nine years as his spiritual guide Sayyid Burhān-uddin Husains of Tirmidh, one of his father's disciples, and later on the wandering Sūfī Shamsuddín of Tabriz, who arrived in Iconium on the 29th of November 1244, and soon acquired the most powerful influence over Jalāl-uddín, who even adopted his name as takhallus in his ghazals or mystic odes. Shamsuddín’s rather aggressive character, however, roused the indignation of the people of Iconium against him, and during a riot in which Jalāl-uddín’s eldest son, ‘Alā'uddīn, was killed, he was arrested and probably executed; at least he was no more seen. This fate of his teacher and friend, together with the untimely death of his son, threw Jalāl-uddin into deep melancholy, and in remembrance of these victims of popular wrath he founded the order of the Maulaws or (in Turkish pronunciation) Mewlews dervishes, famous for their piety as well as for their peculiar garb of mourning, their music and their mystic dance (samá), which is the outward representation of the circling movement of the spheres, and the inward symbol of the circling movement of the soul caused by the vibrations of
1 Rum Shrub is a kind of liqueur, or cold punch, the basis of which is rum, lemon juice, and sugar. It is prepared by adding to 34 gallons of proof rum 2 oz. of the essential oil of orange and an equal quantity of essential oil of lemon dissolved in one quart of spirit, and 300 lb of resined sugar dissolved in 20 gallons of water. This combination is thoroughly mixed together, after which there is added sufficient orango juice or solution of tartaric acid to produce a slight pleasant acidity. After agitating the mixture again for some time, 20 gallons of Wuter are added, bringing the quantity up to 100 gallons, and the agitation of the whole is continued for half an hour. In about a fortnight's time the shrub should be brilliant and ready for bottling. Other flavouring ingredients are occasionally added, and she compound may be varied according to taste.
a Süff's fervent love to God. The establishment of this order, which still possesses numerous "cloisters throughout the Turkish empire, and the leadership of which has been kept in Jalāl-uddín’s family in Iconium uninterruptedly for the last six hundred years, gave a new stimulus both to the zeal and energy and the poetical inspiration of the great shaikh. Most of his matchless odes, in which he soars on the wings of a genuine enthusiasm, high over earth and heaven up to the throne of Almighty God, were composed in honour of the Maulaws dervishes, and even his opus magnum, the Mathnawi or, as it is usually called, The Spiritual Mathnawà (mathnawi-i-ma‘nawi), a production of the highest poetical and religious intuition in six books or daftars, with 30,000 to 40,000 double-rhymed verses, can be traced to the same source. The idea of this immense collection of ethical and moral precepts, interwoven with numerous anecdotes and comments on verses of the Korán and sayings of the Prophet, which the Eastern world reveres as the greatest devotional work, the study of which secures eternal bliss, was first suggested to the poet by his favourite disciple Hasan, better known as Husám-uddín, who became in 1258 Jalāl-uddín’s chief assistant. He had frequently observed that the members of the Maulaws fraternity read with great delight the mystic mathnawss of Saná's and Farsd-uddín ‘Attàr, and induced his master to compose a similar poem on a larger scale. Jalāl-uddín readily fell in with this suggestion and dictated to him, with a short interruption, the whole work during the remaining years of his life. Soon after the completion of this masterpiece Jalāl-uddin died on the 17th of December 1273 (672 A.H. 5th of Jumádá II.), worshipped as a saint by high and low. His first successor in the rectorship of the Maulaws fraternity was Husám-uddín himself, after whose death in 1284 Jalāl-uddín’s younger and only surviving son, Shaikh Baháudd-sn Ahmed, commonly called Sultán Walad, and favourably known as author of the mystical mathnawi, Rabábnáma, or the Book of the Guitar (died 1312), was duly installed as grand-master of the order.
Jalāl-uddín’s life is fully described in Shams-uddín Abmed Afláki's Manakib-ul driftn (written between 718 and 754 A.H.), the most important portions of which have been translated by J. W. Redhouse in the preface to his English metrical version of The Mesnevi, Book the First (London, 1881; Trübner's Oriental series). Complete editions have been printed in Bombay, Lucknow, Tabriz, Constantinople, and in Bulak (with a Turkish translation, 1268 A.H.), at the end of which a seventh daftar is added, the genuineness of which is refuted by a remark of Jalāl-uddin himself in one of the Bodleian copics of the poem, Ouseley, 294 (f. 328a sq.). The revised edition by 'Abd-ullatif (made between i024 and 1032 A.H.) is still unpublished, but the same author's commentary on the Mathnawf, Latif'if-ulmonaut, and his glossary; Latt's-allighat, hâve been lithographed in Cawnpore (1876) and Lucknow (1877) respectively, the latter under the title Farhang*-anathnart. For the other numerous commentaries and for further biographical and literary jo of Jalāl-uddin sco Rieu's Cat. of the Persian MSS. of the Brit. Mus., vol. ii. p. 584 sq.; A. Sprenger's Oudh Cat., p. 489; Sir Gore Quseley, Notices of Persign Poets, p. 112 sq.; and 11. Ethé, in Morgenländische Studien, Leipsic, 1870, p. 95 sq. Select poems from Jalāl-uddin's diwán (often styled Diwān-i-Shams-i-Tabriz) have been translated in German verse by W. von Rosenzweig, Vienna, 1838. (H. E.)
RUMINANTS. See MAMMALLA, vol. xv. p. 431.
RüMKER, CARL LUDwig CHRISTIAN (1788–1862), German astronomer, was born in Mecklenburg on May 28, 1788. He served in the British navy for some years until 1817; in 1821 he went to New South Wales as astronomer at the observatory built at Parramatta by Sir Thomas Brisbane (see OBSERVATORY, vol. xvii. p. 716). He re: turned to Europe in 1831, and took charge of the school of navigation at Hamburg and the observatory attached to it. His principal work is a Catalogue of 12,000 fixed stars from meridian observations, made at Hamburg, published in 1843. In 1857 he retired and went to reside in Lisbon, where he died on December 21, 1862.
RUNCIMAN, ALEXANDER (1736–1785), historical painter, was born in Edinburgh in 1736. He studied at the Foulis's Academy, Glasgow, and at the age of thirty proceeded to Rome where he spent five years. It was at this time that he became acquainted with Fuseli, a kindred spirit, between whose productions and those of Runciman there is a marked similarity. The painter's earliest efforts had been in landscape; “other artists,” it was said of him, “talked meat and drink, but he talked landscape.” He soon, however, turned to historical and imaginative subjects, exhibiting his Nausicaa at Play with her Maidens in 1767 at the Free Society of British Artists, Edinburgh. On his return from Italy, after a brief residence in London, where in 1772 he exhibited in the Royal Academy, he settled in Edinburgh, and was appointed master of the Trustees' Academy. He was patronized by Sir James Clerk, whose hall at Penicuik House he decorated with a series of subjects from Ossian. He also executed various religious paintings and an altarpiece in the Cowgate Episcopal Church, Edinburgh, and easel pictures of Cymon and Iphigenia, Sigismunda Weeping over the Heart of Tancred, and Agrippina Landing with the Ashes of Germanicus. He died in Edinburgh on October 4, 1785. His works, while they show high intention and considerable imagination, are frequently defective in form and extravagant in gesture.
RUNCIMAN, JoHN (1744–1766), historical painter, a younger brother of the above, accompanied him to Rome, and died at Naples in 1766. He was an artist of great promise. . His Flight into Egypt, in the National Gallery of Scotland, is remarkable for the precision of its execution and the mellow richness of its colouring.
RUNCORN, a market-town and seaport of Cheshire, is pleasantly situated on the south side of the Mersey and near the terminus in that river of the Bridgewater, the Mersey and Irwell, and the Trent and Mersey Canals, 15 miles S.E. of Liverpool and 15 N.E. of Chester. The Mersey, which here contracts to 400 yards at high water, is crossed by a wrought-iron railway bridge 1500 feet in length. The modern prosperity of the town dates from the completion in 1773 of the Bridgewater Canal, which here descends into the Mersey by a succession of locks. The town was made an independent landing port in 1847, and within recent years large additions have been made to the docks and warehouses. . The town possesses shipbuilding yards, iron foundries, rope works, tanneries, and soap and alkali works. The population of the urban sanitary district (area 1490 acres) in 1871 was 12,443, and in 1881 it was 15,126.
... Owing to the Mersey being here fordable at low water, the place was in early times of considerable military importance. On a rock which formerly jutted some distance farther into the Mersey Ethelsleda erected a castle in 916, but of the building there are now no remains. She is also said to have founded a town, but robably it soon afterwards fell into decay, as it is not noticed in }. The ferry is noticed in a charter in the 12th century. RUNE. See ALPHABET, vol. i. pp. 607, 612, and SCANDINAVIAN LANGUAGES. RUNEBERG, Johan LUDwig (1804–1877), Swedish poet, was born at Jakobstad, in Finland, on the 5th of February 1804. Brought up by an uncle at Uleåborg, he entered the university of Åbo in the autumn term of 1822, and in 1826 began to contribute verses to the local news. papers. In the spring of 1827 he received the degree of doctor of philosophy, and shared in the calamity which, in September of the same year, destroyed the city and university of Åbo with fire. Runeberg accepted a tutorship at Saarijärvi, in the interior of Finland, where he remained for three years, studying hard and writing actively. The university had been removed after the great fire to Helsingfors, and in 1830 the young poet returned thither, as
amanuensis to the council of the university. In the same year he published his first volume of Dikter (Poems), and a collection of Servian folksongs translated into Swedish. In 1831 his verse romance Grafven i Perrho (The Grave in Perrho) received the small gold medal of the Swedish Academy, and the poet married the daughter of Dr Tengström, archbishop of Finland. For a tractate on the Medea of Euripides he was in the same year appointed university lecturer on Roman literature. In 1832 he leaped at one bound to the foremost place among Swedish poets with his beautiful little epic Elyskyttarne (The Elk-Hunters); and in 1833 he polished a second collection of lyrical poems. His comedy Friarem från Landet (The Country Lover) was not a success in 1834. He refurned to more characteristic fields in 1836, when he published the charming idyl in hexameters called Hanna. In 1837 Runeberg accepted the chair of Latin at Borgå College, and resided in that little town for the rest of his life. From Borgā he continued to pour forth volumes of verse, and he was now recognized in his remote Finland retirement as second only to Tegnér among the poets of Sweden. In 1841 he published Nadeschda, a romance of Russian life, and Julquállen (Christmas Eve), an idyl. The third volume of his lyrical pieces bears the date 1843, and the noble cycle of unrhymed verse romances called Kung Fjalar was published in 1844. Finally, in 1848, he achieved a great popular success by his splendid series of poems about the war of independence in 1808, a series which bears the name of Fänrik Ståls Sagner (Ensign Steel's Stories); a second series of these appeared in 1860. From 1847 to 1850 the poet was rector of Borgă College, a post which he laid down to take the only journey out of Finland which he ever accomplished, a visit to Sweden in 1851. His later writings may be briefly mentioned. In 1853 he collected his prose essays into a volume entitled Smârre Berättelser. In the same year he was made president of a committee for the preparation of a national Psalter, which issued, in 1857, a Psalm-Book largely contributed by Runeberg for public use. He once more attempted comedy in his Kan ej (Can't) in 1862, and tragedy, with infinitely more success, in his stately Kungarne på Salamis (The Kings at Salamis) in 1863. He collected his writings in six volumes in 1873–74. Runeberg died at Borgă on the 6th of May 1877. The poems of Runeberg show the influence of the Greeks and of Goethe upon his mind ; but he possesses a great originality. In an age of conventionality he was boldly realistic, yet never to the sacrifice of artistic beauty. Less known to the rest of Europe than Tegnér, he yet is now generally considered to excel him as a oet, and to mark the highest attainment hitherto reached by imaginative literature in Sweden. The life of Johan Ludvig IRuneberg has not yet been written in detail, although it is said to be in preparation. The fullest account of his life and works is that which forms the introduction to the Samlade Skrifter of 1873. It was written by Prof. Nyblom. A minute criticism of Runcberg's principal poems, with translations, occupies pp. 98–133 of Gosse's Studies in the Literature of Northern
Europe, 1879. A selection of his lyrical pieces was published in an English translation by Messrs Magnusson and Palmer in 1878.
RUNNING. In this mode of progression the step is lighter and gait more rapid than in walking, from which it differs in consisting of a succession of springs from too to toe, instead of a series of steps from toe to heel. As an athletic exercise, it has been in vogue from the earliest times, and the simple foot race, Špópos, run straight from starting point to goal, was a game of the Greek pentathlon. It was diversified with the 8tavXoôpópos, in which a distance mark was rounded and the starting and winning points were the same, and also by the épôpos TArsov, which might be compared to the modern heavy marching order race. In ancient Italy running was practised in circus exhibitions, as described by Virgil (Æn. v. 286 sq.). In modern times it has been developed almost into a science by the Anglo-Saxon race in Great Britain and North America, tiss the distances recently covered appear almost