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ficies). It is, however, but thinly peopled on the average, including only one-fourteenth of the inhabitants of the earth. It is almost entirely confined to the cold and tem
Leading physical features.
perate zones. In Nova Zembla (Novaya Zenlya) and the Taimyr peninsula, it projects within the Arctic Circle as far as 77° 2' and 77° 40' N. lat.; while its southern extremities reach 38° 50' in Armenia, about 35° on the Afghan frontier, and 42° 30' on the coasts of the Pacific. To the west it advances as far as 20° 40' E. long in Lapland, 18° 32' in Poland, and 29°42' on the Black Sea; and its eastern limit—East Cape in the Behring Strait—extends to 191° E. longitude. The Arctic Ocean—comprising the White, Parents, and Kara Seas—and the northern Pacific, that is, the Seas of Behring, Okhotsk, and Japan, bound it in the north and east. The Baltic, with its two deep indentations, the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, limits it on the north-west; and two sinuous lines of frontier separate it respectively from Sweden and Norway on the north-west and from Prussia, Austria, and Roumania on the west. The southern frontier is still unsettled, and has never remained unaltered for so many as twenty consecutive years. Quite recently it has been pushed southwards, on both the western and the eastern shores of the Black Sea, parts of Roumania and Asia Minor having been annexed in 1878. In Asia, beyond the Caspian, the southern boundary of the empire remains vague; the advance into the Turcoman Steppes and Afghan Turkestan and on the Pamir plateau is still in progress. Bokhara and Khiva, though represented as vassal khanates, are in reality mere dependencies of Russia. An approximately settled frontier-line begins only farther east, where the Russian and the Chinese empires meet on the borders of Eastern Turkestan, Mongolia, and Manchuria. But even there, the province of Kuldja has recently been occupied by Russia, and again restored to China; while in eastern Mongolia, the great overland route from IGiakhta to Peking, via Urga, is in fact in the hands of Russia, and it is difficult to predict how far Russian influence may extend should circumstances lead it to seek a footing on the thinly-peopled plateaus of Central Asia. Russia has no oceanic possessions, and has abandoned those she owned in last century; her islands are mere appendages of the mainland to which they belong. Such are the Aland archipelago, Hochland, Tütters, Dagö, and
—which spreads with decreasing height and width from the high tableland of Tibet and Pamir to the lower plateaus of Mongolia, and thence north-eastwards through the Vitim region to the furthest extremity of Asia. It may be said to consist of the immense plains and flat lands which extend between the plateau-belt and the Arctic Ocean, including also the series of parallel chains and hilly spurs which skirt the plateau-belt on the north-west. It extends over the plateau itself, and crosses it, beyond Lake Baikal only. This belt—the oldest geological continent of Asia— being unfit for agriculture and for the most part unsuited for permanent settlement, while the oceanic slopes of it have from the dawn of history been occupied by a dense population, has long prevented Slavonian colonization from reaching the Pacific. Tussians happened to cross it in the 17th century, only in its narrowest and most northerly part, thus reaching the Pacific on the foggy and frozen coasts of the Sea of Okhotsk; and two centuries elapsed ere, after colonizing the depressions of the plateau around, Lake Daikal, the Russians crossed the plateau in a more genial zone and descended to the Pacific by the Amur, rapidly spreading farther south, up the nearly uninhabited Ušuri, to what is now the Gulf of Peter the Great. In the south-western higher portions of the plateau-belt the empire has only recently planted its foot on the Pamir; as we write, it is endeavouring to get command of the lower passages which give an easy access to the Afghan portion of the plateau; while already, within the present century, it has established itself firmly on the plateaus of Armenia. A broad belt of hilly tracts—in every respect. alpine in The character, and displaying the same variety of climate and * organic life as alpine tracts usually do-skirts the plateau.” best throughout its length on the north and north-west; forming an intermediate region between the plateaus and the plains. The Caucasus, the Elburz, the Kopet-dagh, and Paropamisus, the intricate and impersectly known net, work of mountains west of the Pamir, the Thian-Sham and Alatau mountain regions, and farther north-east the Altai, the still unnamed complex of Minusinsk mountains, the infricate mountain-chains of Sayan, with those of the Olekma, Vitim, and Aldan, all of which are ranged on achelon the former from north-west to south-east, and the others from south-west to north-east—all of these belong to one immense alpine belt bordering that of the plateaus. These have long been known to Russian colonists, who, seeking to escape religious prosecutions and exactions by the state, early penetrated into and rapidly pushed their small settlements up the better valleys of these tracts, and continued to spread everywhere as long as they found no obstacles in the shape of a former population orin unfavour.
able climatic conditions. - As for the flatlands which extend from the Alpine hill. The
foots to the shores of the Arctic Ocean, and assume the flat-lands.
character either of dry deserts in the Aral–Caspian de; pression, or of low, table-lands in central Russia and eastern Siberia, of lake-regions in north-west Russia and Finland, or of marshy prairies in western Siberia, and of
tundras in the far north, their monotonous surfaces are diversified by only a few, and these for most part low, hilly tracts. Recently emerged from the Post-Pliocene sea, or cleared of their ice-sheet coverings, they preserve the very same features over immense stretches; and the few portions that rise above the general elevation have more the character, of broad and gentle swellings than of mountain-chains. Of this class are the swampy plateaus of the Kola peninsula, gently sloping southwards to the lake-regions of Finland and, north-west Russia; the Waldai table-lands, where all the great rivers of Russia take their rise; the broad and gently-sloping meridional belt of the Ural Mountains; and lastly, the Taimyr, Tunguska, and Verkhoyansk ridges in Siberia, which do not reach the snow-line, notwithstanding their sub-Arctic position. As to the picturesque Bureya mountains on the Amur, the forest-clothed Sikhota-alin on the Pacific, and the volcanic chains of Kamchatka, they belong to quite another orographical world; they are the border-ridges of the terraces by which the great plateau-belt descends to the depths of the Pacific Ocean. Rivers. It is owing to these leading orographical features— divined by Carl Ritter, but only within the present day revealed by geographical research—that so many of the great rivers of the old continent are comprised within the limits of the Russian empire. Taking rise on the plateaubelt, or in its Alpine outskirts, they slow first, like the upper Rhone and Rhine, along high longitudinal valleys formerly filled up with great lakes; next they find their way through the rocky walls; and finally they enter the lowlands, where they become navigable, and, describing great curves to avoid here and there the minor plateaus and hilly tracts, they bring into water-communication with one another places thousands of miles apart. The double river-systems of the Volga and Kama, the Obi and Irtish, the Angara and Yenisei, the Lena and Vitim on the Arctic slope, the Amur and Sungari on the Pacific slope, are instances. They were the true channels of Russian colonization. A broad depression,-the Aral–Caspian desert—has arisen where the plateau-belt has reached its greatest height and suddenly changes its direction from a northwestern into a north-eastern one; this desert is now filled only to a small extent by the salt waters of the Caspian, Aral, and Balkash inland seas; but it bears unmistakable traces of having been during Post-Pliocene times an immense inland basin. There the Volga, the Ural, the Sir Daria, and the Oxus discharge their waters without reaching the ocean, but continue to bring life to the rapidly drying Transcaspian Steppes, or connect by their river network, as the Volga does, the most remote parts of European Russia. The ex- The above-described features of the physical geography tosion of of the empire explain the relative uniformity of this wide joia. territory, in conjunction with the variety of physical - features on its outskirts. They explain also the rapidity of the expansion of Slavonic colonization over these thinly peopled regions; and they also throw light upon the internal cohesion of the empire, which cannot fail to strike the traveller as he crosses this immense territory, and finds everywhere the same dominating race, the same features of life. In fact, in their advance from the basins of the Volkhoff and Dnieper to the foot of the Altai and Sayan Mountains, that is, along nearly a quarter of the carth's circumference, the Russian colonizers could always find the same physical conditions, the same forests and prairies as they had left at home, the same facilities for agriculture, only modified somewhat by minor topographical features. New conditions of climate and soil, and consequently new cultures and civilizations, the Russians met with, in their expansion towards the south and cast, only beyond the
Caucasus, in the Aral–Caspian region, and in the basin ol the Usuri on the Pacific coast. Favoured by these conditions, the Russians not only conquered northern Asia— they colonized it. The total population of the Russian empire was stated at 102,000,000 by estimates made in 1878–82; but it is multiplying rapidly, and, as the surplus of births over deaths reaches nearly 1,250,000 every year, it must now be somewhat more than 106 millions. Within the empire a very great diversity of nationalitics is comprised, due to the amalgamation or absorption by the Slavonian race of a variety of Ural-Altaic stems, of Turco-Tartars, Turco-Mongolians, and various Caucasian stems. Statistics as to their relative strength are still very imperfect, and their ethnical relations have not as yet been completely determined; but, considered broadly, they may be classified as follows:— A. The Letto-Slavonians comprise (a) the Lithuanians and Letts on the lower Niemen and Düna, and (b) the Slavonians, that is, the Poles on the Vistula and Niemen and the Russians—Great, Little, and White—whose proper abodes are in European Russia, south of a line drawn from the Gulf of Finland to the middle Volga. Spreading from this region towards the north-east, east, and south-east, they have colonized north-east Russia, the Ural region, Caucasus, Siberia, and large parts of the Kirghiz Steppe, the leading feature of their colonization having always been penetration in compact masses among the original inhabitants. Thus, on northern Caucasus the Russians (chiefly Little Russians) already constitute a compact rural population of nearly 1,500,000, that is, about a quarter of the total population of Caucasia. In Western Siberia the Great Russians already number more than 2,300,000 agriculturists, constituting fourfifths of the entire population; in Eastern Siberia they number more than 1,000,000, that is, probably more than the original inhabitants; and the Kirghiz Steppe has also begun rapidly to be colonized within the last twenty years. It is only in the more densely peopled Turkestan, and in the recently annexed Transcaspian region, that Russian settlers continue to bear but a small proportion to the natives (who are more than 4,600,000 strong). The Slavonians altogether number more than 75,000,000, of which number 5,600,000 are Poles. Swedes (310,000), Germans (1,240,000), Roumanians, Serbs, &c., may number altogether about 2,500,000. B. A great variety of populations belonging to the Caucasian race, but not yet well classified, some of which are considered to be remainders of formerly larger nationalities pushed aside into the mountain tracts during their migrations, are met with on Caucasus. Such are the Georgians, Ossetes, Lesghians, who fall little short of 2,500,000, and the Armenians, about 1,000,000. C. The Iranian branch is represented by some 130,000 Persians and Kurds in Caucasia and Transcaucasia, and by Tajiks in Turkestan, mixed with Turco-Tartar Sarts. The nomad Tsigans, or Gipsies, numbering nearly 12,000, may be mentioned under this head, D. The Semitic branch consists of upwards of 3,000,000 Jews in Poland, in west and south-west Russia, and on Caucasus and in the towns of Central Asia, and of a few thousand Karaite Jews. E. The Ural-Altaic branch comprises two great subdivisions—the Finnish and the Turco-Tartarian stems, mixed to some extent with Mongolians. The former (see below) occupy, broadly speaking, a wide stretch of territory to the north of the Slavonians, from the 13altic to the Yenisei, and include the Baltic Finns, the Northern Finns, the Volga Finns, and the Ugrians. The Russians have already spread among the last two in compact masses
Subdivisions of the empire.
The Russian empire falls into two great subdivisions, the European and the Asiatic, the latter of which, representing an aggregate of nearly 6,500,000 square miles, with a population of only 16 million inhabitants, may be considered as held by colonies. The European dominions comprise European Russia, Finland, which is in fact a separate nationality treated to some extent as an allied state, and Poland, whose very name has been erased from official documents, but which nevertheless continues to pursue its own development. The Asiatic dominions comprise the following great subdivisions:—CAUCASIA (q.v.), under a separate governor-general; the Transcaspian region, which is under the governor-general of Caucasus; the Kirghiz Steppes; TURKESTAN (q.v.), under separate governors-general; Western Siberia and Eastern Siberia (see SIBERIA); and the Amur region, which last comprises also the Pacific coast region and Kamchatka (see KAMCIIATRA and MARITIME PROVINCE). The administrative sub
divisions, with their populations, as estimated for 1882 for
European Russia, Poland, and Caucasus, 1881 for Finland, and 1878–82 for the remainder (no regular census having been taken since 1858), are shown above in Table II. The empire contains only twelve cities with a population exceeding 100,000:-St Petersburg,929,090 (1881); Moscow, 753,469 (1884); Warsaw, 406,260 (1882); Odessa, 217,000 (1882); Riga, 169,330 (1881); Kharkoff, 159,660 (1883); Kazaii, 140,730 (1883); Rishines, 130,000; Fieff, 127,250 (1874); Eodz, 113,146, in Poland (1884); Saratoff, 112,428 (1882); Tiflis, 104,020 (1883); and Tashkend, 100,000. According to the most recent returns Vilna, Orel, Rostoff, Astrakham, Nikolaieff, Dünaburg, Tula, §amara, Taganrog, Kherson, Nijmi-Novgorod, Berditchess, Bobruisk, Zhitomir, Minsk, Vitebsk, Elisabetgrad, Reval, and Voronezh had from 94,000 to 50,000 inhabitants, while 61 towns more in European Russia, Finland, and Poland, and 20 in the Asiatic dominions, had from 50,000 to 20,000 inhabitants. The number of towns above 10,000 is considerable, but they are mostly mere administrative centres; many villages have greater importance. ... Only 9,263,000 (or 9 per cent.) of the aggregate population of Russia inhabit towns, the number of which is 601 in the 50 Russian governments. The great number of the Russian towns are mere villages; their inhabitants depend on agriculture, and the houses are mostly built of wood, only 127,000 out of about 787,000 houses in towns being built of stone. Of the 68,600,000 who in 1882 formed the rural population of European Russia the greater part were settled in 555,278 villages, almost entirely built of wood; nearly one-seventieth of the houses are destroyed by fire yearly (164,400 out of 10,649,000 in 1882). Russia is an absolute and strongly centralized monarchy. The primary unit of state organization is the village community, or mir. A number of such communities are united
into volosts, whose peasant inhabitants elect an elder (volostnoy starshina) and a peasants' tribunal (volostnoy sud) Placed, however, under the uncontrolled rule of a state official—the mirovoy posrednik—and of the police, the elder of the volost and his clerk have become mere organs of the local police and tax-gatherers, while the tribunal of the volost is at the mercy both of influential land-proprietors and of the wealthier peasants or merchants. The system of local self-government is continued in the elective district and provincial assemblies—the zemstro—on the one hand and on the other in the elective justices of the peace (mirovoy sudia), whose periodical gatherings (mirovoy syc:d) are courts of appeal against the decisions of the individual justices. But neither of these institutions—and least of all the zemstvo–is capable of acquiring the necessary independence. The zemstvos—one for each district, and another for the province—consist of a representative assembly (zemskoye sobraniye) and an executive (cmskaya uprava) nominated by the former. The sobraniye consists of three classes of delegates:—the landed proprietors (all nobles possessing more than 590 acres, and delegates from the remainder, along with delegates from the clergy in their capacity of landed proprietors); representatives of the merchants, artisans, and urban population; and representatives of the peasants, indirectly elected,—matters being usually so adjusted that this class is less numerous than the aggregate of the other two. In theory the zemstvos have large powers in relation to the incidence of taxation, as well as in matters affecting education, public health, roads, &c. ISut in reality they are for the most part compelled to limit themselves to the adjustment of the state taxation, which is so high that new taxes for education, sanitary purposes, and so on, must necessarily be very limited. Moreover, the decisions of the zemstvos are jealously controlled by the representative of the central Government, the governor, and promptly annulled whenever they manifest a different spirit from that prevailing for the time at the court. Disobedience is punished by dissolution, sometimes by administrative exile. These circumstances have helped to climinate from the zemstvos the better elements which at first entered into their composition. The greater number of them are inspired now with the same red-tapeism as the ministerial chancelleries, or are refuges for proprietors in search of a salary. Still, in several provinces a good deal of most useful work has been done, especially educational, by those zemstvos in which the peasants are in a majority or the proprietors are inspired with a more liberal spirit; while several other zemstvos have recently made extensive and most valuable inquiries into the condition of agriculture, industry, &c. Since 1870 the municipalities have had institutions like those of the zemstvos. All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans, and workmen, are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to ther assessed wealth. The total valuation is then divided into three equal parts, each of which elects an equal number of representatives to the duma. The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an uprava which consists of several members elected by the duma. Both are, in fact, functionarics under the governor, and the municipal institutions have no real independent life." The organs of the central government in the provinces are the uryadniks (a kind of gardes-champêtres) in the villages, the stanovoys and ispravniks (chiefs of the police) in the districts, and the governors (a kind of Napoleonic prefect) in each government—all invested, the wroadhiks
1 See" Golovatchoff, Ten Years of Reforms in Russia: The Finances of the Zemstvos (official publication); Dityatin, Municipal Self-Government in Russia, 2 vols.; and very numerous and valuable papers in the reviews lyestnik Movropy, 0/ctehestvennyya Zapiski, Russkaya Mys', &c.
included, with powers which are the more extensive as they are totally undefined. There is also in each government a special, gendarmerie under the “chief of gendarmes,” who usually is also the head of the “third section” of the Imperial Chancery. The name of the third section has been recently abolished, but the institution still continues. It has charge of the secret police of the state, and has most varied functions, such as the arrest of supposed political offenders, their exile to Siberia, the delivery of separation papers to spouses desiring divorce, and so on. Several governments are placed under special governors. general, whom the recent law on the “state of siege” invests with almost dictatorial powers. The higher administration is represented by the emperor, who unites the supreme legislative, executive, and judicial powers, and is surrounded by four distinct councils—the committee of ministers, the council of the empire, the senate, and the Holy Synod. The ministers, who are considered as executing the will of the czar, and are nominated by him, are invested with very extensive powers; their circulars for the interpretation of laws have greater weight than the laws themselves. The council of the empire, which consisted in 1884 of 64 members, nominated by thé emperor, besides the ministers and several members of the imperial family, is a consultative body for matters of legislation. The senate, also nominated by the emperor, has two distinct functions. Seven “departments” of it are administrative; they promulgate the laws, examino the acts of governors, adjudicate in their conflicts with zemstvos, and, in theory, can make remonstrances to the emperor, . in fact they merely register and promulgate laws. Two other “departments” are courts of cassation. A special department, reinforced by representatives of nobility, pronounces judgment in political cases. The Holy Synod, consisting of metropolitans and bishops who sit there in turn, has the superintendence of religious assairs.
The judicial system introduced in 1864 was conceived in a very liberal spirit, which, unfortunately, has not been maintained., Thus a “preliminary instruction,” made by the “third section” in political cases, for by the police, has been subse. }. introduced. The ‘judges of instruction,” irremovable by w; have not yet been nominated, their functions being discharged by substitutes entirely dependent upon the ministry. Elective justices of the peace decide in all cases involving less than 500 roubles, or less than six months' imprisonment. Their decisions can be brought by appeal, before the district gathering of the justices of the peace, and thence before the senate. All criminal cases io severer penalties are tried by juries, whose verdicts can be set asido only by a court of cassation, but are not respected in cases having a so-called “political” aspect. Political offences are tried by tribunals composed ad hoc. Civil cases in which more than 500 roubles are involved are tried by courts of justice, with appeal to chambers of justice. n 1879 in European Russia,-exclusive of six Lithuanian and White Russian governments, 42,530 persons were tried before the courts, and 59,600 before the justices of the peace, the convictions being respectively 27,397 and 36,742. The aggregate number of condemnations pronounced in 1882 was 46,018 in European Russia, that is, 59 condemned in each 10,000; only 4836 of them were women. . On January 1, 1882, 93,108 persons were in jail; 530,307 men and 66,073 women (the latter with 30,769 children) were imprisoned during the year, while 625,280 prisoners were liberated or exiled, and on January 1, 1883, the number of prisoners in jail (excluding those of Saghalin and Caucasus) was 97,337. More than 20,000 are annually transported to Siberia. The empire is divided for administrative purposes into governments (gullerniya) or territories (oblast), of which there are 50 in European Russia and 10 in Poland. Each government, or territory, is divided into eight to fifteen districts (uyezd). The Asiatic dominions are divided into one lieutenancy (namyestmitchestvo), that of Caucasia, and four general governments—Turkestan, Stepnoye (Kirghiz Steppes), East Siberia, and Amur. They comprise thirty-three governments and territories, besides a few districts (okrug, otdyel) in Transcaucasia and the Transcaspian region, regarded almost as separate governments. In Siberia, the overnors and governors-general are assisted by councils which £: a consultative voice. The Baltic provinces have some
peculiar institutions. Finland is a separate state, having its own
however, is yely great, as the nomination of the bishops joij, him. In 1882 there were in Russia 40,569 Orthodox churches and about 14,000 chapels, with 37,318 priests, 7009 deacons, and 45,395 singers. There were also 6752 monks and 3957 aspirants, #943 nuns and 13,803 female aspirants. The church budget was 18,974,857 roubles in 1884. The monasteries and churches ar. possessed of great wealth, including 2950 square miles of land (a tolitory greater than that of Oldenburg), an invested capital of 22,634,000 roubles, an annual subsidy of 408,000 roubles from Government, and a very great number of inns, shops, printing establishments, burial grounds, &c., with whole towns covering an aggregate area of 10% square miles. Their total annual revenue is estimated at 9,000,000 roubles. Much still remains to be done for the diffusion of the first elements of a sound education throughout the empire; unhappily the endeavours of private persons in this field and of the zemstvos are for political reasons discouraged by the Government. There *To seven universities—Dorpat, Kazan, Kharkoff, Kieff, Moscow, Qdessa, and St Petersburg—to which may be added thoso of Warsaw and Helsingfors. In 1883 the seven Russian universities had 605 professors and 10,528 students, and there were 81 professors and 1228 students at Warsaw. The standard of teaching on the whole is high, and may be compared to that of the German aniversities. The students are hardworking, and generally very intelligent. Mostly sons of poor parents, they live in extreme poverty, supporting themselves chiefly by translating and by tutorial work. Severe measures have been taken in 1885 in regard to the universities. Explicit regulations for the interpretation of science have been issued, and restrictions laid upon the teaching of philo$ophy and natural science generally; comparative legislation has been excluded from the programmes; teaching in Russian (instead of German) has been ordered at Dorpat. The students are placed under rigorous regulations in regard to their life outside the uniyersity. About 950 students in theological academies and 2500 in higher technical schools must be added to the above. The state of secondary education still leaves very much to be desired. There were in 1883 180 gymnasiums and progymnasiums for boys in European Russia, and 24 in the Asiatic dominions, and 27 and 10 respectively for girls; there were also 73 “real” schools in European Russia and 8 in the Asiatic dominions, and 48 normal schools in Russia and 10 in the Asiatic dominions. To these must be added the 14,800 pupils in 53 theological seminaries, and about 3000 in various secondary schools. The steady tendency of Russian society towards increasing the number of secondary schools, where instruction would be based on the study of the natural sciences, is checked by Government in favour of the classical gymnasiums. The aggregate number of schools for secondary instruction in European Russia in 1882 was 456 for boys and 384 for girls, with 107,930 malö and 79,625 female scholars. Of these, 355 schools (45,303 boys and 3199 girls) give professional education. - For primary instruction there were in 1882 in European Russia proper 28,329 schools, with 1,177,504 male and 352,471 female o Of the 6,231,160 roubles expended on primary schools only 747,772 roubles were contributed by Government, the remainder being supplied by the zemstvos (2,512,113 roubles), by municipalities, or by private persons. Sunday schools and public lectures are virtually prohibited. A characteristic feature of the intellectual movement in Russia is its tendency to cxtend to women the means of receiving higher instruction. The gymnasiums for girls are both numerous and good. In addition to these, notwithstanding Government opposition, a series of higher schools, where careful instruction in natural and social sciences is given, have been opened in the chief cities under the name of “Pedagogical Courses.” At St Petersburg a. women's medical academy, the examinations of which were even more searching than those of the ordinary academy (especially as regards diseases of women and children), was opened, but after about one hundred women had received the degree of M.D., it has been suppressed by Government. In several university towns there are also free teaching establishments for women, supported by subscription, with programmes and examinations equal to those of the universities. In 1882 the students numbered 914 at St. Petersburg, about 500 at Moscow, and 389 at Kazań.
The natural sciences are much cultivated in Russia, especially Scientifi. Besides the Academy of Science, the societie
during the last twenty years. - - Moscow, Society of Naturalists, the Mineralogical Society; the Geographical Society, with its Caucasian and Siberian branches, the archaeological societies and the scientific societies of the Baltic provinces, all of which are of old and recognized standing, there have lately sprung up a series of new societies in connexion with each university, and their serials are yearly gröwing in importance, as
- - of the church, all decisions in theo. The logical mātters having to be given by the Synod. . His influence, church: