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a year of 354 days, and to make up the deficiency they intercalate seven or eight months in nineteen years, and add besides an occasional day to the seventh month. The years are denoted by a cycle of twelve names (of animals) taken in decades, so that every ixtieth year the year of a given name returns to the same place in the decade. The system resembles the Indian cycle of sixty 3. but it is derived from China, where it dates from 2637 B.C. o eras are in use, the Putta Sakarat or Buddhist, used in religious matters, which commences 543 B.C., and the civil era or Chula Sakarat (i.e., little era), said to commemorate the establishment of Buddhism in 638 A.D. The ancient Aryan inscriptions usually employ the Saka (Salivahana) era, dating from 79 A.D. * History.—The name “Siam ” has been usually derived from a Makay word, sajam, “brown"; but this is mere conjecture. They and the Shans both call themselves Thai (Shan Tai), i.e., “free,”

and the Peguans call them Shan or Shian, which seems to be a

translation of “Thai" and an allied word, as are perhaps Ahom = Assam, and Sam (Assamese for Shan). The obsolete Siamese word is Siem and the Chinese Sien-lo, the Sien being, according to them, a tribe which came from the north about 1341 and united with the Lohoh, who had previously occupied the shores of the gulf, and were probably Shans. The Siamese call the Shans Thai-myai, “Great Thai,” perhaps as having preceded them, and themselves Thai-noi or “Little Thai.” They are probably therefore closely related, though this is disputed by De Rosny and others; but the inferior physique of the Siamese may be explained as due to intercourse with Malays and other southern races and to their more enorvating climate. Meanwhile for many centuries before the southward move above referred to the entire south as well as south-east of the Indo-Chinese }. was Cambodian. The town of Lapong is said to have been ounded in 575, and the half-mythical king, Phra Ruang, to have freed the Siamese from the Cambodian yoke and founded Sangkalok, on the upper waters of the Me-nam, in the following century. Buddhism is . to have been introduced in his time, but Indian Influences had penetrated the country both from the north and from the south long before this. Other Lao towns were built about the 7th century, and during the following centuries this branch of the race gradually advanced southwards, driving the Karens, Lawas, and other tribes into the hills, and encroaching on what had hitherto been Cambodian territory. Their southward progress may indeed almost be traced by their successive capitals, several of which are clustered on the Me-nam within a short distance of each other, viz., Phitsalok, Sukkothai, and Sangkalok on the eastern branch, Nakhon Savan at the junction, and Kamphong-pet, the immediate precursor of Ayuthia, on the western branch. A Sukkothai inscription of about 1284 states that the dominions of King Rama Kamheng extended across the country from the Me-kong to Pechaburi, and thence down the Gulf of Siam to Ligor; and the Malay annals say that the Siamese had penetrated to the extremity of the peninsula before the first Malay colony from Menangkabu founded Singapore, i.e., about 1160. The ancestors of the Siamese were then on the western branch of the Me-mam, and in 1351, under the famous Phaya Uthong (afterwards styled Phra Rama Thibodi, and probably of a Shan family) moved down from Kamphong-pet, where they had been for five generations, to Chaliang; and, being driven thence, it is said, by a pestilence, they established themselves at Ayuthia. This king's sway extended to Moulmain, Tavoy, Tenasserim, and the whole Malacca peninsula (where among the traders from the West Siam was known as Sornau, i.e., Shahr-i-nau or Newtown, probably in allusion to Ayuthia, Yule's Marco Polo, ii. 260), and was felt even in Java. This is corroborated by Javan records, which describe a “Cambodian” invasion about 1340; but Cambodia was itself invaded about this time by the Siamese, who took Angkor and held it for a time, carrying off 90,000 captives. The great southward expansion here recorded, whether of one or of two allied Thai tribes, confirms in a remarkable way the Chinese statement above mentioned, and was probably a consequence or a §. of the great contemporaneous activity of the more northern han kingdom of Mau. *. wars with Cambodia continued with varying success for some 400 years, but Cambodia gradually lost ound and was finally shorn of several provinces, her sovereign alling entirely under Siamese influence. This, however, latterly became displeasing to the French, now in Cochin China, and Siam has been obliged to recognize the protectorate forced on Cambodia by that }. Wigorous attacks were also made during this period on the Lao states to the north-west and north-east, followed by vast deportation of the people, and Siamese supremacy was pretty firmly established in Chieng-mai and its dependencies by the end of the 18th century, and over the great eastern capitals, Luang Prabang and Wien-chang, about 1828. During the Išth and 16th centuries Siam was frequently invaded by the Burmese and Peguans, who, attracted probably by the great wealth of Ayuthia, besieged it more than once without success, the defenders being aided by Portuguese mercenaries, till about 1555, when the city was taken and Siam reduced to dependence. From this condition, however, it was raised a few years later by the great conqueror and national hero Phra Naret, o after subduing #. and Cambodia invaded

Pegu, which was utterly overthrown in the next century successors. But after the civil wars of the 18th century the having previously taken Chieng-mai, which appealed to Siam for help, entered Tenasserim, and took Mergui and Tavoy in 1764 and then advancing simultaneously from the north and the captured and destroyed Ayuthia after a two years' siege (176 ) The intercourse between France and Siam began aboutiñ80 u Phra Narain, who, by the advice of his minister, the Cephalo adventurer Constantine Phaulcon, sent an embassy to Louis X When the return mission arrived, the eagerness of the ambassad for the king's conversion to Christianity, added to the intrigu Phaulcon with the Jesuits with the supposed intention of esta ing a French supremacy, led to the death of Phaulcon, the pe tion of the Christians, and the cessation of all intercoursew France. An interesting episode was the active intercourse, chie commercial, between the Siamese and Japanese Governments fro 1592 to 1632. Many Japanese settled in Siam, where they were much employed. They were dreaded as soldiers, and as individuals commanded a position resembling that of Europeans in most Eastern countries. The jealousy of their increasing influence at last led to a massacre, and to the expulsion or absorption of the survivors. Japan was soon after this, in 1636, closed to foreigners; but trade with Siam was carried on at all events down to 1745 through Dutch and Chinese and occasional English traders. In 1752 an embassy came from Ceylon, desiring to renew the ancient friendship and to discuss religious matters. During recent agitations of the Buddhist priests against Christianity in Ceylon they received much active sympathy from Siam. After the fall of Ayuthia a great general, Phaya Takh Sin, collected the remains of the army and restored the fortunes of the kingdom, establishing his capital at Bangkok; but, becoming insane, he was put to death, and was succeeded by another successful general, Phaya Chakkri, who founded the present dynasty. Under him Tenasserim was invaded and Tavoy held for the last time by the Siamese in 1792, though in 1825, taking advantage of the Burmese difficulty with England, they bombarded some of the towns on that coast. The supremacy of China is indicated by occasional missions sent, as on the founding of a new dynasty, to Peking, to bring back a seal and a calendar. But the Siamese now repudiate this supremacy, and have sent neither mission nor tribute for thirty years, and yet their trading vessels are admitted to the Chinese free ports, like those of any other friendly power. The late sovereign, Phra Paramendr Maha Mongkut, was a very accomplished man, an enlightened reformer, and devoted to science; his death indeed was caused by fatigo and exposure while observing an eclipse. Many of his predo; cessors, too, were men of different fibre from the ordinary Oriental sovereign. Chao Dua, the adversary of Phaulcon, went about seeking pugilistic encounters. He is reported to have been a quel tyrant and debauchee and a keen sportsman; but the offence given to his subjects in the latter character and the evil reports of the persecuted French missionaries may have unduly blackened his reputation. Of European nations the Portuguese first established intercourse with Siam. This was in 1511, after the conquest of Malacca, by D'Albuquerque, and the intimacy lasted over a century, the to: dition of their greatness having hardly yet died out. ey were supplanted gradually in the i7th century by the Dutch, whose intercourse also lasted for a similar period; but they have left no traces of their presence as the Portuguese always did in these countries to a greater extent than any other people. English trades were in Siam very early in the 17th century; there was a friendly interchange of letters between James I. and the king of Siam, who had some Englishmen in his service, and, when the ships visited “Sia.” &; was “as great a city as London”) or the queen 9 Patani, they were hospitably received and accorded privilegoš, the important items of export being, as now, tin, varnish, do: skins, and “precious drugs.” Later on, the East India Compo servants, jealous at the employment of Englishmen not in to service, attacked the Siamese, which led to a massacre of the English at Mergui in 1687; and the factory at Ayuthia was abandoned in 1688. A similar attack is said to have been made in 1719 by the governor of Madras. After this the trade was neglected. *::: a dependency of Quedah, was o: in 1786, and in the 19t century the stagnation of trade led to the missions of Crawford (1822), Burney (1826), and Sir J. Brooke (1850); but they wo not very cordially received, and effected little. Sir J. Bowring; treaty in 1856, however, put matters on a different footing.” Europeans can now reside in Siam, buy or rent houses, an lease land. The export and import duties are also fixed, and thero vice-consular court at Chieng-mai, with appeal to the consular court at Bangkok, held from time to time by a judge from Singapo with which place there are extradition arrangements. Oflato. the north-eastern provinces have been harassed by invasions of . Lu and Ho, peoples of Chinese extraction, their incursions exten" ing down the Me-kong as far as Nong-kai. Besides works referred to at the end of article SHANs, the chief o are La Loubére, Description du Royaume de Siam, 1714 (the best of the



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The Siamese language is spoken over the whole of Siam proper. In the Malay peninsula the boundary-line comes down on the west coast nearly as far as Quedah and Perlis, and includes also Junk Ceylon, while on the east coast the population is mainly Siamese as far as Ligor inclusive, and also in Singora Siamese appears to be the rivling language. Its boundary towards Burmah, the Shan and Laos states, and Anam and Cambodia cannot be defined so precisely. There are also in the north-east a number of wild tribes who speak languages of their own. The name by which the Siamese themselves call their language is phāsā thai, or “language of the freemen”; and it probably dates from the period when the Siamese made themselves independent of Cambodian rule in the 12th century. The Shan tribes, whose language (with those of the Ahom, Khamti, and Laos) is closely akin to Siamese, also use the term tai (only with the unaspirated t) for their race and language. Both in Shan and Siamese the system of tones, which is one of the main features of all the languages of Indo-China, has attained its greatest development. But, while in Shan the tones are not marked in the written language, in Siamese there are distinct signs to denote at least four of the five simple tones (the even tone not being marked); and there is further a classification of the consonants into three groups, in each of which certain tones predominate. It is always the initial consonant of a word that indicates, either by its phonetic power or by the tonic accent superadded or by a combination of the two, the tone in which the word is to be uttered, so that, e.g., a word beginning with a letter of the second class in which the even tone is inherent, and which has the mark of the ascending tone over it, is to be pronounced with the descending tone.” The difficulties caused to a European student of the o language by the tones are increased by the eatly expanded vowel-system. In addition to the short and ong, there are shortest vowels, sets of open and closed vowels, &c., and a large number of vowel combinations. Owing to the introduction fthe Indian consonantal system and the incorporation in it of many letters to express certain sounds peculiar to Siamese, the number of consonants has been swelled to forty-three ; but, while many of these are only used in words adopted from the Sanskrit and Pali, Siamese utterance knows no more than twenty; kh, g, gh are all o as kh ; similarly ph, b, bh as ph, &c., the language having a predilection for hard letters, especially aspirates. The o compound letters at the beginning of words are combinations of hard letters with l, r, w, y, while the finals are confined in pronunciation to k, t, p, it (ng), n, m. This causes a considerable o between the spelling of words (especially loan words) and their pronunciation. Thus sampdry is pronounced sombun, bháshá–phásá, nagara—makhon, saddharma— Satham, kuśala—kuson, Šesha—set, vära—van, Magadha—Makhot. The foreign ingredients in Siamese are principally Sanskrit, mostly in a corrupted form. The importation of Pali words dates from about the 12th century, when, the country having shaken off the yoke of Cambodia, a religious intercourse was established between Siam and Ceylon. Besides these, there are some Khmér (Cambodian) and Malay words.” Exclusive of those foreign importations, Siamese is a monosyllabic language in which neither the form nor the accent or tone of a word determines the part of speech to which it belongs. Homonymous words abound and are only distinguished from one another by the tones. Compare lan, “white”; lan, “to relate”; lan, “to flatter”; lan, “to smooth”; 1án, “relation.” Words are unchangeable and incapable of inflexion. The Siamese are fond of joining two words the second of which is either purely synonymous to or modifies the sense of the first, or is only a jingling addition. There is no article, and no distinction of gender, number, or case. These, if it is at all necessary to denote them, are expressed by explanatory words after the respective nouns; only the dative and ablative are denoted by subsidiary words, which recede the nouns, the nominative being marked by its position {. the objective by its position after, the verb, and the genitive (and also the adjective) by its place after the noun it qualifies. Occasionally, however, auxiliary nouns serve that purpose. Words like “mother,” “son,” “water” are often employed in forming compounds to express ideas for which the Siamese have no single so e.g., lák cdh, “the son of hire,” a labourer; mil, “the mother of the hand,” the thumb. The use of class words with numerals obtains in Siamese as it does in Chinese, Burmese, Anamese, 1 See A. Bastian, “Ueber die siamesischen Laut- und Ton-Accente," in Monatsber, d. k. Akad. d. Wissensch. zu Berlin, June 1867.

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Malay, and many other Eastern languages. As in these, so in Siamese the personal pronouns are mostly represented by nouns expressive of the various shades of superior or lower rank according to Eastern etiquette. The verb is, like the noun, perfectly colour. less, person, number, tense, and mood being indicated by auxilia words only when they cannot be inferred from the context. Suc so words are yū, “to be,” “to dwell” (present); dai, “to haye,” leh, “end” (past); cé, “also '' (future); the first and third follow, the second and fourth precede, the verb. Hài, “to give” (prefixed), often indicates the subjunctive. As there are compound nouns, so there are compound verbs; thus, e.g., pai, “to go,” is joined to a transitive verb to convert it into an intransitive or neuter; and thak, “to touch,” and tòng, “to be obliged,” serve to form a sort of passive voice.* The number of adverbs, single and compound, is very large. The prepositions mostly consist of nouns. The order of the words in a single sentence is su ; verb, object. All attributes (adjectives, genitive, adverbs) follow the word to which they are subordinated. The following simple sentence may serve as an example of Siamese construction, and diction; m (time) din (read) nańsil (book) nt (this) léo (end, done) con (should) fāk-vgi (entrust) ki (to) philenbān (neighbours) hai (give, cause)khan (they) din (read), i.e., “when you have read this book, please give it to your neighbours that they may read it.”

The current Siamese characters are derived from the more monumental Cambodian alphabet, which again owes its origin to the alphabet of the inscriptions, an offshoot of the character found on the stone monuments of southern India in the 6th and 8th centuries. The sacred books of Siam are still written in the Cambodian character, and some have occasionally an interlinear translation in the current Siamese hand.

The study of the Siamese language was initiated in Europe by La Louběre § from whom Dr J. Leyden (“The Languages and Literature of the Indo

hinese Nations,” in Asiatic Researches, vol. x. pp. 158-289, reprinted in Miscellaneous Papers on Indo-China, vol. i., 1886, pp. 84-171) has derived much of his information. Leyden's Comparative Vocabulary of the Barma, Malayu, and Thai Languages appeared in 1810. The first grammar of the language wé owe to James Low, Calcutta, 1828. Very useful Grammatical Notices of the Siamese Language, by the Rev. J. Taylor Jones, appeared at Bangkok in 1842. The Grammatica Łionin, Thai of J. B. Pallegoix, Bangkok, 1850, was followed in 1854 by his great Dictionarium in Siamese, Latin, French, and English. An analytical account of the language was attempted by Ad. Bastian in his Sprachvergleichende Studien, 1870, pp. 191-226. In 1881 L. Ewald brought out at Leipsic his Grammatik der Tai- oder Siamesischen Sprache. Lastly, Prof. Fr. Muller gave a summary of Siamese grammar in his Grundriss der Sprachwissenschaft, vol. ii. part 2, Vienna, 1882, pp. 367-376. A new grammar, by the Rev. S. George, is in progress. Compare also W. Schott, Ucher die indo. chinesischen Sprachen, insonderheit das Siamesische, 1856; and E. Kuhn, Ueber Herkunft und Sprache der transgangetischem Völker, 1883. An English grammar written in Siamese, and designed for use in schools, appeared at Bangkok in 1837.

There are no records in Siamese referring to the time antecedent Litera. to the settlement of the nation in their present locality, or, in the ture

words of Mr Ney Elias, “of earlier date than the founding of their first national capital, Ayuthia, at the commencement of the 14th century.” The inscription at Sukkothai, said to be of the year 671 of the Siamese era, nine years after the invention of the present Siamese characters," cannot be put in evidence as an historical record till a facsimile and revised translation shall have been obtained. The few manuscript annals mentioned by Bishop Pallegoix have not yet been critically examined; but metrical compositions, containing legendary tales and romances, abound and are eagerly studied. The subjects are mostly taken from the Indian epics, as in the case of the Ráma-ktun or Rāmāyana, more rarely from Malay or Javanese legend, such as the drama I.hnao. There is a great variety of metres, all of which have been described with much minuteness of detail by Colonel Low in his article on Siamese literature, in Asiatic Researches, vol. xx. pp. 351-373." In their romantic poetry the Siamese have a greater tendency to describe than to relate; their pictures of places and scenery are grand and striking and form the best part of their poetical conceptions. The great blemish of their poetry consists in tedious embellishments and a hankering after indecent and often gross allusions, from which but few works, such as Sang Sin Chai and Samut Niyai Si Muang, may be said to be free. The titles of the principal romances are Hoi Sang, Nang Prathom, Sang Sin Chai, Thepha Lin Thong, Suwanna Hong, Thao Sawatthi Racha, Phra Unarut, Dura Suriwong, Khun Phan, Nong Sip Sang, and the dramas I-hnao and Phra Simuang. The plots of some of these have been given by Colonel Low. The most popular of the religious books, all of which are translations or amplifications from Pali originals, is called Somanakhodom (Qramana Gautama), which is identical with the JVessantara Játaka. In miscellaneous li rature may be mentioned Suphasit, consisting of 222 elegant sayings in the accented metre called Klong, and Wuta Chindamani (Writta Chintâmani), a work on prosody like the Pali Vuttodaya, but treating also of a number of grammatical questions. The fable literature is of course largely represented; the lists, however, are

3 See “The Passive Verb of the Thai Language," by F. L. W. von Bergen, Erung Theph Maha Nakhon, 1874. 4 Sketch of the History of the Shans, Calcutta, 1876, p. 34. 5 Bastian, in Jour. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. xxxiv. p. 27, and Sprachvergleichendo Studien, É 227. 6 See also Pallegoix, Gramm. Lingua. Thai, pp. 120-129.

frequently swelled by the enumeration of single fables which are but parts of larger collections. The number of works on law is considerable; and it is remarkable that, while in Burmah many Pali codes have currency, not a single Pali text-book on law should have been discovered in Siam ; all that we meet with in the law books are a few Pali quotations here and there. Laksana Phra Thammasat Laksana Phua Mia, an introduction to the code of Siamese laws, founded on the Dharmaçästra and on royal edicts, was completed in 1804. It contains thirty books, at the head of which stands the Phra Thammasat, attributed to Manosára or Manu, a treatise on the classification of laws. Next comes the Inthaphat, or book of Indra, a guide or exhortation to councillors and judges, and then the Phra Thamnun, or rules for the general conduct of judicial business. Then follow in order the undermentioned sections—disputes, plaints and allegations, official rank, classification of people, debt, marriage, criminal law, abduction, slavery, disputes connected with land, evidence, inheritance, examining officers appeal, disputes as to classification of people, radius of responsibility for burglaries, &c., the thirty-six laws, the royal edicts, trial by ordeal of water and fire, laws of the palace, laws of the priesthood, offences against the king, offences against the people, rebellion, ancient statutes, recent statutes. Only one of these sections, the one on slavery, has been translated into English, by Dr Bradley; it appeared in the Bangkok Calendar. The whole work has been printed at Bangkok in two volumes. The Kalhu Phra Aiyakan, another compendium of laws, contains edicts principally referring to assaults, adultery, and the appraisement of fines. Among these we find the following: “A man who strikes another with a blank book shall be fined as though he had struck him with his hand; but if the assault is committed with a book of the classics the offender shall be fined twice as much as he would have had to pay for assaulting with a stick.” The Laksana

Tat Fong, or law of plaints and allegations, and of the institution and summary dismissal of suits, appears to be identical with to fifth section of the printed code. There is also a separate work called Phra. Thamnun, which, though identical in name with the section of the Laksana Phra Thammasat above described, covers much, more ground. A compendium of law entitled Ruang Ko. Moi Miiang Thai, or Code of Laws of the Kingdom of Siam, in two volumes, was printed at Bangkok in 1879. Colonel Low, who did not touch on jurisprudence in his essay on Siamese literature, made good the omission in a separate article “On the Laws of Šium,” in the first volume of Logan's Journal of the Indian Archipelago (Singapore, 1847). Pallegoix, in his “Catalogus, præcipuorum, librorum lingue Thai.” (Grammatica, pp. 172-180), gives the titles of a good many treatises on scientific subjects, medicine, mathematics, astrology; but nonc appear to have been critically examined. In the first volume of his Description du royaume Thai (1854) are inserted various pieces translated from Siamese works. See also on the Siamese language and literature generally the “Remarks" by the Rev. C. Gützlaff, in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Socials, vol. iii. (1835), pp. 29.1-304; and on the literature Leyden’s “Essay” above referred to (Miscellancous Papers, vol. i. pp. 143-147). It is only in quite recent times that an Ananese influence has begun to he traceable in the language and literature of the Siamese. In 1810 Dr Leyden undertook, at the imstance of the Calcutta Auxiliary Bible Society, to superintend a translation of the four Gospels into Siamese; but he ğ. before the project was carried into effect. Subsequently Messrs Gützlaff and Tomlin, assisted by learned natives, laboured till 1833 at a trustworthy translation of the new Testament into Siamese. Their task was continued and completed by Messrs Jones and Robinson, and the work was published in 1846. (R. R.)


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copyRIGHT, 1891, BY R. S. PEALE & Co. coPYRIGHT, 1893,


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