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AMERICAN REVISIONS AND ADDITIONS, WOL. XXI.
ROTA, a town in Spain, in the province of Cadiz, six miles northwest of Cadiz, on the opposite side of the entrance of Cadiz Bay. Rota wine has acquired some celebrity, and is shipped to the British market. Pop., 8,000.
ROTHSCHILD, the name of several of the members of the great financial house which owes its prominence to the remarkable genius of Mayer Anselm Bauer, who established himself as a moneylender in Frankfort (1743–1812) and whose descendants have played an important part in the financial affairs of Europe. ALFRED DE ROTHscHILD is a director of the Bank of England and consul-general for the Austro-Hungarian empire. BARON FERDINAND JAMES DE ROTHSCHILD was returned to the British Parliament for Aylesbury twice in 1885 and again in 1886. LoRD NATHANIEL MAYER DE RotissCHILD was returned as Liberal member for Aylesbury in 1865 and retained his seat until 1885, when he was created a peer. The Rothschilds are all enthusiastic collectors of works of art.
ROTTERDAM, the busiest port of Holland, stands on both sides of the Maas, 19 miles from its mouth, and 16 miles by rail southeast of the Hague and 45 southwest of Amsterdam. The trade of modern Rotterdam has grown at an extraordinarily rapid rate. In 1888 the quays measured 15 miles in length and the docks covered an area of 190 acres; and since then two new docks have been made and the (separate) petroleum wharves have been extended. Since 1872 sea-going vessels have ceased to approach Rotterdam by the old channel of Brill (Brielle); they have used instead the New Waterway—i.e., the Maas and the Scheur. Every effort has been made to render this new waterway available for large ocean-going steamers, and in 1890 it had a depth never less than 22 feet at low tide, and big ships were able to reach the sea in two hours from Rotterdam. Taking all the vessels that enter all the ports of Holland from abroad, more than 53 per cent. (estimating by tonnage) enter at Rotterdam. The net tonnage of the vessels (which numbered 4,535 in 1890) so entering doubled between 1875 and 1890, and was in the latter quoted year eight times what it was in 1850—viz., 2,918,425 tons in 1890, as against 1,411,828 in 1875 and 346,186 in 1850. To this foreign trade must be added 84 per cent. of the total trade between Germany and Holland by way of the river Rhine, or (in 1890) some 2,582,800 tons, and a traffic of 6,850,000 tons carried on on the inland canals and streams. The total tonnage of vessels entering Rotterdam amounts to nearly 12,500,000 tons, a figure that is only exceeded by London among European ports. The figures quoted do not include the returns of the fishing fleet, which sold in Rotterdam in 1890 fish (chiefly herring, cod, etc.) to the value of £19,000. The merchant fleet of Rotterdam itself numbered, in 1890, eighty-six vessels of 117,208 tons. The imports consist principally of mineral ores and metals, grain (wheat, rye, oats, maize), coal, oil (petroleum chiefly), seeds, tallow and similar greasy substances, sugar, rice, tobacco, hides, indigo, etc.; whilst the more important exports are linen, flax, butter, cheese, cattle, and
spirits (gin, etc.). From this port there sail every year between 5,200 (1885) and 15,200 (1889) emigrants from various parts of Europe, most of whom o to the United States. There are flourishing inustries, as iron and other metal works, shipbuilding, distilling, sugar-refining, and the manufacture of tobacco, chemicals, etc. ROUMANIA. For general article on Roum ANIA, see Britannica, Vol. XXI, pp. 14–21. The area and population have been hitherto known only by estimates. The total actual area is 48,307 square miles, and the estimated population (1887) is 5,500,000. The people themselves, though of mixed origin, may now be regarded as homogeneous. Roumanians are spread extensively in the neighboring countries—Transylvania, Hungary, Servia, Bulgaria; their total number probably reaches nine millions. Included in the population of Roumania proper are 4,500,000. Roumanians, 300,000 Jews, 200,000 Gipsies, 100,000 Bulgarians, 50,000 Germans, 50,000 Magyars, 15,000 Armenians, 2,000 French, 1,000 English, besides 3,000 Italians, Turks, Poles, Tartars, etc. The constitution in force in 1891 was voted by a constituent assembly, elected by universal suffrage in the summer of 1866. It has twice been modified —the last time in 1884. The senate now consists of 120 members, elected for 8 years, including 2 for the universities, and 8 bishops. The chamber of deputies consists of 183 members, elected for 4 years. A Senator must be 40 years of age, and a deputy 25. Members of either house must be Roumanians by birth or naturalization, in full enjoyment of civil and political rights, domiciled in the country. For the senate an assured income of about £400 is required. All citizens of full age paying taxes are electors, and are divided into three electoral colleges. . For the chamber of deputies, electors who are in possession of property bringing in £50 or upwards per annum vote in the first college. Those paying direct taxes to the state of 20 fr. or upwards annually vote in the second college, as well as persons exercising the liberal professions, retired officers, state pensioners and those who have been through the primary course of education. The third §. is composed of the remaining electors, of whom those not knowing how to read or write vote indirectly. For the senate there are only two colleges. The first consists of those electors having property yielding annually at least £80; the second, of those persons otherwise eligible, but whose income from property is from £32 to £80 per annum. REIGNING KING AND Roy AL FAMILY.—Carl I., now King of Roumania, was born April 20, 1839. He is son of the late Prince Karl, of HohenzollernSigmaringen. He was elected “Domnul,” or Lord of Roumania, April 20, 1866, and accepted his election May 22, 1866. He was proclaimed King of Roumania, March 26, 1881. He was married Nov. 15, 1869, to princess Elizabeth von Neuwied, born Dec. 29, 1843. The succession to the throne of Roumania, in the event of the king remaining childless, was settled, by article 83 of the constitution, upon his elder
brother, Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, who renounced his rights in favor of his son, Prince Wilhelm, the act having been registered by the senate in October, 1880. Prince Wilhelm, on November 22, 1888, renounced his rights to the throne in favor of his brother, Prince Ferdinand, born August 24, 1865, who, by a decree of the king, dated March 18, 1889, was created “Prince of Roumania.” The union of the two principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia was publicly proclaimed at Bucharest and Jassy on Dec. 23, 1861, the present name being given to the united provinces. The first ruler of Roumania was Colonel Couza, who had been elected “Hospodar,” or Lord, of Wallachia and Moldavia in 1859, and who assumed the government under the title of Prince Alexander John I. A revolution which broke out in Feb. 1866, forced Prince Alexander John to abdicate, and led to the election of Prince Carol I. The representatives of the people, assembled at Bucharest, proclaimed Roumania's independence from Turkey, May 21, 1877, which was confirmed by Art. 43 of the Congress of Berlin, signed July 13, 1878. The king has an allowai,ce of 1,185,185 lei, or $237,000. EDUCAT:ON AND RELIGION.—Education is free, and compulsory where there are schools. The latest published summaries are those of 1883,at which date there were 2,743 primary schools, with 124,130 puils. There were eight normal schools, and fifty-four § o and two universities—the latter at Bucharest and Jassey. Of the total population of Roumania proper 4,529,000 belong to the Orthodox Greek Church, 114,200 are Roman Catholics, 13,800 Protestants, 8,000 Armenians, 6,000 Lipovani (Russian heretics), 400,000 Jews, 2,000 Mahometans. The government of the Greek Church rests with two archbishops, the first of them styled the Primate of Roumania, and the second the Archbishop of Moldavia. There are, besides, six bishops of the National Church, and one Roman Catholic bishop. FINANCE.-The chief sources of revenue consist in direct and indirect taxes, and the profits derived from the extensive state domains and valuable salt mines, and from the salt and tobacco monopolies. The capitation tax is 4s. 9d. per head. There is an income tax of 6 per cent, on houses, 5 per cent. on property farmed by a resident owner, 6 per cent. for property let by an owner resident in Roumania, and 12 per cent. for estates where owners reside abroad; and 5 per cent. on government salaries. The revenue and expenditure for the year ending March 31, 1889 (being the budget
estimate), were: Revenue, 181,066,324 les; expenditure the same. The let is equivalent to a franc.
The public debt of Roumania amounted on April 1, 1892, to 969, 575, 228 lei. Of the total amount more than half has been contracted for public works, mainly railways. The remainder has been contracted to cover the deficits, reduce unfunded debt, and pay peasant freeholds. The debt amounts to about 5l. sterling per head of population, and the interest to 7s.6d. The exports average 11. 16s. per head.
ARMY AND NAVY-1. The strength of the permanent army and navy in time of peace is 2,666 officers, 284 employés, 35,921 men, 8,124 horses, and 573 guns. 2. Territorial Army.—33 regiments of infantry (Dorobanzi) of two and three battalions, 12 regiments of cavalry (Calarashi) of four squadrons each; 14 batteries of artillery, with six guns per battery; these latter perform the duties of firemen in the time of peace. The total of the territorial
army is 81,843 men, and 4,40, horses. 3. The militia, consisting of 33 regiments of infantry. 4. The Civic Guard and the levee en masse, the strength of which is not definitely fixed. Every Roumanian from his 21st to his 46th year is obliged to serve either in the permanent army three years of active service and five in the reserve, or in the territorial infantry five years of active service and three in the reserve, or in the territorial cavalry four years of active service and four in the reserve. The entry into the permanent or territorial army is decided by lot. All young men not taken for the conscription form part of the militia. After completing their service in the permanent or territorial army, all are enrolled in the militia until.their 36th year. Roumania has in the navy the Elizabeta, launched at Elswick in 1887, a shot-protected cruiser of 1,320 tons displacement and 4,500 horse-power, 3%-inch armor at the belt, four 6-inch and eight machine guns; the Mircea, a composite brig of 350 tons. There are besides four other small vessels, two torpedo-boats, three gunboats, each of 45 tons, and three others building at Blackwall. There are 46 officers and 1,480 sailors, and a naval reserve of 200 men. The total number of vessels th:6 entered the ports of Roumania in 1890 was 30,807, of 8,078 939 tons, and the number that cleared was 30,586, of 8,789,894 tons. ROUSSEAU, LovELI, HARRIsox, an American general, born in Lincoln county, Ky., in 1818, died at New Orleans, La., in 1869. He studied law and was in 1841 admitted to the bar at Bloomfield, Ind. During the Mexican war he raised a company of Indiana troops, and did good service as captain under Gen. Taylor. After that war he removed to Louisville, Ky., where he became a successful criminal lawyer. In 1860, as a member of the Kentucky senate, he took a firm stand against secession and later on against the proposed neutrality of the State. At the outbreak of the war he raised the 5th Kentucky infantry regiment, of which he became colonel, September, 1861. He distinguished himself at the battle of Shiloh, April 7, 1862, and afterwards at Perryville, Ky., when he was made major-general of volunteers. In 1867 he was appointed brigadier-general in the regular army and brevetted major-general; and in 1868 he was assigned to the command of the department of Louisiana, where he died the next year. ROUSSET, CAMILLE FELIX MICHEL, a French historian, born in Paris, Feb. 15, 1821, became professor of history at Grenoble, next at the Collége Bourbon (afterwards called the Lycée Bonaparte), from 1845 to 1863, and in 1864 was appointed historiographer and librarian to the ministry of war On Dec. 30, 1871, he was elected a member of the French Academy. M. Rousset is the author of Précis d’Histoire de la Révolution Française (1849); Histoire de Lourois et de son Administration politique et militaire (4 vols., 1861–63), a work which in three consecutive years gained the first Gobert prize of the French Academy. ROUTH, MARTIN Joseph, an English divine and educator, born at South Elmham, Suffolk, England, in 1755, died at Oxford, England, in 1854. After graduating at Oxford in 1774 he held various college positions until he became president of Magdalen College in 1791, which post he retained nearly sixty-four years. In 1810 he was presented the living of Tylchurst, Berkshire. Routh published an edition of Plato's Enthydemus et Gorgias; edited Burnet's History of His Own Times; and a volume of Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum Opuscula (1832). But he was best known by his valuable collection of the fragmentary writings of the
Christian Fathers of the 2nd and 3rd centuries under the title, Reliquiæ Sacrae (4 vols. 1846–48). ROWAN, STEPHEN CLEGG, American vice-admiral, born near Dublin, Ireland, in 1808. He was brought to the United States in early life and appointed midshipman in the United States navy in i826, when he was a student at Oxford College, Ohio. He served with distinction in the Mexican war, in which he was made lieutenant. In 1855 he was promoted to commander. Rowan was a resident of Norfolk, Va., where he had married. But notwithstanding this, and his affection for the South, he adhered faithfully to the National government. With the steam-sloop “Pawnee” he performed efficient service on the Potomac, and afterwards on the coast of North Carolina where he conducted in 1862 several successful expeditions in cooperation with Gen. Burnside, until the authority of the United States Government was completely established in the waters of North Carolina. On July 16, 1862, Rowan was commissioned captain, and for his conspicuous gallantry he was also promoted to commodore on the same day. He next commanded the “New Ironsides” off Charleston, S. C., and in many months of constant conflict with the enemy increased his reputation. In the spring of 1864 he was relieved. He received a vote of thanks from Congress; and in July, 1866, he was promoted to rear-admiral in recognition of his eminent services. In 1866–67 he commanded the Norfolk navy-yard; in 1868–70 he was commander of the Asiatic squadron. While on this duty he was promoted to vice-admiral. In 1872 to 1879 he was in command of the naval station at New York; in 1879–81 he was president of the board of examiners; and in 1882 he became superintendent, of the naval observatory. After January, 1883, Admiral Rowan was chairman of the light-house board at Washington, D. C. He died in 1890. ROWE LL, JonATHAN H., member of Congress, born in New Hampshire in 1833. He graduated at Eureka College, Illinois, and at the Law Department of the University of Chicago; is by profession a lawyer; was State's attorney of the eighth judicial circuit of Illinois, 1868–72; and was a member of Congress from 1883 to 1891. ROWLAND, ALFRED, an American soldier and legislator, born in North Carolina in 1844. He entered the Confederate army in 1861 as a lieutenant; was captured in the battle of Spottsylvania Court-House; after the war studied law; was a member of the general assembly of North Carolina in 1876–77, and again in 1880–81; and was elected to Congress in 1887. ROWSELL, THOMAs JAMEs, M.A., chaplain in ordinary to the Queen, educated at Tonbridge School and Cambridge; was for 17 years engaged as rector of St. Peter's district, Stepney, and was appointed rector of St. Margaret's, Lothbury, in 1860. He has been three times select preacher before the University of Cambridge. In November, 1881, he was appointed a canon of Westminster. ROWTON, Lord (MonTAGU WILLIAM LowRY CoRRY), was born in London, Oct. 8, 1838. He was educated at Harrow and at Trinity College, Cambridge, taking his degree in 1860. Called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn in 1863, he practiced for three years on the Oxford circuit, and in 1866 was appointed private secretary to Mr. Disraeli, then chancellor of the exchequer. At the termination of Lord Beaconsfield's government in 1880, he was raised to the peerage. Lord Beaconsfield bequeathed to Lord Rowton the whole of his letters, papers, documents and manuscripts. ROZE, MARIE, operatic singer, was born March 2, 1850, in Paris. From her earliest childhood Marie
R U D O L F 1359 Roze showed a passion for music, and at the age of thirteen, on the advice of Auber, she was sent to the Paris Conservatoire to study singing, where she speedily gained the highest honors, and was selected to sing before Napoleon III. In 1867 she first appeared in opera, singing the part of Hérold's Marie with such success that she soon became the most popular actress and singer in Paris. During the Franco-Prussian war and the siege of Paris, Marie Roze remained in the city, turning her house into a hospital for wounded soldiers, and organizin numerous concerts for the benefit of the sick an wounded. In 1877 she married Colonel Mapleson, and in the same year undertook a tour through America, which lasted over two years. RUBINSTEIN, ANTON GRIGoRIEVICH, a Russian composer and pianist, born near Jassy in 1829. His parents were Russian Jews. At the age of twelve he played in London, which he visited again in 1857 and on later occasions. As a composer Rubinstein is very prolific ; his Ocean Symphony is the best of several such works for full orchestra; and for the stage he has composed many operas, the most popular being the Demon; Dimitri Donskoi, and Nero. He founded the Conservatoire of Music at St. Petersburg in 1862, of which he is the present director. The Czar ennobled him, 1869. The jubilee of his public service was celebrated by a fête at St. Petersburg, Nov. 18, 1889. It was stated in 1890 that he was writing a musical work. RUDENTURE, the moulding, in form like a rope or staff, fillings and flutings of columns, usually one-third of the height. It is sometimes plain, and Sometimes ornamental. RUDESHEIM, a small town of Germany, in Nassau, on the right bank of the Rhine, opposite Bingen, sixteen miles southwest of Mainz. In the vicinity is grown one of the most aromatic and fiery of the Rhine-wines, called the Rüdesheimer; about 650 casks are produced yearly. Pop., 3,087. RUDFER, FREDERICK WILLIAM, an English scientist, was born in London in 1840. He was appointed curator of the Museum of Practical Geology in 1879 and professor of natural science in the University College of Wales from 1876 to 1879; pool of the anthropological department of the ritish association at Swansea, 1880; director of the Anthropological Institute, and editor of its “Journal; ” joint editor of Ure's Dictionary, and of Stanford's Europe; president of the Geologists' AsSociation, 1889. RUDINI, ANTONIO, MARQUIs DI, Italian premier, born in Sicily in 1839, of an ancient noble family. He has been active in politics since 1862; was for a time mayor of Palermo: sat in the Italian chambers for many sessions; became minister of the interior in 1869; and was called to form a cabinet, Feb. 6, 1891. RUDOLF, FRANz KARI, Josef, archduke and prince imperial of Austro-Hungary, was born August 21, 1858, and died of a gunshot wound January 30, 1889. He was the only son of the present emperor, and had been carefully educated, his taste seeming to incline more to science and art than to politics. He was the author of several geological and topographical papers, and at the time of his death had planned a more pretentious volume. He was an officer of rank in the imperial army, but gave little attention to military matters. The circumstances of his death are obscure, one authority advancing the theory of suicide, while another asserts that he was shot through mistake by a forester. At the time of his decease rumor attributed his sudden taking-off to the jealous rage of a lady of title with whom the archduke had sustained intimate relations.
RUFFNER, HENRY, I).D., 1.L.D., a Presbyterian minister and educator, born in Page county, Va., in 1789, died at Malden, Kanawha county, Va., in 1861. He studied theology and was licensed by the Presbytery of Lexington in 1813. After holding several pastorates in the vicinity, he was made professor at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University), Lexington, in 1819. In 1837 he became president of the same institution. He resigned in 1848, and retired to his farm.
RUGELEY, a market town in the county of Stafford, England, on the right bank of the Trent. There are iron-works in the town and collieries in the vicinity. Population about 5,000.
RUMA, a small town of Austria, in the crown
land of the Temeser Banat and Servian Wojwodschaft, on an affluent of the Save, 35 miles northwest of Belgrade. Pop., 7,800. RUM BOLI), SIR IIok Ace, Bart., K.C.M.G., fifth son of Sir William Rumbold, third baronet, was born in 1829, and entered the diplomatic service as attaché at Turin, September, 1849. attaché successively at Stuttgart and Vienna, and appointed secretary of legation in China in 1858. He held the same position in Athens, 1862; was transferred to Berne in 1864, but was in charge of the mission in Athens during May and June, 1864, and attended the King of the Hellenes on his majesty's first journey to the Ionian Islands after their annexation to Greece. In 1868 he proceeded to St. Petersburg as secretary of embassy; was transferred thence to Constantinople in 1871 ; and was promoted to be minister resident and consul-general in ('hili, Oct. 24, 1872, and minister resident at Berne, Jan. 17, 1878. He was accredited envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the Argentine IRepublic, Aug. 15, 1879; to the King of Sweden and Norway in 1881; and to the King of the Hellenes, Dec. 17, 1884. He was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to the King of the Netherlands, Feb. 1, 1888. RUSI) EN, GEong E WILLIAM, was in 1849 appointed agent for the establishment of national schools in the Port Philip district, now Victoria, and afterwards agent and inspector of schools in New South Wales. When Victoria was separated from New South Wales in 1851, he was made under-secretary, or chief clerk, in the colonial secretary's office; clerk of the executive council in 1852; and in 1856 was attached, on the establishment of a new constitution with the houses of legislature, as clerk of the legislative council, and clerk of the parliaments. From 1853 till his retirement from the civil service in 1882 he served as a magistrate, and was for some time a member of the national educational board in Victoria. He has been a member of the council of the University of Melbourne since its foundation. He is the author of Moyarra; An Australian Legend; National Education; Discovery, Survey, and Settlement of Port Philip; ('uriosities of ("olomization; History of New Zealand, and a History of Australia, published in London in 1883. Mr. Rusden is a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and a member of the Corporation of the Royal Literary I'und in England. Mr. Rusden has long been justly regarded as one of the foremost living authorities on educational matters in the antipodes, and his contributions to Australian historical knowledge have a distinct and lasting value, owing to the o experience acquired in the fulfillment of is governmental duties. RUSH, JAMEs, physician, born at Philadelphia in 1786, died there in 1869. He studied, and afterwards practiced medicine in Philadelphia. By marrying the daughter of Thomas Ridgway he acquired a princely fortune. His wife, Ann Phoebe Rush, was
He was paid
long a brilliant leader of society, while he devoted himself to literary and scientific pursuits. By his will he left his estate, worth a million of dollars, to the Philadelphia Library Company for the Ridgway branch of the Philadelphia Library. His publications include 1-hilosophy of the Human Voice; .1 malysis of the Human Intellect, and Rhymes of Contrast on Wisdom and Folly (1869). RUSH, Rich ARD, an American statesman, born at Philadelphia in 1780; died there in 1859. He became a distinguished lawyer at Philadelphia. From 1817 till 1825 he was United States Minister in England. There he negotiated the treaties regulating the North Atlantic fisheries and the northeastern boundaries. He was recalled in 1825 to accept the portfolio of the United States Treasury, which had been offered him by President J. Q. Adams. In 1S,26 he was appointed by President Jackson a commissioner to secure in the English courts the legacy of James Smithson, amounting to over half a million dollars, which sum was made the foundation of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington, 1). C. From 1847 to 1849 he was United States Minister at Paris. His publications include Codification of the Laws of the United States (5 vols.); Narrottire of a Residence at the Court of St. James; Washington in Domestic Life, and Occasional Productions, Political, 1)iplomatic, and Miscellaneous (1860). IR USK, HARRY WELLEs, member of Congress, born at Baltimore, in 1852. He graduated from the Maryland University Law School in 1872, with the degree of LL.B.; was admitted to the bar, and has ever since practiced law in Baltimore; was for six years a member of the Maryland House of I)elegates, and for four years a member of the Maryland Senate; was elected to Congress in 1886; his present term expires in 1895. R U S K, J.E REMIAH McLAIN, an American soldier and statesman, born in Ohio in 1830. He was brought up on a farm ; removed to Wisconsin in 1853; served throughout the civil war, and was brevetted brigadier-general in 1865; was bank comptroller of Wisconsin from 1866 to 1870; member of Congress from 1871 to 1877; governor of Wisconsin from 1882 to 1889; became secretary in 1889 of the new National Department of Agriculture. The secretary of agriculture is charged with the supervision of all public business relating to the agricultural industry. He appoints all the officers and employés of the department with the exception of the assistant secretary, who is appointed by the I’resident, and directs the management of all the divisions and sections and the bureaus embraced in the department. He exercises advisory supervision over the agricultural experiment stations deriving support from the national treasury, and has control of the quarantine stations for imported cattle, and of interstate quarantine rendered necessary by contagious cattle diseases. Connected with this department, and under the general supervision of its secretary, are also divisions and bureaus of chemistry, botany, entomology, ornithology and mammalogy, vegetable pathology, promology, microscopy, forestry, seeds, silks and gardens. i IR USIK, Thom As JEFFERson, United States Senator, born at Camden, S. C., in 1802; died at Nacogdoches, Tex., in 1856. He practiced law in Georgia, and in 1835 removed to Texas. He joined the movement for attaching Texas to the United States. In 1836 he was a member of the convention which declared Texas independent of Mexico, and became the first Texan secretary of war. After Gen. S. Houston was wounded in the battle of San Jacinto, Rusk became commander of the army, and held this position till the constitutional government of Texas was organized in October, 1836. From 1838–42 he was chief justice of Texas. He was president of the convention that consummated the annexation of Texas to the United States in 1845. After that he was United States Senator for ten years. In a fit of insanity, caused by domestic troubles, he committed suicide in 1856. RUSKIN, Joh N, an eminent English author and art-critic, born in London, 1819. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he gained the Newdigate prize. Having early developed a taste for art, he studied with great success under Copley Fielding and Harding, and having become enamored of Turner's paintings, then but little appreciated, he commenced a letter in defense of Turner, in response to an attack made on him in “Blackwood's Magazine.” This developed into the first volume of his celebrated Modern Painters, which obtained a great success, though it evoked some sharp criticism on the part of those who dissented from his views. He resided for some time in Italy, and subsequently published the remaining volumes of Modern Painters, making five. These contained valuable illustrations by himself. He had previously written The Seven Lamps of Architecture and The Stones of senice. He had also written extensively on economic and other questions, and recently has been engaged upon his autobiography, which he is bringing out at very irregular intervals under the title of Præteria. In 1887 he published Hortus Inclusus: Letters from Mr. Ruskin to the Ladies of the Thwaite. During 1890 his ill-health impeded his literary labors. RUSSELL, SIR CHARLEs, an eminent English lawyer, born in 1833. He was educated at Dublin; commenced his career in the gallery of the House of Commons as Parliamentary leader-writer to a Catholic journal; called to the bar at Lincoln's Inn; appointed Q. C. and elected bencher of Lincoln's Inn; returned in the Liberal interest as member of Parliament since 1880; attorney-general in the Gladstone administration, when he received the honor of knighthood. As a sound lawyer, acute cross-examiner, and persuasive advocate, Sir Charles Russell is without a rival at the English bar. He was one of the leading counsel in the Chetwynd and Durham arbitration case, and defended the prisoner in the famous May brick murder case in 1889. He increased his reputation in 1889 by his masterly oration at the Parnell Commission, where he appeared as counsel for Mr. Parnell. In 1892 he became for the second time attorney-general in the fourth Gladstone administration. RUSSELL, CHARLEs ADDIson, an American legislator, born in Massachusetts in 1852. He graduated from Yale College in the class of 1873; was aid-de-camp on Governor Bigelow's staff; was a member of the house, general assembly of Connecticut, in 1883; was secretary of state of Connecticut in 1885–86; was elected to Congress in 1887; his present term expires 1895. RUSSELL, LESLIE W., a lawyer and member of Congress, born in Canton, N. Y., April 15, 1840. He studied law in Albany, N. Y., and Milwaukee, Wis., and entered his profession in May, 1861; was a member of the New York constitutional convention of 1867; district attorney of St. Lawrence county in 1869–72, and county judge of the same county in 1877–82; in 1882 was elected attorneygeneral of the State of New York; was regent of the University of the State of New York, and a member of the State judiciary constitutional commission; in 1890 was elected a representative from the 22d congressional district of New York to the 52d Congress.
RUSSELL, W. CLARK, novelist, born in New York, 1844, of English parentage, being the son of Henry Russell, author of Cheer, Boys, Cheer. Went to sea at the age of thirteen, as a midshipman, and made several voyages to Australia, India, and China. He abandoned a naval career in 1865, and ten years later achieved his first literary success in John Holdsworth, Chief Mate. The warm welcome given to this book led him to draw further on his nautical experiences, and his other works include The Wreck of the Grosvenor; A Sea Queen, and Jack's Courtship. He has also contributed to the periodical press many sketches of voyages and naval incidents under the pseudonym of “A Seafarer.” His latest work is My Shipmate Louise, published in 1890. RUSSELL, WILLIAM HowARD, an Irish journalist, born at Lily Vale in 1821. He entered Trinity College, Dublin, and while there commenced his connection with the “Times”; called to the English bar in 1850; was correspondent of the “Times” in the Crimea, and was engaged in a similar capacity during the progress of the Indian mutiny, and its suppression, which afterwards was fully described in My Diary in India. He was in the United States as correspondent of the “Times” during the civil war of secession. In 1866 he corresponded with the “Times" from the Austrian headquarters during the Austro-Prussian war. In the FrancoGerman war he was correspondent at the headquarters of the Crown Prince. In 1858 he established the “Army and Navy Gazette.” Many records of his journeys have appeared, including A Tisit to Chile and the Gold Fields, published in 1890. RUSSIAN EMPIRE. For general article on Russi A AND THE RU'ssIAN EMPIRE, see Britannica, Vol. XXI, pp. 67–110. The empire of Russia, at the present time, presents to the student of history the peculiar spectacle of a people essentially eastern in its origin endeavoring to compete, by a series of spasmodic efforts, with occidental civilization, and retarded at intervals by imperial severities consequent upon outbursts of Nihilism and internal disorders which arise mostly from widespread dissatisfaction with the workings of a corrupt bureaucracy. Four events of importance have marked the history of Russia in recent years. The Pamir difficulty (see AFGHANISTAN) may be dismissed with a brief reference, as that question, which at one time threatened the disruption of diplomatic relations between Great Britain and Russia, was amicably adjusted. The dreadful famine, which afflicted not less than eighteen Russian provincial governments and some 36,000,000 of the subjects of the czar, is still being bravely fought. It must be years before the peasantry of the stricken provinces will regain their former degree of prosperity. It was known as early as June, 1891, that the crops in the districts of Perm, Astrakhan, Kostroma, Orel, Kursk, Kherson, and Kharkos would be very meagre, and that the agricultural outlook in the districts of Viatka, Nijnii-Novgorod, Kasan, Simbirsk, Samara, Orenburg, Riazan, Penza, Toula, Saratov and Toula was of the blackest. This catastrophe was precipitated by a dreadful drought, when for five months not a drop of rain fell in the afflicted districts. Blasting winds swept over the fields, blighting all grain. The winter of 1890–91 was one of little snow, and the unprotected frozen soil drank less than the usual moisture from that source. A species of prairie rat, called ruroks, appeared and ravaged many provinces, while blight-clouds—myriads of insects darkening the skies—hovered over the land, and wherever they rested o left a desert. To aggravate the difficulties of the position in which the Russian government found itself, it was discow