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In order that all men may be taught to fpeak truth, it is necessary that all likewise Mould learn to hear it; for no species of falsehood is more frequent than flattery, to which the coward is betrayed by fear, the dependent by interest, and the friend by tenderness. Those who are neither servile, or timorous, are yet desirous to bestow pleafure ; and while unjust demands of praise continue to be made, there will always be some whom hope, fear, or kindness will dirpose to pay them.

Ditto, ditto, P. 247 He that is much Aattered, soon learns to flatter himself. We are commonly taught our duty by fear, or shame ; and how can they act upon the man who hears nothing but his own praises ?

Life of Swift. Just praise is only a debt, but Aattery is a present.

Rambler, v. 3, p. 294. Neither our virtues, or vices are all our own. If there were no cowardice, there would be little insolence. Pride cannot rise to any great degree, but by the concurrence of blandishment, or the sufferance of tameness. The wretch who would shrink and crouch


before one that should dart his eyes upon him with the spirit of natural equality, becomes capricious and tyrannical when he fees himself approached with a downcalt look, and hears the soft addresses of awe and servility, To those who are willing to purchase favour by cringes and compliance, is to be imputed the haughtiness that leaves nothing to be hoped by firmness and integrity.

O Ditto, v. 4, p. 3.

F O L L Y. No man will be found in whose mind airy notions do not sometimes tyrannize, and. force him to hope, or fear, beyond the limits of fober probability.

P. of Abyłnia, p.259.

FORTUNE. Fortune often delights to dignify what nature has neglected, and that renown, which cannot be claimed by intrinsic excellence, or greatness, is sometimes derived from unexpected accidents.

Falkland Islands, p. 2.



F E A R. All fear is in itself painful; and when it conduces not to safety, is painful without use.

Rambler, v 1, p. 180. Fear is implanted in us as a preservative from evil; but its duty, like that of other passions, is not to overbear reason, but to assist it ; nor should it be suffered to tyrannize in the inagination, to raise phantoms of horror, or beset life with supernumerary distresses.

Ditto, v. 3, p. 125.


FORGIVENESS. Whoever considers the weakness both of himself and others, will not long want persuasives to forgiveness. We know not to what degree of malignity any injury is to be imputed, or how much its guilt, if we were to inspect the mind of him that committed it, would be extenuated by mistake, precipitance, or negligence. We cannot be certain how much more we feel than was intended, or how much we increase the mischief to our. selves by voluntary aggravations. We may charge to design the effects of accident. We


think the blow violent, only because we have made ourselves delicate and tender; we are, on every side, in danger of error and guilt, which we are certain to avoid only by speedy forgiveness.

Rambler, 1.4, p. 137.

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FRU G A LIT Y. Frugality may be termed the daughter of prudence, the sister of temperance, and the parent of liberty. He that is extravagant, will quickly become poor, and poverty will enforce dependence, and invite corruption. It will almost always produce a passive compliance with the wickedness of others, and there are few who do not learn by degrees to practise those crimes which they cease to censure.

Ditto, V. 2, p. 21. Without frugality none can be rich, and with it, very few would be poor.

Ditto, ditto, ditto. Though in every age there are some who, by bold adventures, or by favourable accidents, rise suddenly into riches; the bulk of mankind must owe their affluence to finall and gradual profits, below which their expence must be resolutely reduced.

Ditto, ditto, p. 23.


The mercantile wisdom of « a penny faved is two-pence got,” may be accomodated to all conditions, by observing, that not only they who pursue any lucrative employment will save time when they forbear expence, and that time may be employed to the increase of profit ; but that they, who are above such minute considerations, will find by every victory over appetite or passion, new strength added to the mind, will gain the power of refusing those solicitations by which the young and vivacious are hourly assaulted, and, in time, set themselves above the reach of extravagance and folly.

Ditto, ditto, p. 24. It may, perhaps, be enquired, by those who are willing rather to cavil than to learn, what is the just measure of frugality? To such no general answer can be given, since the liberty of spending, or necessity of parsimony, may be varied without end by different circumstances. These three rules, however, may be laid down as not to be departed from :

“A man's voluntary expences should not exceed his income.”

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