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drive away the devil. And it is noted how the devil could not abide the virtue of the water, but vanished away. And for my part, it seemeth the history may be true: for we be assured by scripture, that in the name of God, the church is able and strong to cast out devils, according to the gospel, in nomine meo damonia ejiciunt, &c. So as if the water were away, by only calling on the name of God that mastery may be wrought. And the virtue of the effect being only attributed to the name of God, the question should be only, whether the creature of water may have the office to convey the effect of the holiness of the invocation of God's name,


A man might find some youngling percase, that would say, how worldly, wily, witty bishops have inveigled simple things heretofore; and to confirm their blessings, have also devised how kings should bless also, and so authority to maintain where truth failed; and I have had it objected to me, that I used to prove one piece of mine argument ever by a king, as when I reasoned thus:-if ye allow nothing but scripture, what say you to the king's rings? But they be allowed; ergo, somewhat is to be allowed besides scripture. And another; if images he forbidden, why doth the king wear St. George on his breast? But he weareth St. George on his breast; ergo, images be not forbidden. If saints be not to

be worshipped; why keep we St. George's feast? But we keep St. George's feast, ergo, &c. And in this matter of holy water, if the strength of the invocation of the name of God, to drive away the devils, cannot be distribute by water; why can it be distribute in silver; to drive away diseases, and the dangerous disease of the falling evil. But the rings hallowed by the holy church may do so; ergo, the water hallowed by the church may do like service, These were sore arguments in his time, and I trust be also yet, and may be conveniently used, to such as would never make an end of talk, but rake up every thing that their dull sight cannot penetrate; wherein, methought, ye spake effectually, when ye said, men must receive the determination of the particular church, and obey where God's law repugneth not expressly. And in this effect, to drive away devils, that prayer and invocation of the church may do it, scripture maintaineth evidently; and the same scripture doth authorise us so to pray, and encourageth us to it.

Albeit there hath been between you and me no familiarity, but contrariwise, a little disagreement (which I did not hide from you), yet considering the fervent zeal ye professed to teach Peter's true doc trine, that is to say, Christ's true doctrine, whereunto ye thought the doctrine of images and holy water, to put away devils agreed not, I have willing


ly spent this time to communicate unto you my folly (if it be folly) plainly as it is, whereupon ye may have occasion the more substantially, fully, and plainly, to open these matters for the relief of such as be fallen from the truth, and confirmation of those that receive and follow it, wherein it hath been ever much commended, to have such regard to histories of credit, and the continual use of the church, rather to shew how a thing continued from the beginning, as holy water and images have done, may be well used, then to follow the light rash eloquence, which is' ever ad manum, to mock and improve that is established, &c. &c.

Your loving friend,

STEPHEN WInchester,

The public character of bishop Gardiner is well known. In a personal view, he was a man of considerable learning and talents; but though his sentiments were, in some respects, of a liberal cast, his temper was haughty, ambitious, and cruel. Though a great persecutor of heretics, and the principal instrument of queen Mary's cruelties, it appears that he considered religion merely as an engine of state, and used it only for his selfish and ambitious purposes.

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ONLY four copies of this very curious work were known to be extant till Dr. Leyden published his excellent edition in 1801. It has been attributed to Wedderburn and to sir James Inglis, on insufficient authority. Dr. Leyden supposes sir David Lindsay was the author. All that is certain is, that it was written in 1548.

The extract is remarkable, as containing a greater number of imitative words than can be found elsewhere. As the book is in the Scottish dialect, there would be a singular impropriety in much changing the orthography.

There eftir I heard the rumour of rammasche1 foulis and of beystis that made grite beir*, quhilk past beside burnis and boggis on green bankis to seek their sustentation. Their brutal sound did redond to

1 collected, Fr. ramasse.




a shrill noise.


the high skyis, quhil the deep hou' cauernis of cleuchis and rotche craggis ansuert vitht ane high note of that samyn sound as thay beystis hed blauen. It aperit be presumyng and presuposing, that blaberand eccho had been hid in ane hou hole, cryand hyr half ansueir, quhen Narcissus rycht sorry socht for his saruandis, quhen he was in ane forrest, far fra ony folkis, and there efter for love of eccho he drounit in ane drau vel. Nou to tel treutht of the beystis that maid sie beir, and of the dyn that the foulis did, ther syndry soundis hed nothir temperance nor tune. For fyrst furtht on the fresche fieldis the nolt maid noyis vitht mony loud lou. Baytht horse and meyris did fast nee, and the folis neckyr. The bullis began to bullir, quhen the scheip began to blait, because the calfis began till mo, quhen the doggis berkit. Than the suyne began to quhryne quhen thai herd the asse tair, quhilk gart3 the hennis kekkyl quhen the cokis creu. The chekyns began to peu when the gled quhissillit. The fox follouit the fed geise and gart them cry claik. The gayslingis cryit quhilk quhilk, and the dukis cryit quaik. The ropeen of the rauynis gart the cras crope. The huddit crauis cryit varrok varrok, quhen the suannis murnit, because the gray goul mau pronosticat ane storme. The turtil began for to greit, quhen the cuschet zoulit, The titlene fol


i hollow. 2 cloughs, deep valleys or ravines in the hills. 3 forced, caused.

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