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2:4 combinations with carbonic acid have the same properties as the pure when distilled with water, it loses its volatile oil, and becomes in. alkali, in respect to volatility, and only a diminished degree of odorous; the distilled water has the odour of the gum, and small drops causticity.

of limpid, colourless oil float on its surface. Alcohol takes up about The gas in an undiluted state is highly pungent, with a suffocating half its weight, forming a brownish-yellow solution, which becomes odour, is irrespirable, and irritates and inflames the animal tissues. turbid when mixed with water. It is combustible, burning with a (Christison.) Diluted by passing through the air, from which it white flame, little smoke, and a strong smell; the ashes left consist of absorbs moisture and carbonic acid, which serve further to lessen its small portions of the carbonates of potash and lime, and phosphate of acrimony, it is occasionally, but rarely, applied to the eyes, in some lime. passive inflammations, and to keep up vigilance in cases of somnolence Sulphuric acid readily dissolves ammoniac, and water precipitates from narcotic poisons. This last mode of using it is scarcely to be the solution ; nitric acid converts it into a bitter substance; the fixed recommended, as dangerous inflammation of the eyes may subsequently alkalies form with it a turbid solution, which is extremely bitter. follow. Indeed all employment of even the less caustic forms of According to Bucholz, ammoniac consists of administration, when much insensibility exists, such as in faintings,


72.0 epileptic fits, or from narcotic poisons, likewise in experiments on


22.4 persons in the state termed mesmeric coma, requires great care.


1.6 Fatal inflammation of the windpipe has ensued by merely holding

Volatile oil, water, and loss

4.0 carbonate of ammonia (smelling salts) or a handkerchief dipped in strong aqua ammoniæ under the nostrils. (Nysten.) When it is to

100 be introduced into the stomach, this should be done by means of the stomach-pump, to avoid any of it passing into the windpipe. Besides It is used in medicine as a stimulant and expectorant. its local action, exciting inflammation and its effects, ammonia is itself AMMOʻNIACUM-Medical properties of. This gum-resin is correctly poisonous, its secondary effect on the nervous system, particularly the referred to the Dorema ammoniacum (Don, in 'Linnæan Trans.,' vol. xvi. spinal column, being sufficient to cause tetanic convulsions. Though p. 599), which was discovered by Lieut.-Col. Wright, growing near Yezd Eau de Cologne may be grateful to adults, the vapour is unsafe for Khāst, a town of Irāk Ajemi, the ancient Persis, about 42 miles south children. (See 'Lancet' for April, 1844.)

of Ispahan. Its Persian names are Ooshk and Ooshook. It has more Ammoniacal gas absorbed by water constitutes the aqua or liquor recently been found on the low hills near Herat, likewise abundantly ammonic. This is formed of two different degrees of strength : the in Syghan, near Bameean, on the north-west slope of the Hindu-Coosh one of a density of 882 at 62° F. called fortior, much too strong for range of mountains. (Christison.) any medicinal purpose, and only employed for some chemical purposes ; Ammoniacum was known to the ancients : but it is supposed that the other of the density of 960, which also generally requires to be what they used came from Africa as well as Asia, and was procured diluted further with water when intended for internal use, or with from a species of Ferula, F. tingitana (Linn.) oils for external use, as it is very frequently, to form rubefacient The Persian plant yields the juice chiefly from the stalk, especially liniments. The solution of the carbonate is likewise frequently the points of divarication of the umbels, owing to the punctures of employed in combination with oils. These, if long applied, or numerous coleopterous insects. “ The gum is so abundant, that upon frequently repeated, cause inflammation which terminates in suppu- the slightest puncture being made, it instantly oozes forth, even at the ration and ulceration.

ends of the leaves." (Capt. Hart, Trans. of Medical Society of Ammonia, when suitably diluted so as to be taken into the stomach, Calcutta,' vol. i. p. 369.) The juice quickly dries, and is either picked causes a feeling of warmth, with increased energy of the nervous off or allowed to accumulate till it falls on the ground. This collection power. Hence it acts as a prompt and valuable counter-poison to takes place about the middle of June. A tenth part is remitted as prussic acid, the bites of serpents, and the poison of many diseases, tribute to the government; the rest is sent to Bushire, on the Persian such as cholera asiatica, and typhoid fevers, at the commencement of Gulf, and thence to Europe. The best comes by Bombay. The juice which great depression of the nervous system is observed. In lesser of the Syghan plant is obtained by making successive slices of the degrees of depression, such as the languor of hysterical females, or in root, as in the case of assafoetida. The samples vary much in quality. atonic gout, ammonia or its carbonates are daily resorted to. It is The directions given to purify the inferior sorts, by softening them in likewise employed to counteract acidity in the stomach. It must not boiling water, and squeezing them through a cloth, though capable of be overlooked however that the long continued use of ammonia removing mechanical impurities, impair the power of the gum-resin, by produces the same ill effects as the other alkalies when taken in excess. driving off the volatile oil, which even in good specimens is not very (ALKALIES.)

abundant, 32 ounces yielding by distillation only one drachm. The salts of ammonia require a brief notice. The properties of the The officinal form for administering ammoniacum is the mixture, in different combinations of ammonia with carbonic acid are too similar which it is partially dissolved and partially suspended in water. It is a to those of the pure alkali to be noted separately, except to state that most valuable expectorant, and may have its virtues increased by the carbonate of ammonia furnishes a good emetic in the earliest stage of addition of squills or ipecacuanha. Dilute nitric acid greatly heightens fever with great depression, and is in smaller doses given freely its powers. It is also an ingredient in the compound squill pills. throughout adynamic fevers, sometimes in the effervescing form, espe- Externally it is applied as a plaster, to disperse indolent swellings, cially when action of the skin is desired. Citric acid is employed to either softened by vinegar, a form which has kept its place amid all cause it to effervesce.

the changes in medical agents for nearly 2000 years, or combined with Hydrochlorate of ammonia is little employed in this country inter- mercury, which is often beneficial. nally, but it may be beneficially used in combination with cinchona AMMONITES, a nation descended, according to Gen. xix. 38, from bark in fevers. In large doses it is poisonous. It is however chiefly the incestuous connection of Lot with his younger daughter, about the employed to form discutient and evaporating lotions in conjunction year 1898 B.C. The name of their progenitor, Ben Ammi, means son with vinegar and spirit. For these it is most valuable, at the moment of my kindred, and the name Ammon has nearly the same signification. of solution.

The Ammonites, or the children of Ammon, are called by the SeptuaAcetate of ammonia has little of the causticity of the pure alkali or gint and Josephus, Ammanitæ. The country which they inhabited the carbonates, neither is it volatile. It is so deliquescent that it was situated between the rivers Arnon and Jabbok, north-north-east of cannot be kept in the solid form, and is always administered in weak the Moabites, and east of the tribes of Reuben and Gad. The Israelites, acetic acid. This forms a most grateful refrigerant at the commence under Moses, smote the Amorites, and possessed their land from Amon ment of slight inflammatory complaints, and if the patient be kept unto Jabbok, even unto the children of Ammon, about the year 1452 warm, generally induces perspiration. For this purpose it requires to before Christ: but they did not enter the territory of the Ammonites, be freely given. It is also a diuretic, but 'not much employed. for the border of the children of Ammon was strong. (Num. xxi. 24.) Properly diluted with rose-water it forms a cooling eyewash, most The Israelites were directed not to distress the children of Ammon, grateful after some forms of inflammation, to relieve the turgescence because the Lord had given the land unto the children of Lot for a which remains, or even to remove turgescence which has not been possession. The Ammonites, however, showed the Israelites no kindpreceded by inflammation. Scarpa thought it useful against com ness while passing through the country, and they were therefore mencing amaurosis.

forbidden entering the congregation of the Lord.' Their active AMMONIAC (GUM), a concrete juice produced in Persia, Abys. hostility is first mentioned in Judges iii. when they helped Eglon, king sinia, &c., but the plant from which it is obtained does not appear to of Moab, to subjugate Israel, and their hostile feelings continued. They have been ascertained. Willdenow refers it to the Heracleum gummi- sustained, in consequence, a severe defeat from Jephthah. (Judges xi.) ferum, in which he is followed by the British College of Physicians. The history of the wars between the Israelites and the Ammonites are Others refer it to the Perula orientalis. It consists of grains of various recorded in the Pentateuch and other books of the Old Testament, and sizes, usually called tears : they are either separate or agglutinated into in the book of Maccabees. inasses; their colour is whitish, but they become yellow by the action From the prophetic writings we derive some further information as of the air; they are shining, opaque, irregular in shape, and more or to the history and character of the Ammonites. Their destruction is less globular. When cold, ammoniac is rather hard and brittle; it predicted by Isaiah xi. 14; Zephaniah ii. 9; Jeremiah xlix. 1.5; softens by the heat of the hand, but does not entirely liquify at a Ezekiel xxv. In the days of Justin Martyr, the Ammonites were stronger heat. The smell is peculiar and disagreeable, and the taste is still very numerous; and in the days of Origen, the Ammonites and nuseous, at first mucilaginous and bitter, and afterwards acrid. Its Edomites went under the general name of Arabians. specific gravity is 1-207. When triturated with water, it is partly Their metropolis was Rabbah. The surrounding country was called dissolved, forming an emulsion which becomes clearer on standing. I Arabia Philadelphiensis.


The Ammonites were uncircumcised (Jer. ix. 26), and worshipped gas, and the sesquicarbonate of ammonia, in the modes already
Molech or Milcom, and their idolatry was, by the Ammonitish wives described.
of Solomon, introduced among the Israelites. (1 Kings xi. 7, 33; 2 AMMONIUM AMALGAM. (AMALGAM.]
Kings xxiii. 13.)

AMMONIUM, IODIDE OF (NH,1). Prepared by saturating a of their kings, we know only Nahash and Hanun, in the time of solution of hydriodic acid with ammonia, and then evaporating until David; and Baalis, contemporary with Nebuchadnezzar. (Jer. xl.) the salt crystallises. Iodide of ammonium crystallises in cubes which

AMMONIUM. (NH.). The hypothetical compound radical of the salts are deliquescent, and is slowly decomposed on exposure to air and light. of ammonia. When ammoniacal gas unites with acids to form salts, It ought, therefore, to be preserved in well stopped and opaque bottles. the latter are regarded as no longer containing NH,, but as compounds It is easily soluble in water, and also in alcohol and ether. The latter of the radical NH,. Thus, when ammoniacal gas unites with hydro- property has led to its extensive use in photography for iodising chloric acid, the salt chloride of ammonium is formed, containing the collodion. Iodine is very soluble in an aqueous solution of iodide of radical in question united with chlorine.

ammonium. NH, + HCl = (NH,) c.

AMNESTY is a word derived from the Greek durnotia, amnéstia,

which, literally, signifies nothing more than non-remembrance. The In like manner, when ammoniacal gas unites with a hydrated oxyacid, word amnestia is not used by the earlier Greek writers; but the thing it is supposed that the water of hydration of the acid coalesces with intended by it was expressed by the verbal form (un umorkakeî). The the body, NH,, so as to form oxide of ammonium, which then unites word åuvnotia occurs in Plutarch and Herodian. Some critics suppose with the acid to form a salt of ammonia. Thus, ammoniacal grs and that Cicero (* Philipp.' i. 1) alludes to his having used the word; but hydrated nitric acid form nitrate of ammonia, Ni + HO, NO, he may have expressed the thing without using the word amnestia. It (NH,)O, NO,. In the salts of ammonia, therefore, the radical ammonia occurs in the life of Aurelian by Vopiscus (c. 39), according to some takes the place of the metal in ordinary metallic salts ; and nitrate of editions in the Latin form, but it is possible that Vopiscus wrote the ammonia, and chloride of ammonium, for instance, thus become word in Greek characters, and it is doubtful whether the word was analogous in their constitution to nitrate of potash and chloride of ever incorporated into the Latin Language. Nepos, in his life of potassium.

Thrasybulus (c. 3), expresses the notion of an act of Amnesty by the

words “ lex oblivionis,” and it is clear from a passage in Valerius Nitrate of potash

KO, NOS Nitrate of ammonia

(NH4)2, NO,

Maximus (iv. 1), that the word was not adopted into the Latin Chloride of potassium

language when Valerius wrote, whatever that time may be. Chloride of ammonium


The notion of an amnesty among the Greeks was a declaration of the

person or persons who had newly acquired or recovered the sovereign This view, first suggested by Ampere, and subsequently applied by power in a state, by which they pardoned all persons who composed, Berzelius, is frequently termed the ammonium theory. Ammonium has supported, or obeyed the government which had been just overthrown. never been obtained in a separate state, and is probably incapable of A declaration of this kind may be either absolute and universal, existing free from any other body. Reasoning from the analogy of its or it may except certain persons specifically named, or certain classes compounds with those of the metals, it has by some been regarded as a of persons generally described. Thus in Athens, when Thrasybulus true metal; but although its compound with mercury (AMALGAM) had destroyed the oligarchy of the Thirty Tyrants, and had restored lends some support to this notion, yet the non-metallic character of the democratical form of government, an exceptive amnesty of past other isolated radicals renders the metallic attributes of ammonium political offences was declared, from the operation of which the Thirty highly improbable.

themselves, and some few persons who had acted in the most invidious Acetate of Ammonia (NH,O, C,,).- This salt is prepared by offices under them, were excluded. (Xenophon, 'Hellen.' ii, 4, 38; adding sesquicarbonate of ammonia to dilute acetic acid. Owing to the Isocrates, ' Against Callimachus,' c. 1.). So when Bonaparte returned superior affinity of the acetic acid for ammonia, the carbonic acid is from Elba in 1815, he published an amnesty, from which he excluded expelled from it with effervescence, and a colourless solution remains, thirteen persons, whom he named in a decree published at Lyon. which contains neutral acetate of ammonia, but which, when concen- The act of indemnity, passed upon the restoration of Charles II., trated and placed under the exhausted receiver of an air-pump over by which the persons actually concerned in the execution of his sulphuric acid, loses ammonia and yields transparent prismatic crystals, father were excluded from the benefit of the royal and parliamentary which are very deliquescent, and consist of an acid salt. The neutral pardon, is an instance of an amnesty from which a class of persons salt may be obtained in the crystalline form by saturating glacial acetic were excepted by a general description and not by name. Of a like acid with ammoniacal gas. It is white, and very soluble in water and nature was the law passed by the French Chambers in January, 1816, in alcohol.

upon the return of Louis XVIII. to the throne of France after the Acetate of ammonia is directed to be prepared in the 'London Phar- victory at Waterloo, which offered a complete amnesty to “all persons macopeia,' and kept in solution under the name of Liquor Ammoniæ who had directly or indirectly taken part in the rebellion and usurpaAcetatis. It is used externally as a refrigerant, and internaily as a tion of Napoleon Bonaparte,” with the exception of certain persons, diaphoretic, and is commonly known by the name of Spirit of Minde- whose names had been previously mentioned in a royal ordinance as

the most active partisans of the usurper. It was objected to this Oxalate of Ammonia (C.O., 2NH,O, + 2aq.).—This salt is prepared French law of amnesty, that it did not point out with sufficient perby adding sesquicarbonate of ammonia to a solution of oxalic acid, until spicuity the individuals who were to be excepted from its operation. it is saturated. The solution by evaporation yields small prismatic Instead of confining itself to naming the offenders, it excepted whole crystals; these are devoid of smell, have a bitter, saline taste, and classes of offences, by which means a degree of uncertainty and condissolve readily in water. By dry distillation they yield oxamide. fusion was occasioned, which much retarded the peaceable settlement Oxalate of ammonia is used as a test of the presence of lime, and to of the nation. “In consequence of this course,” says M. de Châteauprecipitate it from solution in chemical analyses.

briand in a pamphlet published soon after the event, “punishment and AMMONIUM, CHLORIDE OF. (NH,C.) This salt has been fear have been permitted to hover over France; wounds have been long known, and extensively used, under the name of Sal Ammoniac. kept open, passions exasperated, and recollections of enmity awakened.” The substance from which it was first procured, was the soot of The act of indemnity, passed at the accession of Charles II., was not camel's dung. It is now largely manufactured in Europe, by com liable to this objection, by the distinctness of which, as Dr. Johnson bining hydrochloric acid, either directly or indirectly, with the said, “the flutter of innumerable bosoms was stilled," and a state of ammonia obtained from the decomposition of animal matter, but prin public feeling promoted, extremely favourable to the authority and cipally from the liquor obtained during the preparation of coal-gas. quiet government of the restored prince. This impure ammoniacal liquor is at once saturated with hydro AMOʻMUM-Medical Properties of this and allied Genera. This chloric acid, and evaporated to crystallisation. The crystals are then comprehensive heading is adopted to include many aromatic stimulants, sublimed.

such as cardamoms, grains of paradise, &c., which are obtained from Chloride of ammonium, as obtained by sublimation, is an amorphous, several plants related to amomum. German pharmacopolists even translucent, colourless salt; but when separated from water by crystal- term Pimento berries, or Jamaica allspice, semen amomi ; but this is lisation, its form is cubic. It has a sharp, saline taste, but no smell, never so called in Great Britain. Much obscurity hung over the and dissolves readily in water; exposure to a dry air produces no history of the true cardamoms, which recent investigations have change in it; by heat, it volatilises without decomposition. Lime and removed; and as Dr. Pereira has treated the whole subject at great the fixed alkalies decompose it, evolving ammoniacal gas; and sulphuric length in his ' Materia Medica,' his statements are chiefly followed acid expels hydrochloric acid gas. It is composed of equal volumes of here. hydrochloric acid gas and ammoniacal gas, as may be shown by the The true, officinal, or Malabar cardamoms are procured from the perfect condensation of these proportions in a jar over mercury; or by elettaria cardamomum (Rheede, 'Hortus Malabaricus,' vol. ix.), White ; weight, of

the botanical characters of which were described by Dr. Maton One atom of hydrochloric acid 36.5

(* Trans. Linn. Soc.' x. p. 254). The Edinburgh College term it One atom of ammonia


renealmia (Rosc.); the London, alpinia cardamomum (Roxb.). It

occurs in the mountainous parts of Malabar, and is also cultivated. Atomic weight


The cardamoms of the Wynaad, which are the most esteemed and

bring the highest price, are cultivated. The fruit is the part collected, This salt is much employed in the tinning of iron, copper, and brass, but the seed alone is used. The seed-vessel or husk is altogether and in agriculture. It is generally used for preparing ammoniacal devoid of aroma or pungency; but the seeds should never be taken out






of it till required for use, as they keep much better in their natural From the aqueous solution of this salt, nitric acid precipitates ampelic envelope : 100 parts of best cardamoms yield 74 parts of seed and 26 acid in a flocculent condition. of husks. This kind of cardamoms, called the small or lesser, presents Ampelic acid is a white inodorous solid, insoluble in cold and only three varieties in commerce; namely, shorts, short-longs, and long-longs, very sparingly soluble in hot water. Boiling alcohol and ether dissolve placed in the order of their merit. The first and best are about three it readily. It fuses at 500° F., and may be distilled without decompoto six lines long; the second, about six; the last, from seven lines to an sition. It is isomeric with salicylic acid. inch. Trommsdorf analysed the small cardamoms, and obtained AMPELINE, a brownish-yellow liquid resembling creosote, found essential oil, 4:6; fixed oil, 10:4; a salt (probably malate) of potash, amongst the oily products of the destructive distillation of bituminous combined with colouring-matter, 2:5; fecula, 3.0; nitrogenous mucilage, shale. It is soluble in water, does not solidify at --4° F., and cannot with phosphate of lime, 1.8; yellow colouring-matter, 0:4; and woody be distilled alone without decomposition. fibre, 77.3.

AMPHICTYONS, members of a celebrated. council in ancient The fixed oil somewhat resembles castor oil. The excellence of Greece, called the Amphictyonic Council. the specimen depends on the volatile oil; this is small in inferior According to the popular story, this council was founded by Am. kinds; the best yield about 64 drachms for every pound of the phictyon, son of Deucalion, who lived, if he lived at all, many centuries fruit." Jamaica cardamoms yield only four scruples for one pound of before the Trojan war. It is supposed by a writer quoted by Pausanias, fruit. Like oil of turpentine, lemon, &c., it consists only of carbon and x. 8, to derive its name, with a slight alteration, from a word signifying hydrogen,

settlers around a place.' Strabo, who professes to know nothing of Ceylon cardamoms, or larger, sometimes termed long, are produced its founder, says that Acrisius, the mythological king of Argos, fixed in that island; but some of the less valuable of the Malabar fruits are its constitution, and regulated its proceedings. Amidst the darkness termed Ceylon cardamoms. The name of “grains of paradise” is which hangs over its origin, we discover with certainty, that it was sometimes given to this plant. One kind of grains of paradise” is one of the earliest institutions in Greece. No full or clear account has from an African plant Amomum Grana-Paradisi (Smith); the other been given of it during any period of its existence by those who had from A. Meleguetta (Roscoe), cultivated in Demerara. Grains of para- the means of informing us. The fullest information is supplied by dise are used to sharpen vinegar, beer, liquors, &c., and brewers Æschines the orator; but before any attempt is made, by the help of who have them in their possession are liable to heavy penalties. some short notices from other writers, and of conjecture, to trace its (ADULTERATION.) The duty on grains of paradise was reduced from earlier history, it may not be amiss to state what is certainly known of 28. per lb. to 158. per cwt. by 5 & 6 Vict. c. 47.

this council as it existed in his time. Cardamoms are in great favour in the East as a spice, and also as an According to Æschines, the Greek nations which had a right to be aromatic stimulant in the treatment of disease. In Europe, they are represented in the council were twelve, though he only names eleven, as highly esteemed as carminative and stomachic agents. Dr. Christison the Thessalians, Bæotians, Dorians, Ionians, Perrhæbians, Magnesians, observes that they form part of eighteen officinal preparations, besides Locrians, Etæans, Phthiots, Malians, Phocians : the twelfth were their own tinctures.

probably the Delphians. Each nation was represented by certain AMORITES, the most powerful tribe of the Canaanites, or the sovereign states, of which it was supposed to be the parent: thus aborigines of Palestine. The name Amorites seems sometimes to be Sparta, conjointly with other Dorian states, represented the Dorian used for all the Canaanites who were the descendants of Ham, through nation. Amongst the states thus united in representing their common Canaan, Sidon, and Heth. (Gen. x. 15—20.) The Amorites are men nation, there was a perfect equality. Sparta enjoyed no superiority tioned among the ten nations whose country was given to the seed of over Dorium and Cytinium, two inconsiderable towns in Doris, and Abraham. (Gen xv. 19-21.) The original Amorites dwelt chiefly in the deputies of Athens, one of the representatives of the Ionian nation, the mountains, which afterwards belonged to the tribe of Judah. sat in the council on equal terms with those of Eretria in Eubæa, and (Numbers xiii. 29; Deut. i. 20.) The name has been said by Simonsis of Priene, an Ionian colony in Asia Minor. From a rather doubtful and Gesenius to mean 'mountaineer.' Some Amorites dwelt in the passage in Æschines, ' De Fals. Leg.' 43, compared with a statement in plains bordering upon the tribe of Dan, and others between the rivers Diodorus, xvi. 60, it seems that each nation, whatever might be the Jordan and Arnon. At the time of Moses the river Arnon was the number of its constituent states, had two, and only two votes. The border between Moab and the Amorites on the south, the Jordan on council had two regular sessions in each year, meeting in the spring at the west, and the Jabbok on the north, separated them from the Delphi, and in the autumn near Pylæ, otherwise called Thermopyle; kingdom of Bashan, and the Great Desert and the territory of the but special meetings were sometimes called before the usual time. Ammonites formed their eastern boundary. (Numbers xxi. 13.) Of From its meeting at Pyle, a session of the Amphictyons was called a the cities of the Amorites it was said to the people of Israel, " Thou Pylæa, and the deputies were called Pylagoræ, that is, councillors at shalt save alive nothing that breatheth: but thou shalt utterly destroy Pyle. There were also deputies distinguished by the name of Hierothe Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites, mnemons, whose office it was, as their name implies, to attend to matters as the Lord thy God hath commanded thee, that they teach you not to pertaining to religion. Athens sent three Pylagora and one Hierodo after all their abominations, which they have done unto their gods." mnemon. The former were appointed for each session; the latter pro(Deut. xx. 16-18.) The Amorites were attacked by the four confederate bably for a longer period, perhaps for the year, or two sessions. The kings who took Lot captive (Gen. xiv. 13; Joshua x. 11), slew great council entertained charges laid before it in relation to offences comnumbers of them, and more died stricken with hailstones from heaven. mitted against the Delphic god, made decrees thereupon, and appointed But after all this, the Amorites retained. much power, that they persons to execute them. These decrees, as we learn from Diodorus, forced (B.C. 1425) the children of Dan into the mountain, for they xvi. 24, were registered at Delphi. The oath taken by the deputies would not suffer them to come down to the valley. The remarkable bound the Amphictyons not destroy any of the Amphictyonic cities, fact, that the Israelites conquered the mountains sooner than the or to debar them from the use of their fountains in peace or war; to plains is explained (Judges i. 19): it was because the inhabitants of make war on any who should transgress in these particulars, and to the plains had chariots of iron.

destroy their cities; to punish with hand, foot, voice, and with all The Gibeonites (to whom seven descendants of Saul were delivered their might, any who should plunder the property of the god (the by David about the year B.o. 7020, that they might revenge themselves Delphic Apollo), or should be privy to, or devise anything against that for Saul's atrocities) were of the remnant of the Amorites whom Joshua which was in his temple. This is the oldest form of the Amphictyonic had made hewers of wood and drawers of water. (Joshua ix; 2 Samuel oath which has been recorded, and is expressly called by Æschines xx.) Moses and the children of Israel slew two kings of the Amorites, the ancient oath of the Amphictyons. It has inadvertently been namely Sihon, who dwelt at Heshbon, and Og, king of Bashan, in the attributed to Solon by Mr. Mitford, who has apparently confounded it plain east of Jordan. These kings had refused to let the Israelites pass with another oath imposed on a particular occasion. An ordinary Through their borders. (Judges xi. 18-23.) Still the Amorites were not council consisted only of the deputed Pylagoræ and Hieromnemons; extirpated, and their descendants formed, even during the time of the but on some occasions at Delphi, all who were present with the Maccabees, a distinct tribe; for we read in Josephus ( Antiquit.' xii. Amphictyonic deputies to sacrifice in the temple and consult the oracle chap. 1.) that the Amorites from Medaba fell suddenly upon the corps of the god, were summoned to attend, and then it received the name of Johannes Gaddis, when he was conveying the baggage of the Jewish of an ecclesia or assembly. Beside the list of Amphictyonic nations host, according to the command of his brother Jonathan, and killed given by Æschines, we have one from Pausanias which differs a little him.

from that of Æschines, and another from Harpocration which differs The Amorites were of tall stature. According to Amos (ü. 9) they slightly from both. Strabo agrees with the orator as to the number were high as cedars and strong as oaks. This poetical description is being twelve. It is further remarkable, that whilst Æschines places illustrated by the historical statement, that the size of the iron bed the Thessalians at the head of his list, Demosthenes, ‘ De Pac.' p. 62, stead of the Amoritish king, Og of Bashan, was nine cubits by four. expressly excludes them from a seat in the council. (Deut. üi. 11.) The rabbins have some wild legends respecting him; Æschines has left us much in the dark as to the usual mode of but it may be concluded that in ancient times the natives of Syria proceeding in the Amphictyonic sessions; and we shall look elsewhere exceeded in stature the inhabitants of the desert and of Egypt. in vain for certain information. It should seem that all the Pylagora

AMPELIC ACID. (CH,0). Obtained by the action of nitric acid sat in the council and took part in its deliberations; but if the common mpon the oily products of the destructive distillation of bituminous opinion mentioned above, respecting the two votes allowed to each shale and of coal. Picric acid and a flocculent matter are collaterally nation, be correct, it is certain that they did not all vote. The reguformed, but on evaporating the liquor the two latter substances are lations according to which the decisions of the twelve nations were first deposited. On then neutralising with ammonia, evaporating to made can only be conjectured. We know that the religious matters dryness, and extracting with alcohol, ampelate of ammonia is dissolved. which fell under the jurisdiction of the Amphictyonic body were

managed principally, at least, by the Hieromnemons, who appear, from Neptune, in the island of Calauria, and which is even called by Strabo, a verse in Aristophanes, Nub? 613, to have been appointed by lot, viii. 374, an Amphictyonic council. but we are not as well informed respecting the limits which separated The greater celebrity of the northern Amphictyons is attributable their duties from those of the Pylagoræ, nor respecting the relative partly to the superior fame and authority of the Delphic Apollo; still rank which they held in the council. (See Æsch. Contr. Ctes.' p. 68— more, perhaps, to their connection with powerful states which grew 72; 'Fals. Leg.' p. 43.) The little that is told is to be found for the into importance at a comparatively late period. The migrating hordes, most part in the ancient lexicographers and scholiasts, or commentators, sent forth from the tribes of which originally or in very early times who knew perhaps nothing about the matter, and whose accounts are the confederacy was composed, carried with them their Amphictyonic sufficiently perplexing to give room for great variety of opinions among rights, and thus at every remove lengthened the arms of the council. modern writers. Some have seemed to themselves to discover that The great Dorian migration especially planted Amphictyonic cities in the office of the Hieromnemons was of comparatively late creation, the remotest parts of Southern Greece. But this diffusion, whilst it that these new deputies were of higher rank than the Pylagore, and extended its fame, was eventually fatal to its political authority. The that one of them always presided in the council ; others again have early members, nearly equal perhaps in rank and power, whilst they supposed, what, indeed, an ancient lexicographer has expressly asserted, remained in the neighbourhood of Mounts (Eta and Parnassus, might that they acted as secretaries or scribes. Two Amphictyonic decrees be willing to submit their differences to the judgment of the Amphicare found at length in the oration of Demosthenes on the Crown, both tyonic body. But the case was altered when Athens and Sparta of which begin thus: “When Cleinagoras was priest, at the vernal became the leading powers in Greece. Sparta, for instance, would not Pylaa, it was resolved by the Pylagoræ and the Synedri (joint council. readily pay obedience to the decrees of a distant council, in which the lors) of the Amphictyons, and the common body of the Amphictyons.” deputies of some inconsiderable towns in Doris sat on equal terms with Some have assumed that Cleinagoras the priest was the presiding their own. Accordingly in a most important period of Grecian history, Hieromnemon, and others that the Hieromnemons are comprehended during a long series of bloody contests between Amphictyonic states, under the general name of Pylagoræ. Æschines again has mentioned we are unable to discover a single mark of the council's interference. a decree in which the Hieromnemons were ordered to repair at an On the other hand, we have from Thucydides i. 112, a strong negative appointed time to a session at Pylæ, carrying with them the copy of a proof of the insignificance into which its authority had fallen. The certain decree lately made by the council. Of the council, as it existed Phocians (B.C. 448) possessed themselves by force of the temple of before the time of Æschines, a few notices are to be found in the Apollo at Delphi; were deprived of it by the Lacedæmonians, by ancient historians, some of which are not unimportant. According to whom it was restored to the Delphians; and were again replaced by Herodotus, vii

. 200, the council held its meetings near Thermo- the Athenians. In this, which is expressly called by the historian a pylæ, in a plain which surrounded the village of Anthela, and in sacred war, not even an allusion is made to the existence of an which was a temple dedicated to the Amphictyonic Ceres ; to whom, Amphictyonic council. After the decay of its political power there as Strabo tells us, ix. 429, the Amphictyons sacrificed at every session. still remained its religious jurisdiction; but it is not easy to determine This temple, according to Callimachus, 'Ep. 41, was founded by its limits, or the objects to which it was directed. În a treaty of Acrisius; and hence arose, as Müller supposes in his history of the peace made (B.C. 421) between the Peloponnesians and the Athenians Dorians (vol. i. p. 289, English translation), the tradition mentioned (Thucyd. v. 17), it was provided that the temple of Apollo at Delphi, above.

and the Delphians, should be independent. This provision, however, We are told by Strabo, ix. 418, that after the destruction of Crissa appears to have had reference especially to the claims of the Phocians by an Amphictyonic army, under the command of Eurylochus, a to include Delphi in the number of their towns, and not to have interThessaliau prince, the Amphictyons instituted the celebrated games, fered in any respect with the superintendence of the temple and oracle, which froin that time were called the Pythian, in addition to the simple which the Amphictyons had long exercised in conjunction with the musical contests already established by the Delphians. Pausanias also, Delphians. We have seen that the Amphictyons were charged in the x. 7., attributes to the Amphictyons, both the institution and subse- earliest times with the duty of protecting the temple and the worship quent regulation of the games; and it is supposed by the most skilful of the god. But the right of superintendence, of regulating the mode of critics, that one occasion of the exercise of this authority, recorded by proceeding in consulting the oracle, in making the sacrifices, and in the Pausanias, can be identified with the victory of Eurylochus, mentioned celebration of the games, was apparently of much later origin, and may, by Strabo. According to this supposition, the Crissæan, and the cele- with some probability, be dated from the victory gained by Eurylochus brated Cirrhaan war, are the same, and Eurylochus must have lived as and the Amphictyonic army. The exercise of this right had the effect late as B.c. 591. But the history of these matters is full of difficulty, of preserving to the council permanently a considerable degree of partly occasioned by the frequent confusion of the names of Crissa importance. In early times the Delphic god had enjoyed immense and Cirrha.

authority. He sent out colonies, founded cities, and originated weighty From the scanty materials left us by the ancient records, the measures of various kinds. Before the times of which we have lately following sketch of the history of this famous council is offered to the been speaking, his influence had been somewhat diminished; but the reader, as resting on some degree of probability :

oracle was still most anxiously consulted both on public and private The council was originally formed by a confederacy of Greek nations matters. The custody of the temple was also an object of jealous or tribes, which inhabited a part of the country afterwards called interest on account of the vast treasures contained within its walls. Thessaly. In the lists which have come down to us of the constituent The Greek writers, who notice the religious jurisdiction of the tribes, the names belong for the most part to those hordes of primitive council, point our attention almost exclusively to Delphi; but it may Greeks which are first heard of, and some of which continued to dwell be inferred from a remarkable fact mentioned by Tacitus, ' Ann.' iv. 14, north of the Malian bay. The bond of union was the common worship that it was much more extensive. The Samians, when petitioning in of Ceres, near whose temple at Anthela its meetings were held. With the time of the Emperor Tiberius for the confirmation of a certain the worship of the goddess was afterwards joined that of the Delphic privilege to their temple of Juno, pleaded an ancient decree of the Apollo ; and thenceforth the council met alternately at Delphi and Amphictyons in their favour. The words of the historian seem to Pylæ. Its original seat and old connections were kept in remembrance imply that the decree was made at an early period in the existence of by the continued use of the term Pylæa, to designate its sessions Greek colonies in Asia Minor, and he says that the decision of the wherever held; though eventually the Delphic god enjoyed more than an Amphictyons on all matters had at that time pre-eminent authority. equal share of consideration in the confederacy. It may be remarked The sacred wars, as they were called, which were originated by the that the Pythian Apollo, whose worship in its progress southwards can Amphictyons in the exercise of their judicial authority, can here be be faintly traced from the confines of Macedonia, was the peculiar god noticed only so far as they help to illustrate the immediate subject of of the Dorians who were of the Hellenic race; whilst the worship of inquiry. The Cirrhæan war, in the time of Solon, has already been Ceres was probably of Pelasgic origin, and appears at one time to have incidentally mentioned. The port of Cirrha, a town on the Crissaan been placed in opposition to that of Apollo, and in great measure to bay, afforded the readiest access from the coast to Delphi. The Cirrhæans, have retired before it. There is no direct authority for asserting that availing themselves of their situation, grievously oppressed by heavy the joint worship was not coeval with the establishment of the council ; exactions the numerous pilgrims to the Delphic temple. The Amphicbut it seems probable from facts, which it is not necessary to examine tyons, by direction of the oracle, proclaimed a sacred war to avenge here, that an Amphictyonic confederacy existed among the older the cause of the god; that is, to correct an abuse which was generally residents, the worshippers of Ceres, in the neighbourhood of the Malian offensive, and particularly injurious to the interests of the Delphians. bay, before the hostile intruders with their rival deity were joined Cirrha was destroyed, the inhabitants reduced to slavery, their lands with them in a friendly coalition. The council met for religious pur- consecrated to Apollo, and a curse was pronounced on all who should poses, the main object

being to protect the temples and maintain the hereafter cultivate them. We are told that Solon acted a prominent worship of the two deities. With religion were joined, according to part on this occasion, and that great deference was shown to his counsels. the customs of the times, political objects; and the jurisdiction of the Mr. Mitford, indeed, has discovered without help from history, which Amphictyons extended to matters which concerned the safety and is altogether silent on the subject, that he was the author of sundry internal peace of the confederacy. Hence the Amphictyonic laws, the important innovations, and that he in fact remodelled the constitution provisions of which may be partly understood from the terms of the of the Amphictyonic body. He has even been able to catch a view of Amphictyonic oath. Confederacies and councils, similar to those of the secret intentions of the legislator, and of the political principles the Amphictyons, were common among the ancient Greeks. Such which guided him. But in further assigning to Solon the command of were those which united in federal republics the Greek colonists of the Amphictyonic army, he is opposed to the direct testimony of the Asia Minor, of the Æolian, Ionian, and Dorian nations. Such also was ancient historians. the confederacy of seven states whose council met in the temple of From the conclusion of the Cirrhæan war to the time of Philip of ARTS AND SCI. DIV, VOL. I.






Macedon, an interval exceeding two centuries, we hear little more of some effect in regulating beneficially national intercourse among the the Amphictyons, than that they rebuilt the temple at Delphi, which Greeks in peace and war, and, so far as it went, was opposed to that had been destroyed by fire B.C. 548; that they set a price on the head brute force and lawless aggression, which no Greek felt himself reof Ephialtes, who betrayed the cause of the Greeks at Thermopylæ, strained by any law from exercising towards those who were not of the and conferred public honours on the patriots who died there; and that Greek name. To the investigator of that dark but interesting period they erected a monument to the famous diver Scyllias, as a reward for in the existence of the Greek nation, which precedes its authentic the information which, as the story goes, he conveyed under water records, the hints which have been left us on the earlier days of this from the Thessalian coast to the commanders of the Grecian Aeet at council, faint and scanty as they are, bave still their value. They conArtemisium. If Plutarch may be trusted, the power of the Amphictyons tribute something to those fragments of evidence with which the had not at this time fallen into contempt. When a proposition was learning and still more the ingenuity of the present generation are made by the Lacedæmonians to expel from the council all the states converting mythical legends into a body of ancient history. which had not taken part in the war against the Persians, it was AMPHIPROSTYLE. This is an architectural term, compounded resisted successfully by Themistocles, or the ground that the exclusion of three Greek words. It is used to designate structures having the of three considerable states, Argos, Thebes, and the Thessalians, would form of an ancient Greek or Roman parallelogramic temple, with a give to the more powerful of the remaining members a preponderating prostyle or portico on each of its ends or fronts, but with no columns influence in the council dangerous to the rest of Greece.

on its sides or flanks. [TEMPLE.] After having, for a long period, nearly lost sight of the Amphictyons AMPHI'SCII, literally double shadowed, a Greek term applied by in history, we find them venturing, in the fallen fortunes of Sparta, to ancient astronomers to the inhabitants of the torrid zone, with whom impose a heavy fine on that state as a punishment for an old offence, the sun passes the meridian at noon, sometimes on the north, somethe seizure of the Theban Cadmeia, the payment of which, however, times on the south, of the zenith, and whose shadows at noon are they made no attempt to enforce. In this case, as well as in the therefore turned to the south during one part of the year, and to the celebrated Phocian war, the Amphictyonic council can be considered north during the remainder. only as an instrument in the hands of the Thebans, who after their AMPHITHE'ATRE, the name by which a species of structure much successful resistance to Sparta, appear to have acquired a preponderating used by the Romans, and combining the forms and some of the uses influence in it, and who found it convenient to use its name and authority, whilst prosecuting their own schemes of vengeance or ambition. Though the charge brought against the Phocians was that of impiety in cultivating a part of the accursed Cirrhæan plain, there is no reason to think that any religious feeling was excited, at least in the earlier part of the contest; and Amphictyonic states were eagerly engaged as combatants on both sides. For an account of this war, the reader is referred to a general history of Greece. The council was so far affected by the result, that it was compelled to receive a new member, and in fact a master, in the person of Philip of Macedon, who was thus rewarded for his important services at the expense of the Phocians, who were expelled from the confederacy. They were, however, at a subsequent period restored, in consequence of their noble exertions in the cause of Greece and the Delphic god against the Gauls. It may be remarked, that the testimony of the Phocian general Philomelus, whatever may be its value, is rather in favour of the supposition that

Amphitheacre of Verona, the council was not always connected with Delphi. He justifies his opposition to its decrees, on the ground that the right which the of the ancient theatre and circus, is generally distinguished ; indeed Amphictyons claimed was comparatively a modern usurpation. In the most of the Roman classical writers apply to it the name of circus case of the Amphissians, whose crime was similar to that of the also. A distinction, however, is now always made; the term amphiPhocians, the name of the Amphictyons was again readily employed; theatre being applied to the species of structure here referred to, but Æschines, who seems to have been the principal instigator of the and circus being restricted to the Roman stadium or hippodrome. war, had doubtless a higher object in view than that of punishing the (CIRCUS.) Amphissians for impiety.

The name amphitheatre seems intended to convey the idea of a The Amphictyonic council long survived the independence of Greece, double theatre ; but what is termed a theatre is, with reference to its and was, probably, in the constant exercise of its religious functions. original uses, more strictly an odeum, and what we call an amphiSo late as the battle of Actium, it retained enough of its former dignity theatre was truly a theatre. The one was for hearing music and at least, to induce Augustus to claim a place in it for his new city of recitations, and the other for seeing sights,-as the words import. Nicopolis. Strabo says that in his time it had ceased to exist. If his [THEATRE.] words are to be understood literally, it must have been revived; for we The form of the amphitheatre is, on the plan, that of an ellipsis, know from Pausanias (x. 8.), that it was in existence in the second with a series of arcaded concentric walls, separating corridors which century after Christ. It reckoned at that time twelve constituent have constructions with staircases and radiating passages between them. states, who furnished in all thirty deputies; but a preponderance was It encloses an open space called the arena, either on, or a very little given to the new town of Nicopolis, which sent six deputies to each above or below the level of the surface of the ground on which the meeting. Delphi sent two to each meeting, and Athens, one deputy; structure is raised. From the innermost concentric wall,— which the other states sent their deputies according to a certain cycle, and not bounds the arena, and which will be from ten to fifteen feet above its to every meeting. For the time of its final dissolution, we have no level,--an inclined plane runs upwards and outwards over the interauthority on which we can rely.

mediate wall, staircases, and corridors, to a gallery or galleries over the It is not easy to estimate with much certainty the effects produced outermost corridors. The inner and upper part of the inclined plane on the Greek nation generally, by the institution of this council. It is, is covered with a graduated series of benches following the general however, something more than conjecture, that the country which was form of the plan; these are intercepted at intervals by radial pasthe seat of the original members of the Amphictyonic confederacy, was sages leading by a more easy gradation to and from the staircases also the cradle of the Greek nation, such as it is known to us in the which pass through the substructions of the benches to the corridors. historical ages. This country was subject to incursions from barbarous These corridors, in the principal stories, continue uninterruptedly all tribes, especially on its western frontier, probably of a very different round the edifice, and afford easy access to, and egress from, every character from the occupants of whom we have been speaking. In the part. In cases where the radiating passages through the bank of pressure of these incursions, the Amphictyonic confederacy may have benches were few, concentric platforms or precinctions went round to been a powerful instrument of preservation, and must have tended to make the communications complete. The external elevation of an maintain at least the separation of its members from their foreign amphitheatre is almost dictated by its internal arrangement and conneighbours, and so to preserve the peculiar character of that gifted struction, and it generally falls into two or more stories of open people, from which knowledge and civilisation have flowed over the arches, which are necessary to give light and air to the corridors and whole western world. It may also have aided the cause of humanity; staircases. for it is reasonable to suppose that in earlier times, differences between The Amphitheatre seems to have been contrived for the more conits own members were occasionally composed by interference of the venient exhibition of such shows as were confined throughout to the council ; and thus it may have been a partial check on the butchery of same place, such as combats, which could not be seen advantageously war, and may at least have diminished the miseries resulting from the along the length of the circus; and moreover the circus had not the cruel lust of military renown. In one respect, its influence was greatly lofty stereobate, podium, or cincture, to protect the spectators from and permanently beneficial. In common with the great public festivals, the savage and powerful brute animals which were frequently used in it helped to give a national unity to numerous independent states, of the public shows of the Romans. Indeed, it is reported that this which the Greek nation was composed. But it had a merit which did defect was a cause of the abandonment of the circus for such exhi: not belong to those festivals in an equal degree. It cannot be doubted bitions as required the use of wild beasts. The great length also of that the Amphictyonic laws, which regulated the originally small con. the circus would be a sufficient reason for adopting the more comfederacy, were the foundation of that international law which was pressed and lofty form given to the amphitheatre, whose arrangement recognised throughout Greece; and which, imperfect as it was, had admits of a far greater number of persons being brought within a

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