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arena.

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smaller area, and consequently within more convenient view of the theatre of Verona, as it exists, looking down into it; this will aid the

section in giving an idea of the arrangement of the benches, and the At first, and for some time, amphitheatres were constructed of mode of access to them. timber. Several accidents occurred, indeed, in consequence of the use The form of the external periphery of the plan is that of an ellipsis, of such, from fire, and from their incapacity to bear the weights they whose conjugate diameter, or minor axis, is to the transverse, or major were subjected to; and, in one instance, it is related (Tacitus, Annal. axis, as five to six, nearly,—the length through, from outside to outiv. 62; Suetonius, Tiber.' 40), that an amphitheatre of this kind fell side of the external wall, being 620 feet, and the breadth to the same during the exhibition of the shows, in the town of Fidena, when extent, 513 feet; but as these dimensions are variously stated by a very large number of persons, variously stated at 20,000 and 50,000, different authorities, something may be allowed for inaccuracy, and were either killed or hurt. Afterwards they were more securely and the proportion between one diameter and the other may be fairly more permanently constructed of brick or stone, according to the assumed in the original draft to have been as above stated. Of course, facilities the place afforded, or the means of the people at whose in the diminishing series of concentric walls, the proportion of the expense the structures were raised.

ellipsis is continually altering, so that the diameters of the arena are It was in the latest period of the Republic that the Romans were as five to eight, as nearly as may be, the length being 287 feet, and debased by the gladiatorial and other shows which led to the use and the breadth 180 feet. The difference between the external and inconstruction of amphitheatres; and to the gratification of this passion ternal diameters, of 333 feet, or 166 ft. 6 in. at each end, is occupied by for demoralising public spectacles may be attributed, in some degree,' four corridors and two blocks of radiating substructions,-in, or beits eventual overthrow, in all but form, and the establishment of the tween, which are the staircases and ways from the outer corridors to despotism of the emperors. All the powerful men in the state who the inner, and to the arena, together with the concentric or encircling aimed still higher, sought favour with the people by these barbarous walls which gird the structure, separate the corridors, and enclose the entertainments; and the sums expended and the numbers of men and

Two of the surrounding corridors lie together, or adjoin each beasts engaged, and for the most part destroyed, in furnishing them other, on the outer side, and in this particular the Colosseum exceeds seem almost incredible.

every other structure of the kind of which we have any knowledge, all The difference in the national characteristics of the Greeks and the rest having but one only; it thus acquires a second gallery, as Romans is by nothing more forcibly illustrated than by the constant may be perceived by referring to the section, in which, also, it is indications of theatres or odeums which mark the sites or immediate singular. The space covered by this immense edifice will be found to vicinities of ancient Greek cities, and the remains of amphitheatres be little short of six acres. Seats were provided for 80,000 spectators; which are common to those of the Romans.

while the arena was sufficiently capacious to admit of several hundred To save unnecessary expense, the Grecian theatre was formed on animals fighting within it at one time, or the evolutions of numerous or in the side of a hill, whenever the locality would afford this vessels in mimic sea-fights, and several other exhibitions requiring advantage; the seats were generally cut in the living rock, and such great amplitude of space. constructions added before it in the formation of the orchestra and The outer encircling wall is pierced with eighty openings, leaving, of proscenium and their accessories, as were absolutely necessary to com course, an equal number of piers; every opening is arched, and in or plete the theatre. The amphitheatre of the Romans was raised, for against every pier is a column projecting about half its diameter, and the most part, within the town or city, on the level plain, of costly supporting an entablature which runs in an unbroken line all round magnificence, and generally of enormous extent, while their theatres the structure. With the exception of the four central openings, which are in every respect secondary, and of inferior importance. Indeed, : lie on the diameters of the ellipsis, and are each nearly two feet wider theatres for music and the drama are seldom found among the remains than the rest, all the openings are very nearly the same, their width of purely Roman cities, but almost every Roman colony, and even being 14 feet 6 inches. An exactly similar series of arches, diminished camp, bears indications of a constructed or excavated amphitheatre. only in proportion to the smaller extent of the ellipsis, separates the The great mother city of Rome herself can hardly be said to exhibit second corridor from the first; and another, bearing the same relation the remains of a theatre, unless it be that which is called the theatre to the second series, that the second does to the first, or outer, bounds of Marcellus; and even this appears to have been more used for games the second corridor. The inner faces of the outer piers, both faces of of the circus, or amphitheatrical shows, than for dramatic represen- the piers of the intermediate series, and the outer faces of the piers tations, and is not of extraordinary extent. But the Colosseum would of the innermost series, have pilasters projecting from them, corcontain from eighty to a hundred thousand persons ;-and the little responding in height with the external columnar ordinance, and bearcity of Pompeii, which has indeed two theatres, has, moreover, an sing a moulded architrave from the top of which semicircular arches amphitheatre, whose arena alone would contain them both. The are turned over the corridors and continued all round the edifice. Grecian cities of Sicily, on the contrary, exhibit remains and indica- The accompanying plan and section exhibit the general arrangement tions of spacious theatres where those of the amphitheatres of their of the corridors here described, though the details cannot, on so small Roman masters are few and unimportant; and the old cities of Greece a scale, be made obvious. The elevation shows how a second and third itself, and the Grecian cities of Asia Minor, are almost entirely free columnar ordinance, with corresponding and nearly similar arched from the pollution of the amphitheatre,—the Roman garrisons ap- intervals, superimpose the lowest, and each other, and that each of pearing to have contented themselves with castrensian or camp-built these two upper ordinances rests upon a continued stylobate or dado, amphitheatres alone. Of this sort,—the castrensian amphitheatre,-- which is broken into every interval or under every column. The we have indications still existing in England ;-the principal are at section indicates the repetition of the double series of outer corridors Banbury, Cirencester, Dorchester, Richborough, Silchester, and Caer- in every story, or behind every one of the three columnar ordinances, leon ; but these were originally little more than mere excavations, or and above the outermost corridor in the third story, a mezzanine, or turf-built cinctures made up with what walling was absolutely neces small middle story, for a corridor behind the first, and under the sary to form the grand concentric bank of benches. In the provinces second, or upper, gallery. The same diagrams show that the third of Ğau,-both transalpine and cisalpine,-Nimes and Verona, by the story of columns is superimposed by a pilastrated ordinance on a remains of their amphitheatres, show how much more completely the continued and recessed dado also, with a deep plinth; they show, inhabitants were nationalised, or Romanised, than were those of Greece moreover, that a bold and massive entablature crowns the whole or of Britain.

elevation, and runs its cornice round in one unbroken line. There is, perhaps, no species of structure peculiar to the Romans, From the third series of eighty piers, on the ground story, as many with the details of which we are so well informed, as of those of the walls, with the exceptions to be noticed, run inwards to the third con. amphitheatre, and there is hardly any one of which we have fewer centric corridor, which is arched over as the outer ones are; the walls descriptions by ancient writers. The remains which still exist in are continued on the other side of it to the fourth or innermost corridor, various places tell us much more plainly what they were than the which is bounded on the other side by the massive wall of the podium most elaborate descriptions can do; and although there is no ple encircling the arena, and is also arched over, though it is not so lofty as of an amphitheatre in complete preservation, or even nearly so, yet the the other three corridors are. Between the radiating walls of the two existing specimens preserve the various parts so completely, that there blocks separating the second from the third, and the third from the is but little difficulty in supplying from one of them what is defective fourth corridors, are of course as many intervals. Some of these form in another. Still there are minor particulars of which we must remain the traversing passages; and the rest, in the outer block, contain the ignorant, unless we take them from such descriptions as exist, or sup- staircases which lead to the upper concentric corridors, and so onward ply them from analogy. We know of no sort of ancient edifice, gene to the upper benches and galleries ; in the inner block are those which rally, in which so much ingenuity is displayed in the arrangement, or lead to the lower benches, and small staircases in the thickness of the so much skill in the construction, as were exemplified by the Romans innermost wall conduct to the benches immediately on the podium. in the design and execution of the amphitheatre; but for architectural The benches extend in one long graduated and concentric series from character, the external composition of the amphitheatre is very far the podium up to the level of the second story of the outer corridors, from being entitled to praise.

and over all the constructions within the second of them. They are As the most remarkable, and one of the most perfect in its details, bounded above by a wall which is pierced with doors; these give access of the remaining examples of the amphitheatre, that which is known from the upper and inner corridor to the radiating flights of steps as the Colosseum at Rome is here used to illustrate this kind of edifice; which intercept the benches at intervals, and cut them up into wedges, the plan and elevation are almost entirely made out from the existing by which name in Latin, cunei, the divisions thus made were distinremains; and the section also, to a certain extent, as well as from guished. This encircling wall has windows in it also, which may have the analogy afforded by other examples and from probability. The been requisite to aid in ventilating the immense area; or they may vignette sketch at the head of this article is a view of the amphi- have been intended merely to afford a view of the arena to persons who

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could not find room on the benches. The section shows that the produce a profound impression on the spectator. Internally the radiating flights of steps intercepting the benches do not run through amphitheatre must always have been strikingly grand and impressive; their whole extent, but are themselves intercepted and taken up again, here none of the littlenesses of storied columns appeared, but the long other lines or flights commencing intermediately and at intermediate unbroken lines of the podium, and the graduated series of the benches, heights. Access is given to these flights at their upper ends by door- and the galleries with the encircling peristyle above-when it existed ways from the corridors behind, sometimes directly, and sometimes by --would have been as beautiful in general effect, as anything archimeans of the internal staircases; and in most cases a short reversed tecture ever produced. flight of steps is made on the outside of the doorways, or vomitories, as There are varieties in the arrangement of the details of the amphithey are termed, to afford headway, and avoid intercepting the benches theatre, as other examples show. Intermediate concentric galleries, further back than could be possibly helped. Almost every thing that platforms, or precinctions sometimes intercepted the great bank of appears in the section above the level of the third story, except the graduated benches to serve as passages of communication ; and someexternal wall itself, is restored from analogy and conjecture. The times each staircase communicated directly and exclusively with one peristyle, or encircling range of columns before the upper gallery, is vomitory, instead of leading to encircling corridors which communicated entirely from conjecture; but for the galleries themselves there is generally, and gave access alike to every part of the enclosure. sufficient evidence in the existing indications of stairs, and in the tooth Next in importance to the Colosseum at Rome, of existing structures ings of the remaining walls and piers. The benches in the grand series of the kind, is the Ampitheatre of Verona. The prefixed vignette were probably of stone, perhaps of marble; but in the galleries it is will give a tolerable idea of its state of preservation. The great most likely they were of wood, and graduated so as to give their external cincture is entirely gone, with the exception of four arches occupiers a view of the arena.

and their accessories; but the great bank of concentric benches, with The most distinguished seats were those on the podium, and these the staircases leading to them, and the parts about the arena, remain were assigned to the emperor, whose place was, by way of eminence, in a comparatively perfect state. The outer cincture was pierced with called the suggestum, and to the senators, to foreign ambassadors, and seventy-two arches, which number appears in the inner, with the to the great officers of the state. The magistrates appear to have sat corresponding radiating walls to the traversing passages and staircases, here in their curule chairs : and the person who gave the games seems --for this had not a second encircling corridor on the outside of the to have occupied a sort of pulpit on the podium, called the editoris stairs block as the Colosseum has. The outer dimensions of this tribunal. The cunei, or wedges, behind and above, were assigned to structure were 502 feet by 401 feet; the length of its arena is 242 feet, different classes, according to their rank, station, and tribe. The Vestal and its breadth or length, on the conjugate, 146 feet; the form, of virgins had one of the best positions assigned to them, and with them course, was ellipitical. sat cuch ladies of high rank as could obtain the advantage; but the The amphitheatre at Nimes in Languedoc is large (430 feet by women generally occupied the open gallery at the top.

378), and in comparatively good preservation. The great external As the plan indicates, the four central entrances--those which lie on cincture of an amphitheatre (436 feet by 346) remains in a very the ends of the diameters of the ellipsis—are wider than the corre- perfect state at Pola in Istria. Rome contains the remains of a second sponding parts of the rest of the structure. They were arcaded through, amphitheatre called the Castrensian. There are also considerable and finished more carefully, especially those leading from the sides, or remains of an amphitheatre at Capua, rivalling in size that at Verona; on the minor axis; these, it is most likely, were reserved for those and of another at Pozzuoli near Naples. That of Pompeii, it has been persons who went to the seats on the podium, and as they gave access already remarked, was an extensive structure. It was also in many also to the arena, they would of necessity be more strictly guarded. respects peculiar, but it is not so well preserved as some other examples

It does not appear that any part of the structure above the level of which have been more exposed, as it suffered considerably from earththe ground, and outside of the arena, was appropriated as dens for the quakes before it was buried. Át Pæstum, there are indications of an beasts which were used in the shows; for indeed the corridor leading amphitheatre, though not a large one ; at Catania, in Sicily, the upper to the principal seats in the amphitheatre must have been traversed by and outer encircling corridor of an extensive amphitheatre is accessible, them in their way to the arena, if that were the case. Substructions considerably under the level of the modern city, buried by the torrents were discovered and excavated a few years ago over the whole extent of lava from Mount Etna. Syracuse and several other of the ancient of the arena ; these lead to a belief that it was floored with wood, so cities of Sicily exhibit remains or indications of small amphitheatres. that the animals required for the day may have been kept in dens In our own country, as has been noticed, there are several vestiges of under the floor, and allowed to issue at traps in it. But some have amphitheatres; indeed, wherever Roman remains are found to any supposed dens ranged all round the arena, within its surface and below extent, whether at home or abroad, some indication may be almost the podium, from which the beasts would issue to the combat directly. certainly discovered of the existence at some time of an amphitheatre.

In the Colosseum the great crowning cornice of the external ele AMPHITRITE, is represented by Hesiod as a goddess, the wife of vation is pierced through at regular intervals with square holes or Poseidon or Neptune, to whom she bore three sons; and she changed mortises, from which grooves are cut down through the rest of the Scylla into a horrible monster when she had become jealous of her. entablature flush with the outer surface of the wall;

and every mortise By later poets she is treated as the goddess of ocean generally. There and groove is immediately above a strong projecting stone or corbel at was a temple to Neptune and Amphitrite at Tenos, as is shown by an about two-thirds the height of the pilastraded ordinance. These are inscription on one of the marbles of the Elgin collection in the British supposed to have been used to insert and receive poles to carry an Museum; and in the temple of Poseidon on the Corinthian Isthmus, awning strained over the whole inclosure to protect the spectators from there was a statue of the goddess. Amphitrite was represented in the sun and from rain. It is however difficult to understand how Greek art as resembling Aphrodite, but her hair was confined by a net. such an axtent of cloth or canvass could have been borne in that man There is a colossal statue of her in the Villa Albani at Rome. She is ner without some intermediate support, of which we are not aware. also frequently represented on coins, especially on those of Syracuse.

The external elevation is composed, -as it has been already described, AMPHITRITE. One of the group of small planets revolving and as the elevation indicates, -of three series or stories of attached between Mars and Jupiter. [ASTEROIDS.] or engaged columns with their usual accesssories, and a pilastraded AʼMPHORA (dupopevs), in its ordinary acceptation, means an ordinance, forming a species of attic, which is pierced with windows, earthen vessel, used as a measure for liquids both by the Greeks and -one in every other interspace. The lowest ordinance of columns Romans, and for preserving wine, grapes, olives, oil, and other articles rests on the upper step of the substructions, or on the ground floor of which required careful keeping. It received its name on account of its the structure; it is of what is termed the Doric style or order, but in two ears or handles. It is generally two feet, or two feet and a half the debased Roman manner, and its entablature wants the distinguish in height: and the body, which is usually about six inches in diameter, ing feature of that style, the triglyph. The intervening arches are ending upwards with a short neck, tapers toward the lower part semicircular; they spring from moulded imposts, and have moulded almost to a point. This pointed end was inserted in a hole in the archivolts on their outer faces. The second ordinance is in the Roman ground, or in a stand to keep the vessel upright. The Attic amphora Ionic style, having voluted capitals to the columns; and the third is contained three Roman urnæ, or seventy-two sextaries, equal to about in the Corinthian or foliated style : these, as before stated, rest upon two gallons five pints and a half of English wine-measure. The continued, but broken or recessed, stylobata, but their entablatures Roman, sometimes called the Italic amphora, contained two urna or are, like the rest, perfectly unbroken throughout, and the arches in forty-eight sextaries, about seven gallons one pint English. Homer the intercolumniations in both, correspond exactly-except in minor mentions amphoræ both of gold and stone; in later times glass amdetails-with those of the lowest or Doric ordinance. The pilasters phoræ were not uncommon; and the Egyptians had them of brass. have foliated capitals also, and are called composite; they rest on deep There are various specimens of earthen amphoræ in the British plinths under which there is a continued and recessed dado super- Museum, in the Elgin and Townley Galleries. imposing the Corinthian entablature ;—this dado is pierced with holes There was another amphora among the Romans, which was a dryor small windows, alternating with those of the ordinance above, to measure, and contained about three bushels. give light to the corridor behind the lower and under the upper Earthen amphoræ of the Roman time have been frequently found in gailery on the inside. The crowning entablature is made bold and England. Like other domestic vessels of the Romans, they appear to effective by deep modillion blocks or consoles occupying the whole have been sometimes used as funeral urns. They were also used as depth of the friege.

coffins : the amphora was cut in half in the direction of its length, and The style of Chese architectural decorations is, for the most part, the corpse having been placed inside, the two halves were united rude and tasteless; the Colosseum, however, from its magnitude, from again and buried. Amphoræ used for wine were usually lined with its general form, and no doubt also from the feelings arising from the pitch or some other coating, on account of the porous nature of the contrast between its present state and ancient splendour, never fails to material of which they were formed. Amphoræ were placed as urinals

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in the public streets of Rome till the time of Vespasian. The burden during the actual performance of an operation is indispensable to the of ships was reckoned by amphoræ.

safety of the operation of amputation in particular. So large are the The amphora is still the largest liquid measure used by the Vene- trunks of the main blood-vessels that supply the limbs, and so great is tians, containing sixteen quarts.

the quantity of blood that flows from them in a short space of time, AMPLITUDE, the angular distance of a celestial body from the that loss of life is always the consequence of a want of command over east point when it ris or from the west point when it sets. It these great vessels. By the invention of the instrument termed the depends upon the declination of the star and the latitude of the place, tourniquet, an invention of the 17th century (TOURNIQUET], this comand may be computed from the form-ıla,

mand is obtained. By these instruments, then, namely, the tourniquet,

and the needle and ligature, modern surgeons have such a perfect sin. declination sin. amplitude =

command over the blood-vessels, that operations may be performed, cos. latitude,

in which the largest trunks are divided without the loss scarcely of a

single drop of blood. On this account, the mere removal of a limb It must be measured towards the north or south points of the excites in the modern surgeon no degree of anxiety; the operation of horizon, according as the declination is north or south. For the fixed amputation is scarcely ever attended with the slightest hazard; neverstars, the amplitude remains the same throughout the year: but for theless, there are circumstances connected with amputation of the the sun it varies with the declination, being nothing at the equinoxes, greatest possible importance, delicacy, and difficulty, on a clear and and about 34 points of the compass at the solstices, or more exactly correct view of which life depends; to obtain such a view, the most 39° 44' of amplitude, in the latitude of London; that is, at the summer extensive knowledge, and the most accurate discrimination, are requisolstice, it rises between N.E. by E. and N.E., and sets between N.W. site; while, to act in conformity with it, a high degree of moral by W. and N.W.; and at the winter solstice, it rises between S.E. by courage is often no less necessary. Perhaps the determination of the E. and S.E., and sets between S.W. by W. and S.W.

exact time at which to amputate is sometimes among the most difficult The term amplitude was also applied to what is more commonly points of surgery; that is, the determination of the time when the called the range of a gun; that is, the whole horizontal distance which preservation of the limb is no longer possible; and when, therefore, it the gun will carry. It is sometimes also used in the integral calculus. is right to put an immediate stop to any further exhaustion of the

AMPUTATION, from amputo, to cut off; the operation of cutting health and strength by the removal of the limb. The recent introoff a limb from the body. Such is the constitution of the animal body duction of the use of anæsthetics, in order to produce a state of insen. in general, and especially of the more perfectly organised body, that if sibility in those submitting to the operation of amputation, has been one part of it be diseased, the whole system suffers, while a general found to exercise a most beneficial effect on recoveries after amputation. disturbance of the system cannot exist long without producing specific [ANÆSTHETICS.] disease in some individual organ. Hence constitutional and local AMULET, in barbarous Latin, Amuletum, or Amoletum. It comes diseases are found to exert a most important influence over each other. from the Arabic Hamalet, a thing suspended. An amulet hung round Some local diseases are of an incurable nature, and proceed progres- the neck, or carried in any other way about the person, is absurdly sively from bad to worse. At first, these diseases may not materially believed to have the effect of warding off morbid infections and other affect the general health, but in their progress they produce so much dangers, and even of curing diseases by which the body has been constitutional disturbance, as to endanger life, and ultimately to already attacked. The belief in the efficacy of amulets has subsisted destroy it. In this case, life is really endangered and destroyed by the at some time among almost every people, and the thing has been local malady; remove that, provided the removal can be effected before denoted by a great variety of names, which it is unnecessary here the general health is irreparably impaired, and not only is death to enumerate. The phylacteries, or bits of parchment with passages averted, but health itself is restored. Hence, in all ages, the necessity from the Bible written upon them, which the Jews were wont to carry and advantage have been obvious enough, of removing a part of the about with them, were amulets; such were probably the ear-rings body for the sake of preserving the remainder, and men have always been mentioned in Genesis xxxv. 4; and in Hosea ii. 13. Jerusalem is willing to submit to the loss of a limb in order to save the body, on represented as decking herself with the ear-rings of Baalim. Of the the ground" that it is better to live with three limbs than to die with same character as the Jewish phylacteries are the scraps of paper four."

inscribed with sentences from the Koran, which the Moorish priests But although it must always have been clear, that it is a ,gain to sell to the negroes of Africa, and to which the latter give the name save life even at the cost of a limb, when nothing but the removal of of Fetishes. This superstition, which existed also among the Greeks the limb can preserve the body, yet it was not always easy to make and Romans, appears to have in early times prevailed extensively the sacrifice. Whoever understands the circulation of the blood, and among the converts to Christianity, if we may judge by the denunconsiders the quantity that is sent, and that must necessarily be sent, ciations directed against it by St. Chrysostom, and others of the to each member of the body for its nourishment, and the magnitude fathers. But even down to our own day, it has continued to be an of the blood-vessels that are divided in cutting off a limb, will readily article of the popular creed, that certain medical preparations, and perceive how impossible it must have been to perform the operation other things, merely carried about the person, have the power both of of amputation before any certain mode was known of stopping the flow repelling and of healing diseases. Even the celebrated Robert Boyle of blood from the wounded blood-vessels. But no such mode of adopts this notion, assuring us that he once experienced the efficacy stopping hæmorrhage was known to the ancients: consequently, of such an amulet in his own case. “Having been one summer," he though they daily saw the necessity of performing the operation of says, "frequently subject to bleed at the nose, and reduced to employ amputation, yet they looked upon the operation with terror, and several remedies to check that distemper; that which I found the shrunk from the responsibility of undertaking it. And no wonder: most effectual to stanch the blood was some moss of a dead man's when they did venture upon it, the consequences were appalling. skull (sent for a present out of Ireland, where it is far less rare than in They cut through the flesh with a red-hot knife, hoping by this means most other countries), though it did but touch my skin till the herb to prevent a fatal loss of blood. After having performed this opera- was a little warmed by it.” (Essay of the Porousness of Animal tion, they dressed the wound with scalding oil, in order to complete Bodies.' See also his Essays on the Usefulness of Natural Philowhat the burning knife may have left imperfect. But these expedients sophy, and his Experimental Discourse on some Unheeded Causes of stopped only for a short time the flow of blood. The whole surface of the Insalubrity and Salubrity of the Air.') The anodyne necklace, the wound was converted into an eschar, which for a time stopped the which consists of beads formed from the roots of white bryony, and is bleeding. But the eschar being dead matter it was at length thrown sometimes hung around the necks of infants with the view of assisting off by the action of the living parts beneath. The moment this took their teething, is an instance of the still surviving confidence in the place, the mouths of the blood vessels were again opened, hæmorrhage medical virtue of amulets. Such also is the belief generally entertook place just as at first, and the patient perished from loss of blood. tained by seafaring people, that a child's caul on board their ship will The uniformity with which this event took place after amputation preserve them from being lost-and many other examples might be performed in this mode, could not but cause the operation to be easily quoted. Even in 1858, though probably without much superregarded with dismay. Nevertheless, it is pretty clear, that in the stitious belief, charms were advertised set as jewels, and among them time of Celsus, the surgeons of that age were not without some notion were pieces of the Atlantic cable. of the true mode of stopping hæmorrhage from wounded blood-vessels, AMYGDALIC ACID. (CH2.02-). Produced by the action of alkalies for that writer gives particular directions to take hold of the vessels, upon amygdalin. to tie them in two places, and then to divide the intermediate portion; certain, however, it is, that this practice was not extended to amputa

C, ĐH, NO2 + 2HO = C, H, O ++NH •

+ tion, because nothing was ever amputated by the ancients but a part

Amygdalin,

Amygdalic acid. absolutely mortified or dead; and in a part thus mortified or dead, it is not practicable

to secure the blood-vessels by the needle and ligature. Evaporated on the water-bath, solution of amygdalic acid dries up to a The general introduction into surgery, of the method of stopping gummy mass, which is highly deliquescent, insoluble in ether, and in hæmorrhage by taking up the divided blood vessel with a needle, and boiling absolute alcohol. By the aid of heat it reduces the salts of placing a ligature around it, must, therefore, be considered as much a silver. Its salts are generally gummy and uncrystallisable. Like amyg. modern improvement, as if no allusion whatever had been made to it dalic acid itself, they yield formic acid, carbonic acid, and hydride of by ancient writers. But if a knowledge of the mode of stopping hæmorrhage by tying sulphuric acid.

benzoyl, when boiled with a mixture of peroxide of manganese and the blood-vessel, be indispensable to the safety of surgical operations AMYGDALIN. (C.H,,N0,9 +6aq.) A crystalline substance first in general, the knowledge of some mode of preventing the loss of blood obtained by Robiquet,

and Boutron Charlard, and afterwards studied by

AMYL (C:o ”) or (&#;}). A compound radical, discovered by

Acid.

Liebig and Wöhler. It is met with in bitter almonds, the leaves of expression. Hence, in the Pharmacopoeia, Oleum amygdalarum is the cherry laurel, the kernels of peaches, and is probably also con- directed to be expressed from the kernels of either variety. For the tained in all those parts of vegetables which yield hydrocyanic acid sake of economy, this fixed oil is first procured, and the cake which when distilled with water.

remains is employed either to yield the volatile oil containing hydroAmygdalin is prepared as follows:-Bitter almonds are strongly cyanic acid or to furnish amygdalin. pressed between hot plates of iron, so as to expel the fixed oil they The essential oil of bitter almonds is prepared by distilling the emulcontain. The resulting mass is extracted with boiling alcohol of 90sion of bitter almonds. or 95 per cent., and to the filtered and clarified alcoholic solution, It is eold in different degrees of dilution to cooks, confectioners, and evaporated to one-sixth its volume, is added half its bulk of ether, others, to flavour cakes and liqueurs, under the name of essence of which precipitates the whole of the amygdalin. The precipitate is ratafia, peach-essence, &c. (See Lancet, June 8, 1844; and “The finally washed with ether and purified by recrystallisation from Chemist, vol. v. p. 335.) From its indiscriminate use, as well as alcohol. Four pounds of bitter almonds yield about an ounce of variable strength, many fatal cases result from it. It is also used as a amygdalin.

criminal means of destroying life. [AMYGDALIN; BENZOYL, HYDRIDE OF.] Amygdalin crystallises in white pearly plates, which are very slightly soluble in cold, but easily soluble in boiling absolute alcohoi. It dissolves readily in water, but is insoluble in ether. Its aqueous Frankland. It is procured by the action of zinc on iodide of amyl. solution possesses a slightly bitter taste. The most interesting It is an oily liquid, boiling at a temperature of 311° Fahr., and property of amygdalin is, that when its solution is placed in contact is homologous with methyl, ethyl, &c. Its compounds form a series with emulsin, it is transformed by a species of fermentation into hydro, of highly interesting bodies, resembling those containing ethyl and cyanic acid, hydride of benzoyl (essential oil of bitter almonds), and

methyl. grape sugar.

The following are some of the most important of these compounds :C..11,7N0-2 + 4H10 = C.IN + 0,11,03 + 2C,,H, 2013

Cho

H
Amygdalin. Hydrocyanic Hydride of Grape sugar.

from which amyl and all its compounds are derived, is formed along Benzöyl.

with common alcohol during the fermentation of the mash of potato Bitter almonds contain both amygdalin and emulsin, and, therefore, starch, and the starch of common grains. The process of its formation when treated with water they yield the well known essential oil mixed under these circumstances is not well understood, although it undoubtwith hydrocyanic acid; but sweet almonds contain emulsin and no

edly depends on some peculiar conditions of the fermentation. It is amygdalin, and consequently do not yield these products when macerated (Amylum) that it has obtained its name.

on account of its being obtained from the decomposition of starch with water.

The latter portions of the AMY'GDALUS-Medical Properties of. Amygdalus communis, a tree alcohol produced in the distillation of these fermented matters contain native of Asia and Africa, cultivated in the southern parts of Europe, which consists of amylic alcohol. It is the occurrence of this oil in

an oil separable by water and termed Fusel oil, the greater portion of of which there are two varieties, sweet and bitter. Of the sweet almonds, the parts which are officinal are the seeds or kernels. When crude distilled spirits that gives them a part of their noxious qualities, covered with the skin, these are of a clove-brown colour, smooth, with and it is the object of the distiller to prevent the development of fusel vessels traversing the skin, and forming a raphe. Deprived of the oil. When fusel oil is submitted to distillation, its boiling point gradually skin, the egg-shaped seed, formed of two cotyledons, is seen of a white rises until it reaches 270° F., at which point it then frequently remains colour. They have a sweet and mucilaginous, rather oily taste, and stationary during the remainder of the distillation. The portion of the scarcely any odour when fresh but when spoiled a disagreeable rancid fusel oil distilling at 270° is pure hydrated oxide of amyl. It is a taste.

colourless, somewhat oily liquid, almost insoluble in water, and boiling Analysed by Boullay, they yielded emulsin, and a fat oil of a very pleasant, and produces when inhaled a sense of suffocation. Its taste

at a temperature of 270°. It has a powerful odour, which is very unbland kind. Ten pounds of seeds yield four pounds of oil, Upon being is nauseous and acrid. When heated in contact with potash, hydrogen subjected to pressure, treated by means of ether, the oil is separated, and there remains the cake, or farina amygdala. The commercial is given off, and valeric acid is formed, which unites with the potash. varieties are numerous, but the most esteemed are the Jordan Distilled with a mixture of dilute sulphuric acid and bichromate of almonds.

potash, it also yields valeric acid, Triturated with water, sweet almonds form a grateful, sweetish

C1,1,20, to C, 4100 + 2 10. emulsion, which possesses considerable nutritious as well as demulcent properties. This emulsion should never be prepared long before it is

Amylic alcohol. required for use, and should always be made with sweet almonds. and is now the source of the salts of this acid used in medicine. When Almond-paste forms a good emollient application to chapped hands in heated with dry phosphoric acid, it yields the carbo-hydrogen C° H ", winter.

which is isomeric with olefiant gas, and which is known by the name Almonds, as an article of dessert, are nutritive, but rather indigestible. of Amylene or Valerene. This substance has lately obtained some In some persons they occasion-more particularly bitter almonds-an

repute, since it has been administered in common with chloroform eruption similar to nettle-rash, and other troublesome symptoms. and ether as an anästhetic. [ANÆSTHETICS; MATERIA MEDICA;

Oil of Almonds.—The almonds having been freed from the skins, must Alcohols.] be bruised, and pressed in the cold, or, if warmed, they must be pressed

lodide of Amyl (C,H, I) — This compound is formed by distilling in iron presses. The oil when first obtained is turbid, but becomes pure together a mixture of 10 parts of amylic alcohol, 12 parts of iodine, by time or by filtration. It is yellowish, or nearly white, if the almonds and la parts of phosphorus. The product, after being washed with have been completely freed from the skins before being pressed, trans- water, and then dried over chloride of calcium, is again submitted lucent, and when cold-drawn is without odour. The taste is purely to rectification, a thermometer being inserted through the tubulure oily. Specific gravity, 0.911 to 0.920. Consists of, elain 75; stearin 25. of the retort.' That portion which distils over whilst the thermoIt is fluid at the ordinary temperature of the air, and rarely or never becomes turbid or white. Alcohol when cold takes up 1-25th part. apart.

meter stands at 295° F. is pure iodide of amyl, and must be collected Sulphuric ether and the volatile oils combine with it in every proportion. Caustic potash forms with it a very solid soap. When it has strongly, possessing a slight ethereal odour and a pungent taste.

Iodide of amyl is a colourless and transparent liquid, refracting light

Its been carefully expressed, it does not become rancid so easily as is specific gravity is 1.511. It boils at 295° F. Exposed to direct sunbelieved.

light, it gradually becomes brown from the separation of free iodine. It may be obtained from either variety, but is yielded in greatest It is decomposed by an alcoholic solution of potash, amylic alcohol abundance by the bitter almond : 10 lbs. of sweet, when cold-drawn, being reproduced. yield from 4 to 41 lbs.; 16 lbs. of bitter almonds yield 7 lbs. Almonds which have become rancid yet yield by expression good oil,

CHI + KO, HO
+

C2,11,202 + KI.
if a little calcined magnesia be added to the bruised almonds before
being subjected to pressure.

Iodide of amyl. Hydrate of Amylic alcohol.
potash.

potassium. Almond oil is often adulterated with poppy oil. It is employed more as an external application, especially to the ears, than internally. It is Heated with amalgam of zinc to 356° F., in a strong sealed glass tube, also used for hair oil.

it gives amyl, hydride of amyl, amylene, and iodide of zinc. Heated to Amygdal. Amaræ, bitter almonds, are smaller and flatter than the 212° F. with alcoholic solution of ammonia, it yields amylamine. sweet. Those most esteemed come from Provence; those least esteemed The following are the names and formula of the remaining more from Barbary. They have a very bitter taste, and scarcely any odour, important compounds of amyl :but if rubbed between the fingers with a little water, they emit a pecubiarly agreeable odour. Triturated with water, they form an emulsion,

Oxide of amyl

0,11,10, C1,1,20 which by distillation yields a volatile oil, containing hydrocyanic acid.

Chloride of amyl

CHCl

Bromide of amyl This oil is procured in very variable quantity ; 1 lb. of almonds yield

Sulphide of amyl

CHUS ing in some instances 1 drachm, in others only 50 grains, in others only Amylamine

CH,9N 10 grains.

Diamylamine

C2 H29N Å fat or fixed oil is also contained, which may be procured by Triamylamine

C3,H,9N

Valeric acid,

Iodide of

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Br

.

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