« السابقةمتابعة »
admit to their communion. It is sometimes applied to designate that Sulphamylic acid
CHLO, SO, HOSO, large body of Christians in our own and other Protestant countries, one Hydride of amyl
of whose articles of belief is, that baptism ought only to be adminisNitrate of amyl
tered to adults, and who, accordingly, rebaptise those who seek to join Acetate of amyl (Pear oil)
CH110C,H,O, Valerate cf amyl (Apple oil)
them. But this application of the name is quite unwarranted, and one
against which the community in question have always protested. They Amylphenylamine
C. 11, N
do not maintain the necessity of a new or second baptism, nor are Amyldiethylamine
those who have been born and brought up in their persuasion ever
baptised twice. Others, who may have been previously baptised in AMYLAMINE. [AMYL.]
infancy, are indeed baptised once again when they have grown up; but AMYLENE. [AMYL.]
this is done on the principle that the former ceremony was no baptism AMYLUREA. [AMYL.]
at all. Baptists is the designation assumed by those who thus hold the AMYLIC ALCOHOL. "[AMYL.]
doctrines of the non-validity of infant, and the necessity of adult, AMYRINE. A resinous substance of unknown composition, ex. baptism; and they will accordingly be properly noticed under that tracted from the Canarium album, a tree growing in the Philippine head. islands. It is soluble in ether, from which it crystallises in lustrous We are not aware, indeed, that there has ever been a sect which satiny fibres. It is insoluble in water, soluble in hot absolute alcohol, maintained the necessity of two successive baptisms. On the other and fuses at 345o Fah.
hand, it is certain that there were various sects in the earlier ages of ANA, a Latin termination of the neuter plural form. It appears in the church which agreed with the modern Baptists in allowing no our language, divested of the sign of gender, number, and case, in such validity except to adult baptism. But the epithet Anabaptists appears words as subterranean, metropolitan, Christian, Anglican, Ciceronian, to have been first employed to describe a body of fanatics who made Johnsonian. The Latin ana is the form appropriated to the neuter their appearance in Germany soon after the commencement of the plural; and, therefore, Ciceroniana, for instance, would signify matters, Reformation; and although it has been since frequently applied to or things of any sort, about or appertaining to Cicero. Cicero, in one other religious bodies as being alleged to have sprung from these, such of his epistles, mentions an ana (book vii. ch. 32), in which he com a use of it can only be considered as one of those imputations with plains of having all sorts of sayings attributed to him, even the which different sects have been in the habit of assailing each other. Sextiana.
The Anabaptists were, no doubt, the growth of the ReformationIn modern times this termination has been used to denote collec- though Protestant writers have laboured hard to make it appear that tions, either of remarks made by celebrated individuals in conversation, such was not the case. They were the ultra-radicals of the Reformaor of extracts from their note-books, letters, or even published works, tion. Munzer, Stubner, and Storck, who were the first heads and or generally, of particulars respecting them.
apostles of the sect, had all been disciples of Luther; although no The earliest recorded modern ana were certain manuscript collec- person could have more earnestly condemned their proceedings than tions in the possession of Guy, Patin, in 1659, relating to Grotius, did that great reformer. They first began to preach their peculiar Nicholas Bourbon, and Gabriel Naudé, which he called Grotiana, doctrines in the town of Wittenberg, in Saxony, in the year 1521. In Borboniana, and Naudeana. They were never published; those 1525, their followers, composed almost exclusively of the lowest rabble, published as 'Naudeana' at Paris in 1701, being, as is generally rose in a general rebellion against the established authorities throughacknowledged, a mere forgery.
out that province, Suabia, Thuringia, and Franconia. But this insur. The first printed Ana was the collection of the colloquial remarks rection, which it is but fair to remark was partly of a political of Joseph Scaliger, now distinguished as the 'Scaligerana Secunda.' character, and occasioned by the oppression to which the peasantry Two brothers, Jean and Nicholas de Vassan, having gone to study at were subjected, was soon defeated; and Munzer, himself, being taken, Leyden, carried with them letters of recommendation from Casaubon was put to death. The novel notions, however, which he had preached, to Scaliger, who was then one of the professors in that university. In spread as usual under persecution; and, some years afterwards, the consequence they were much at his house, and heard a great deal of his mischief broke out again with new fury. In 1532 a numerous mob of conversation, both in company and in private. Such of his observa- these fanatics, conducted by John Matthias, a baker, of Haarlem, and tions upon all sorts of subjects as they considered to be most valuable John Boccoldt, a tailor, of Leyden, suddenly attacked the city of or remarkable they wrote down till the collection at last formed a Münster during the night, and made themselves masters of the place. thick octavo volume. The book was published in 1666, with the title Their adherents immediately flocked thither from all quarters : and of Scaligeriana, sive Excerpta ex ore Josephi Scaligeri :' per FF. elated by their success, the congregated enthusiasts are stated to have PP. (contraction for ' Fratres Puteanos').
given themselves up to extravagances far, exceeding anything they It happened, however, that the Vassans were not the only persons had before practised. Matthias named Münster Mount Zion, and proby whom Scaliger's conversations had been noted down. A physician claimed himself its king. Having madly undertaken, however, attended of the name of François Vertunien, who attended the family of the MM. with only thirty followers, to attack and disperse the forces which Chateigners de la Rochepozai, in whose house Scaliger resided, had came to recover the town, he perished, with all who accompanied him. been in the habit for seventeen years, namely, from 1575 to 1592, of John of Leyden now assumed the royal dignity, and under his conduct keeping a record of the remarks that dropped from the lips of the the multitude is said to have proceeded to wilder excesses than ever. great scholar. . After his death they were published along with the The city, however, was at length recaptured by the army which the former collection, in 1669, bearing the following title, 'Prima Scali. Bishop had brought up against it on the 24th of June 1535; and Bocgerana, nusquam antehac edita, cum Prefatione T. Fabri; quibus coldt, having fallen into the hands of the victors, was soon after executed adjuncta et altera Scaligerana, quam antea emendatiora, cum notis with the most terrific cruelties that hatred and revenge could dictate. cujusdam V.D. anonymi.”
The most extravagant tenets, as well as conduct, have been comThe next of the Ana which appeared was the 'Perroniana,' being monly ascribed to the Anabaptists of Münster ; but the accounts of a notes (in French) of the conversations of Cardinal du Perron. It proscribed sect by their enemies, it is to be remembered, are scarcely appeared in 1669. In the same year, the same person gave to the to be received with implicit credit. The doctrine which gave occasion world another of these collections, the Thouana,' or remarks of the to their distinctive appellation was one of the least remarkable of all President de Thou. These works had extraordinary success; and the their peculiar articles of belief, although they are said to have incul. avidity with which they were read, produced a long succession of cated it with singular emphasis and vehemence, being in the habit of similar productions. It was in France, or at least in the French declaring that infant baptism was an invention of the devil. A much language, that most of the Ana appeared ; and their popularity may more pernicious principle which they are accused of having held, at be said to have lasted for fully half a century. One of the most least in so far as the peace of society was concerned, was that of the valuable of this class of publications is the 'Menagiana,' a record of the unwarrantableness of all civil government, and the emancipation of the conversations of Menage, who was a man of distinguished wit and faithful from subjection to either laws or taxes. They are also said to talent, as well as a great scholar. He died in 1692, and the following have maintained that, among the saints, all things ought to be in year the 'Menagiana' appeared in a 12mo volume, both at Paris and common. Their speculative theology is described as having been much Amsterdam.
the same with that which has been, and still is, patronised by various Of our English Ana, by far the most celebrated is the 'Walpoliana,' other denominations of enthusiasts. It rested principally on the being a collection of the conversational remarks of Horace Walpole. notion that God made his will known to them individually by special
There are many works, which, without bearing the characteristic inspirations, by way of enhancing the importance of which they are citle of such collections, belong in all other respects to the class of the said to have expressed themselves with some degree almost of contempt Ana. One of the earliest and most celebrated of such works in or disparagement of the written word. Besides the internal impresmodern times is the Colloquia,' or 'Table-Talk' of Luther, first sions which they called inspirations, they had dreams and visions in which published in German at Eisleben, in 1565. Another
very celebrated they put much confidence; and some of them conceived themselves to work of this kind is the 'Table-Talk of John Selden,' which is stated to have the gift of prophecy, which they were especially accustomed to have been collected by Richard Milward, and was first published in exercise in predicting the speedy approach of the end of the world. 1689. Boswell's ' Life of Johnson' is undoubtedly the most remark- Akin to these delusions was another favourite and fundamental dogma, able work of this description in existence.
that every true believer attained even in this life perfect freedom from ANABAPTISTS, a religious sect. The word, composed of two sin. This position soon led them a great way. Finding that what had Greek terms, properly signifies those who baptise a second time, or commonly been called sin could not be altogether extirpated from the insist upon the necessity of a second baptism in persons whom they bosoms even of the stoutest believers, they found it necessary, in order
to save the doctrine, to declare that certain things which had hitherto Xenophon adds the march of the Greek auxiliaries from Ephesus been deemed contrary to the divine law, were not so at all, but in Sardes (about fifty miles) to the distance from Sardes to Cunaxa. reality either indifferent or meritorious. It does not appear that they The march may be considered as having terminated at Cotyora, as are accused of having gone quite to the extreme to which the principle the army sailed from this place to Sinope, now Sinub: their troubles, in question has sometimes led, of maintaining generally that the belief however, continued till they reached Byzantium, now Constantinople, of the sinner sanctified or neutralised his sin, or, in other words, that and even beyond that point. an act which would have been sinful in another became divested of its If we take the stadia of Xenophon at the rate of ten to a mile, sinful character when committed by a believer. If all that is stated of an estimate which is above the truth, we find the whole distance them be true, indeed, they were under no necessity to resort to this marched to be 3465 English miles, which was accomplished in fifteen device in order to give a loose to their inclinations, having put down months, and a large part of it through an unknown mountainous and in their list of universally permissible indulgences most of those things hostile country, and in an inclement season. The reader will find the to which there is any violent disposition in the multitude of mankind. expedition of the younger Cyrus discussed in the work of Major They condemned, for instance, with great severity, all ornamental Rennel, and the various difficulties that occur in the narrative of attire, and some even went the length of objecting to clothing altoge- Xenophon explained, as far as means of information will allow, with the ther. Boccoldt himself, in one of his fits of exaltation, solemnly | Major's usual good sense and sagacity. [XENOPhox, in Biog. Div.] promenaded the streets of Münster, stark naked. The love of dress, Anabasis is also the name given by Arrian, who was in all things an they said, was an artificial vanity, and as such hateful to God. But imitator of Xenophon, to his work, in seven books, in which he dewhatever, on the other hand, they held to be natural, they looked upon scribes the campaigns of Alexander the Great. [ARRIAN, in the as harmless or commendable. Boccoldt is stated to have urged upon his Division of BIOGRAPHY.] followers, as in the highest degree conducive to their spiritual welfare, ANACARDIC ACID. (C, H.,0,?) A white crystalline aromatic the practice of a liberal polygamy, and to have illustrated and enforced acid contained in the shell of the acajou nut. his doctrine by taking to himself no fewer than fourteen wives.
ANÆMIA, a diseased condition of the human body, in which is For a long time after the events which have been related, it was implied either a morbid condition of the blood, or a relative diminu. dangerous in Germany and other parts of the continent to profess an tion of some of its most important constituents. This disease is also adherence to the doctrine of adult baptism ; those who held that tenet called oligonæmia and spaneemia, terms which, like anæmia, express a being all most absurdly classed as belonging to the sect of the Ana- deficiency or paucity of the constituents of the blood. This state of the baptists of Münster. It has been commonly said, that to avoid the per- system is generally indicated by the excessive paleness of the face and secution to which they were subjected, the remains of these fanatics the whole surface of the body. The lips are pale. The conjunctiva is in course of time adopted various new denominations, some congrega- of an unnatural white, having a pearly lustre. The veins on the tions calling themselves Mennonites, after an eminent leader of the sect, surface are small, blue, and collapsed. These general symptoms are others Waterlandians, from the lace of their principal church, others frequently attended with derangements of the nervous system. There Baptists, &c. But there is really no proof that any of the communi is frequently violent pain in the head, and not unfrequently disordered ties bearing these names had, in their origin, any connection whatever sensation, as singing in the ears and flashings before the eyes. The with the Münster insurgents. For further information on the subject whole surface of the body is frequently preternaturally tender, the of the Münster Anabaptists, the reader may be directed to Mosheim's slightest touch causing the patient to start. The course of the spine * Ecclesiastical History,' century xvi. section iii., part ii., chapter iii. is often excessively tender, leading to the supposition that there is and century xvii., section ii., part ii., chapter v., where he will find the spinal irritation. The circulating system is deranged ; palpitations of subject treated with great learning, though not in a spirit of much the heart come on after slight exertion. The pulse is mostly small, liberality or candour. The principal works relating to the Anabap- feeble, and quick, excited to rapid action on slight exertions. The tists are all referred to in that dissertation.
breathing is quickened by exertion, and there is generally lassitude and ANA'BASIS, the title of a Greek work, in seven books by Xeno- inability to take much exercise. This disease is accompanied with phon of Athens, which describes the circumstances of an expedition disturbances of the circulating system, which may be detected by undertaken by the younger Cyrus, B.C. 401, against his brother, means of the stethoscope. These are heard in the heart, arteries, and Artaxerxes, king of Persia. The expedition is remarkable as being the veins. The sound heard in the heart is a “ bellows" murmur of first long march of which we possess a detailed account, and also the varying intensity, and is heard most distinctly at the apex. This oldest extant document which gave to Europeans any tolerably precise sound is not present in all cases of ancemia, nor is its occurrence potion of the country watered by the Upper Tigris and Euphrates. diagnostic of anæmia; but it is very important to know that it may be
The army of Cyrus contained a large body of Greek mercenaries, entirely dependent on the anæmic condition, and removed with it. The among whom Xenophon, at first, held no military rank : he went arterial murmurs are not frequently heard ; they are synchronous apparently as a mere spectator, and only took command after the with the beat of the pulse, and when present may even be recognised death of most of the generals. Cyrus set out from Sardes (now Sart), by the character of the pulse. The venous murmurs are much more 38° 34' N. lat., 28° E. long., and marched through Asia Minor to the common. They are continuous, and produce various buzzing, humpasses in Mount Taurus, that lead into Cilicia. He next passed ming, musical, and singing murmurs. They are most frequently through Tarsus, along the Gulf of Scanderoon, and through the north heard on the right side of the neck, at the junction of the external and part of Syria to the Euphrates, which he crossed at Thapsacus, about internal jugular vein." (Aitken.) 35° 14' N. lat. He then marched S.E. through Mesopotamia, crossing The venous murmurs are seldom absent to a greater or less extent in the Araxes (the Khabour); and finally lost his life in an engagement anzemia. with his brother on the plains of Cunaxa (the site of which is un When the blood of anæmic persons is examined under the microknown), about forty miles from Babylon (now Hillah), 32° 28' N. lat., scope a deficiency of blood globules is observed. Andral records a 44° 14' E. long.
case in which there were but 30 parts of blood globules in 1000 of From this point commenced the retreat, commonly known as the blood. The other constituents of the blood, as far as observations at ** Retreat of the Ten Thousand.” Instead of returning by the way present go, seem to suffer little alteration. which they came, it was determined to reach some of the Greek colonies The causes of anæmia are anything acting on the system by which on the Black Sea. Accordingly they crossed the Tigris, and advancing the quantity of blood is diminished or the healthy development of the along the east bank of this river up the stream, they crossed in suc blood cells prevented. Thus, amongst the causes of this disease we cession the Diala and other tributaries of the Tigris. They followed may reckon : 1. Want of food. 2. Want of proper food. 3. Indigesthe course of this river, till they were stopped about 37° 20' N. lat. by tion or imperfect nutrition, from whatever cause. 4. Derangement of the mountains pressing close on the river, and allowing no passage the liver, spleen, &c. 5. Hæmorrhages, as from hæmorrhoids, the along its banks. They then crossed the mountains, and advanced pro- stomach, lungs, wounds, &c. 6. All extensive discharges from wounds, bably nearly due north, but their course from this point is very ulcers, or mucous surfaces. uncertain. It is probable that the army passed to the west of Lake A knowledge of the causes of anæmia at once suggests its treatment. Van, and in its progress it must have crossed the Morad, or Eastern Where it depends on a want of food altogether, or of proper food, then Euphrates, and that branch of the Araxes which is now the Faz, and is food of a proper kind must be supplied. Where improper food, as called by Xenophon the Phasis. After enduring much hardship from alcohol, produces imperfect assimilation, it must be withdrawn. Defisnow, want of food and clothing, and the opposition of the native cient nutritionary changes often come on as the result of impure air, tribes, the army at last reached Trapezus, now Trebizond, on the Black and change from an impure to a pure air often acts most beneficially, Sea, in 41° 2' N. lat., 39° 28}' E. long. From Trapezus the army In certain cases dependent on imperfect blood-cell formation great marched along the coast westwards for about 100 miles (direct dis- benefit results from the administration of iron. Cases are recorded in tance) to Cotyora.
which, under an iron treatment, the blood-cells have increased from 32 The narrative of Xenophon contains a statement of the army's to 95 in 1000. Other tonics may also be administered with advantage. marches, with some few omissions, expressed in Persian parasangs, at In cases of anæmia in marshy districts quinine is of great service. the rate of thirty stadia to a parasang. The following are the distances ANÆSTHETICS, is the term applied to those agents, which, on giren by him in round numbers :
being applied or administered to the human body, produce either a Stadia.
local or general insensibility. Such agents act more especially on From Ephesus to Cunaxa
certain parts of the nervous system, depriving it both of its power of From Cunaxa to Cotyora (eight months)
communicating and perceiving impressions made upon its sensitivo
function. The state of anæsthesia comes on in various forms of para34,650
lytic disease, and as such has been known and described by medical ARTS AND SCI, DIV. VOL. I.
writers. Anästhesia can also be produced by artificial means, as in laugh, sob, or scream. They throw themselves about, their actions those states of the nervous system brought on by what is called animal are instinctive, and not under the direction of their intelligence. In magnetism. In this state of the system the anæsthesia is sometimes so this stage it is not advisable to perform operations, and many operators perfect that surgical operations have been performed on persons whilst not carrying the action of the anæsthetic further than this stage have in it perfectly unconsciously. This was known previous to the general regarded it as useless. The patient may return to this stage from a introduction of anæsthetic agents during the performance of surgical further one, but it is most desirable that operations should not be peroperations generally. All narcotic medicines will produce conditions formed in it. In the third degree there is no evidence of any mental of anæsthesia, in which surgical operations may be performed without function being exercised, consequently no voluntary motions occur, pain. During the action of alcohol on the nervous system in drunken- but muscular contractions in addition to those concerned in respiration ness, operations have been performed without the knowledge of the may occur. There is sometimes great rigidity of the muscles, but patient. Although these circumstances have been generally known, it more frequently this is not present. There is a tendency to moun, but was not till about the year 1847 that any attempt was made to intro- not to utter any articulate sounds.”—“If this degree is well et lished, duce anæsthetic agents as a means of alleviating pain during the per- and if the patient has been detained in it at the same point, by inhaling formance of surgical operations. About this time, two gentlemen in at intervals, or by inhaling dilute vapour, an operation may usually be America, Drs. Morton and Jackson, made experiments on human beings performed without producing any other effect than a distortion of the with the nitrous oxide (laughing gas), and found that a state of insensi- features expressive of pain, and perhaps a slight moaning and an inbility could be produced by its agency, under which operations could creased frequency of respiration, and in some instances a general rigidity be performed. The effects of this gas in producing excitement of the of the muscular system.” There is never any recollection of operations nervous system had been made known by the experiments of Sir in this degree, even when symptoms of pain have been exhibited. Humphry Davy, and its peculiar action was often exhibited in the In the fourth degree no movements are seen, except those of respiralecture-room of the chemist. It was also known that sulphuric ether tion, and they are incapable of being influenced by external impressions. produced similar effects on the human system. The merit however All the muscles are relaxed, and the limbs hang down, or rest in any of the application of these remedies to the production of insensibility position in which they are supported. The breathing is deep, regular, during the performance of surgical operations is due to Drs. Morton and automatic, and there is much snoring. In this degree the patient and Jackson. Having discovered that ether was much preferable for always remains perfectly passive under every kind of operation. It this purpose to nitrous oxide, they made known the important fact, lasts seldom more than two or three minutes after the inhalation is that under the influence of this agent an insensibility might be pro- discontinued. The integrity of the functions of respiration and circuduced under which persons might undergo the most severe operations lation is not impaired. The pulse is distinct, and however much without pain, and might be restored from this condition without injury deranged in previous stages, is little disturbed in this; the sensibility to their health. This announcement was speedily made known, and in of the glottis and pharynx is maintained, and the patient swallows the course of a few months the facts were realised in all parts of the without difficulty. In the fifth degree the movements of respiration world. In London the action of this was extensively tried, and and circulation become impaired, and every re should be taken to realised the most sanguine expectations. The action of ether, and the prevent the action of the vapour from arriving at this point, as death best method of administering its vapour, was investigated by Dr. John may shortly ensue. Snow, who, in September 1849, published a work on the ‘ Inhalation of With regard to the quantity of ether required, and the time necessary, the Vapour of Ether. After the success of the first experiments with Dr. Snow makes the following remarks : " If a middle-aged man, about ether, it was found that other agents similarly constituted acted in the the average size, is supplied with air mixed with vapour of ether in the same way upon the human system. This subject was investigated with proportion of 45 per cent. vapour to 55 per cent. air, and breathes it great success in Edinburgh, and led to the discovery by Dr. Simpson easily and without obstruction,
he usually consumes about two drachms of that city, that chloroform, a terchloride of formyle, acted more of ether per minute. It is not all absorbed, for a part is expired after speedily and efficaciously than even ether. From this time chloroform passing no further than the trachea. At the end of the first minute he became more generally used, and is now the substance which is is usually in the first degree of etherisation; of the second minute in generally employed for the production of artificial anæsthesia. After the second degree; of the third minute in the third degree; and at the this, Dr. Snow found that amylene was capable of producing the same end of four minutes, having inhaled an ounce of ether, in the fourth effects as chloroform.
degree. If the inhalation is now discontinued, he commonly remains These agents appear to act entirely through the nervous system, and in this degree of etherisation for one or two minutes, passes gradually according to the time employed in their administration will be their back into the third degree, which lasts for three or four minutes, at the effect on the nervous centres. The first part of the nervous system end of which time he is in the second degree, which lasts about five which appears to be affected is the brain, and a kind of intoxication minutes, to give place to a feeling of intoxication and exhilaration, comes on in which the patient is excited, the intellectual powers are which lasts for ten or fifteen minutes, or longer, before it entirely deranged, and the person acts as though drunk. This effect is produced subsides." much more quickly by the vapours of the above-mentioned substances The general effects of chloroform resemble closely those of ether. It than by drinking alcohol ; it also passes off much more rapidly. It was is, however, a more potent remedy, and produces anæsthesia more to this action more especially that the effects of the nitrous oxide and rapidly and certainly than ether. Hence it has been employed more ether were confined previous to the discovery of their anæsthetic generally. This substance was originally discovered by Liebig and properties. If however the use of the vapour is persevered in, the Soubeiran in 1831, and its chemical nature was investigated by Dumas. effect extends from the brain to the cerebellum, and this organ loses He first pointed out that the liquid which had been called chloric the power of regulating the movements of the body. This effect on the ether, and chloride of carbon, was composed as follows, C; H Cl, and body is also produced by the drinking of alcohol. As the vapour con called it chloroform. Liebig subsequently pointed out that it was a tinues to act on the system, the next nervous centre affected is the terchloride or perchloride of the base formyle. This substance is prespinal chord, and the functions of sensation and motion more imme- pared, according to the Pharmacopæia of the London College of diately under the control of this part of the nervous system, are more Physicians, as follows: Take of chlorinated lime iv. lb.; rectified or less affected. It is in this stage that consciousness and the powers spirit Oss; water Ox; chloride of calcium broken into pieces 3j. Put of motion and sensation are entirely lost, and the individual is pro- the chlorinated lime first mixed with the water into a retort, and then nounced in a state of anæsthesia. In this condition animal life is held in add the spirit, so that the mixture may fill only a third part of the abeyance, and the body is insensible to all external agents. There is retort. It is then heated in a sand-bath, and as soon as ebullition still however a sufficient amount of nervous power left to maintain the begins, the heat is withdrawn. The liquid is then distilled into a functions of organic life. The heart beats, the lungs perform their receiver. A quart of water is then added to the distilled liquid and functions, and other actions essential to life are carried on. These well shaken. The heavier portion which subsides is then separated, functions are however under the influence of these anæsthetic agents, and the chloride of calcium added to it, and frequently shaken for an and should too large a dose of them be administered, they cease, and hour. The liquid, which is the chloroform, is again distilled from a death ensues. This is one of the accidents to which the employment of glass retort into a glass receiver. It is a transparent colourless liquid, these remedies is exposed, and against which the greatest precaution having a specific gravity of 1:48. It boils at 140° Fah., and the should be employed.
density of its vapour is 4.2. It has a fragrant ethereal apple-like Dr. Snow, who has practically studied the agency of these remedies odour, and a slightly acid sweet taste. It is soluble in alcohol and more extensively than any other writer, divides the action of ether ether, but requires 2000 parts of water for its solution. It dissolves into five stages." In the first degree the person experiences various camphor, Indian-rubber, wax, and resins. It is not inflammable. This changes of feeling, but still retains a correct consciousness of where he substance is sometimes given internally in doses of from five to ten is, and what is occurring around him, and a capacity to direct his minims, and acts as a stimulant sedative antispasmodic and anæsthetic. voluntary movements. In this stage the patient's feelings are generally Administered in the form of vapour as an anæsthetic, chloroform is agreeable, often highly so. In this stage it is not practicable to perform much more powerful than ether. This effect seems to arise from ita operations without a certain amount of pain. When, however, persons being much more sparingly soluble in the blood than ether. “The have experienced the more intense degrees of the anæsthetic agent, quantity of chloroform," says Dr. Snow, "required to induce insensi-* they return to this stage, and are free from the pain of an operation, bility is less than one-tenth as much by measure as in the case of ether. whilst their consciousness has sufficiently returned to enable them tó | Viewed in this manner, it is more than ten times as strong; but to know what is going on. In the second degree the mental functions may ascertain their comparative physiological power, when inhaled in a be exercised and voluntary actions performed, but in a disordered similar manner, their volatility requires to be taken into account. In manner. In this stage persons are often seized with a tendency to order to perceive the relative strength of these two medicines, we may
suppose that the air which a patient breathes is saturated at 60°, surgeons very generally to insist on its administration in these cases. the ordinary temperature of a dwelling room with one or other of It has now been shown, both by Dr. Simpson and Dr. Snow, that the the vapours, and see how much air he would have to breathe in fatal cases, after capital operations, more especially amputations, are either case in order to be narcotised to the third degree,--the extent fewer when chloroform has been administered, than when this or some of insensibility usually required in a surgical operation. Thirty-six other anæsthetic has not been employed. Looking to these results, it minims is about the average quantity of chloroform required to pro-would appear that the life saved by the use of chloroform has been duce this degree of narcotism in the adult, and this would saturate much greater than that sacrificed by its careless administration. When 257 cubic inches of air at 60°, making it expand to nearly 300 cubic in addition to this it is recollected how great an amount of suffering is inches, which would be breathed in 12 ordinary respirations of 25 prevented, there can be little doubt about the propriety of its admi. cubic inches each. The quantity of ether usually required to produce nistration. the same amount of insensibility in the adult, is about 74 fluid It has been supposed that certain states of the system are less favourdrachms; this would saturate 440 cubic inches of air at 60°, and in- able to the administration of chloroform than others, but Dr. Snow has crease its volume to rather more than 800 cubic inches, which would pointed out that in these states of the system the pain of an operation require 32 ordinary respirations to breathe it. We see, therefore, that would be as likely to act as injuriously as the chloroform. At the same 12 inspirations of air charged with vapour of chloroform are equal to time, it would appear that a certain number of the fatal cases have 32 similar inspirations of air charged with vapour of ether, at the same occurred in persons with diseased heart, and perhaps in these caution temperature; and that, consequently, choloroform is nearly three times should be employed. as strong as ether. In actual practice the difference in strength is gene Besides in operations with the knife, chloroform has been employed rally greater than this, for ether abstracts much more caloric than chloro- to facilitate the reduction of dislocations and of hernia. It has also form during its evaporation, thereby reducing the temperature of the been recommended in asthma, and as a means of procuring sleep in air passing over it, and the sponge or whatever contains it, and limiting excessive watchfulness. It was first introduced by Dr. Simpson, of Edinits own evaporation, in a greater degree."--Edinburgh Medical and burgh, as a means of alleviating the pain attendant upon child-birth, Surgical Journal,' No. 180.
and although it has been much opposed in these cases, it is at the It is on account of its greater strength that a larger number of present day very largely administered by the obstetric practitioners of accidents have occurred with chloroform than with ether. At the Great Britain. "In some of the more difficult cases it becomes an imsame time, where great care is taken in its administration, there seems portant aid to the accoucheur, and in all cases it diminishes the suffering to be no reason why chloroform should not be employed for the pro- without in any way interfering with the natural actions attendant upon duction of anæsthesia. The usual method of administering this agent this condition. The injurious effects attributed to chloroform are at is to sprinkle a few drops upon a handkerchief and apply it to the most problematical, and the benefits so decided as to lead to its use mouth and nostrils of the patient, in such a way that the patient may wherever circumstances will permit. At the same time here, as in take air into the lungs which is saturated with the vapour of chloro- other cases, it is not desirable that the operator should administer the form. During this operation care should be taken that a larger quan- chloroform, and as the services of an assistant, or person competent to tity of the vapour is not inhaled than will produce the fourth stage of administer cannot always be procured, it is not likely to come into anesthesia. By removing the handkerchief from time to time the general use throughout the country. But when assistants can be found, patient may be kept in the third or fourth stage, according as it seems there is no doubt that it is an alleviation of suffering that ought not to desirable. Although the administering of chloroform in the hand be discountenanced. kerchief is undoubtedly the most simple and convenient plan, it ap From having experimented with various agents, Dr. Snow was pears to be much safer to use an instrument called an inhaler, by induced to try the action of Amylene as an anæsthetic on the human which the quantity administered can be regulated and controlled with system. This substance is a colourless mobile fluid, having a specific certainty. Such an instrument was early introduced and employed by gravity of 0.659. It is very volatile, and boils at 102°. Its composition Dr. Snow, and the accidents which have occurred have certainly been is Clo H. It is soluble in ten or eleven pints of water, and its odour fewer when this instrument has been employed than with the hand is not disagreeable. The quantity of amylene required to produce kerchief. In the inhaler employed by Dr. Snow, the compartment anæsthesia is intermediate between that of chloroform and ether. The containing the chloroform is surrounded with cold water, to limit the quantity of amylene consumed in Dr. Snow's inhaler was at the rate of quantity taken up by the air, and the expiration valve of the face-piece rather more than a fluid drachm in a minute, and in this way insensiis so adapted as to admit additional air to any extent to dilute the bility was produced in about three minutes. Although Dr. Snow vapour still further. From an investigation of the fatal cases, and successfully administered this remedy in several cases, he met with two experiments upon animals, Dr. Snow has arrived at the following con- fatal cases, and afterwards abandoned its use. clusions :
Other substances are capable of producing anæsthesia in the form of 1. Chloroform vapour, if it be inhaled in large proportion with vapour, but none of these have been generally employed. atmospheric air, destroys life by paralysing the heart.
(Snow, On the Inhalation of the Vapour of Ether, 1847; On Narcotism 2. În smaller proportions, but long continued, it produces death by the Inhalation of Vapours, Medical Gazette, 1848 to 1851 ; On Death apparently by the brain, and by interfering with the respiratory func- from Chloroform, Lancet, 1856. Pereira, l'he Elements of Materia tion. In such cases the heart is found to beat after the respiration has "Medica and Therapeutics, 1853. On Chloroform and other Ancesthetics
by Dr. Snow: this work was published in 1858, after the author's death.) 3. Chloroform vapour, if it be blown upon the heart, paralyses it ANAGRAM signifies a new word formed out of the letters of any immediately.
given word by the process of writing them over again, as the term 4. Atmospheric air loaded with from 4 to 5, or even 6 per cent. of literally signifies, or placing them in a new order. Sometimes the chloroform vapour may be safely administered, inasmuch as that mix- anagram is formed out of two or more words, and it may be itself ture will not act directly upon the heart, but will give timely notice of always either one word or several. Some traces of this species of its increasing effects in modifying the normal discharge of the functions trifling have been detected in the writings of the ancients; but the of life. The average time occupied in producing insensibility is from taste for it does not seem to have spread much among the Greeks or three to four minutes.
Romans. The artifice appears to have first become fashionable in 5. The proportion of as much as from 8 to 10 per cent. of vapour of modern literature in the early part of the sixteenth century. Many chloroform to atmospheric air is a dangerous mixture, as it suddenly authors, instead of putting their names on the title-pages of their charges the blood going into the heart with a poison capable of acting works, have, with an affectation of modesty, used the anagrams of directly on that organ.
their names. At one time also the anagram was made much use of by In cases where an over-dose of chloroform has been administered, mathematicians in announcing discoveries, the credit or property of the only remedy which appears to offer a chance of relief is artificial which they wished to secure to themselves without revealing the respiration. Where the muscles of the tongue become relaxed, and secret in which they consisted. Huyghens, Galileo, and Newton intithis organ falls back over the glottis, it should be pulled forward till mated several of their discoveries in this way. the patient revives. It might be desirable to open the jugular vein in ANAKIM, or Benei-Anak, the sons of Anak, were a race descended order to relieve the distension of the right cavities of the heart. from Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the three sons of Anak men
The cases in which ether was first employed, and in which chloro- tioned in Numbers xiii. 22. They inhabited the mountainous parts form is to be recommended as an anæsthetic, are those in which of southern Canaan, which afterwards formed part of the territory of operations producing pain are performed. There are no operations, the tribe of Judah. At the time of the invasion of that country by from the extraction of a tooth to the capital operations of surgery, in the Israelites, the Anakim possessed the towns of Anab, Hebron, which it may not be employed. At the same time it may always Debir, and others. They were apparently above the common size of become a question whether it is worth while running the
slight hazard men. The spies sent by Joshua represented them as giants, to whom of fatal effects for the sake of relieving a small amount of pain. Where they were but as grasshoppers ; and their mere appearance alarmed chloroform is skilfully administered, there appears to be little or no them when sent to examine their land. They were, however, eventually hazard, but unfortunately it is not every one who is prepared to conquered by the Israelites under Caleb, and expelled, but a remnant administer chloroform successfully. As a rule it may be stated, that took refuge with the Philistines. The total number could not it is not advisable for the surgeon who operates to administer the have been largo, as, though described as consisting of three tribes chloroform, and a competent assistant should always be employed to under separate kings, it would appear that all three of the sons were do this. Whatever may be the doubt in the minor operations of alive at the time of the conquest, and that Ahiman dwelt in Hebron. surgery, the beneficial effect of relieving pain upon the subsequent Sons of Anak, may, however, mean descendants; and in Numbers xiii. 23, welfare of the patient in the capital operations of surgery, have led the three chiefs are called children of Anak, which may imply a moro
remote relation than the filial one, as we say children of Israel for the We need not enter into details respecting the particular action of whole race even at the present time. Hebron and Debir, moreover, tonics upon each set of organs of the body, as it may be stated geneare the Hebrew names of towns built on the sites of Kerjath-arba and rally that they all, sooner or later, begin to execute their functions Kirjath-sepher, the proper names of the Anakim towns. Anab has more vigorously, the stomach first feeling the beneficial effects. But disappeared.
this state of improved action follows their use (that is, when they are ANALEPTICS, from a Greek verb which signifies to restore, com medicinal or material tonics) only for a time; for their continued prise all the means, whether medicines, diet, or regimen, which are employment leaves the stomach in a state of debility, perhaps greater generally employed to restore the vigour of the system when it has than at first-a fact of which we should never lose sight. These fallen below the healthy standard, either from previous disease or any remarks will, we trust, induce all to observe caution both in taking other cause. The term analeptic was formerly applied indiscriminately upon themselves to use the articles termed analeptics merely because to any medicine which increased the powers of the system, whether it they feel weak, without knowing what is the cause of the weakness, or belonged to the class of stimulants or to the class of tonics; but as the in urging their friends to have recourse to them at the commencement progress of chemistry, anatomy, and physiology has enabled us to of disease, or even when it is subsiding, as more relapses are occasioned recognise a difference in the chemical composition of members of these by a premature employment of tonics, whether medicinal or dietetic, two classes of medicinal agents, as well as in their manner of acting than by all other causes combined. upon the human frame, we propose to limit the application of the It is impossible to enumerate here, and give directions for the use of, word to the latter of them, or to tonics, reserving the consideration of all the analeptics, comprising, as they do, medicines, food, and regimen. the other till we come to the word stimulant. The following brief The medicines are either from the mineral or vegetable kingdoms; explanation of their effects will suffice to justify this proceeding. when the former, they are chiefly preparations of the metals, as the Stimulants act primarily on the nervous system, while tonics act salts of iron and flowers of zinc (oxide of zinc); from the latter, they primarily on the muscles and blood-vessels. Stimulants render the are invariably bitter substances, as cinchona bark, calumba, quassia, movements more frequent; tonics render them stronger. Stimulants, chamomile, &c. The analeptic means which fall under the head of as we see with wine, exhaust the excitability ; tonics, within a certain regimen are, bathing, exercise, and the diversion of the mind. limit, maintain it. The action of the one is immediate and transitory, The employment of the medicines will be stated under the diseases that of the other is slow and progressive, but more permanent, as is to which they are suited; bathing will be treated of under that head : the case from cinchona bark, or food. To take an example from their it is, therefore, only upon the last two means that we will make any effects on the stomach, excitants quicken the digestion, as we see with remarks here. capsicum or cayenne pepper, which we take with articles difficult to An examination of the human frame demonstrates that it was digest, as salmon; while tonics render the digestion more perfect, as intended for motion, alternately with repose, and not for a state of occurs when we use cinchona in convalescence from disease. Though absolute quiescence. Nor is the mind, which is furnished with so the most perceptible effect of tonics be upon the muscular system, as many faculties and provided with so many organs of sense, which serve it is by a display of its powers that we judge of strength, yet the to connect it with the external world, less calculated for active exerwhole system feels the benefit of them when appropriately adminis- tion. Any attempt to contravene the law of nature which enjoins a tered. Every person knows that he can, at one time, lift a weight reasonable exercise of mind and body, brings a punishment upon the with ease which, at another time, he cannot move but with difficulty individual; the mind which he allows to be inactive loses the capacity and exertion. In the former case, he is pronounced strong ; in the for exertion, when required, and
the body becomes a prey to disease in latter, weak.
some shape or form. The action of the muscles is necessary to aid in The nature of the muscular fibre need not be discussed here; it is circulating the blood and in completing the process of digestion, as enough for us to remark, that to execute its functions properly, it well as to ensure a regular motion of the bowels
. Where the muscles must be in a certain state of tension, that it may be possessed of suffi- are not exercised, the blood, instead of reaching the surface and the cient elasticity. A cord proceeding from a fixed point cannot influence extreme vessels, accumulates in the large internal trunks, leaving the a moveable body till it be drawn tight; so a muscle cannot raise a skin dry and bloodless, as seen in young chlorotic females, who, instead limb unless it possess a certain degree of tightness. The difference of of appearing buoyant with life in every limb, are as pale, and almost as the power of muscles varies greatly, according to the state of health or inanimate, as a statue. Disorders of the nervous system, such as disease of the individual. If a muscle be taken from an animal in hysteria, likewise show themselves. These states can only be warded good health, it will not only bear a greater weight than the same off by regular exercise. The rising generation would be much benemuscle taken from an animal which has long been sick, but the former fitted, if instruction in any branch of natural history formed a part of will be many days before it goes to decay and allows the weight to their education ; young persons would then be furnished with motives drop, while the latter will decay very speedily.
for taking exercise out of doors-to the manifest advantage of the To maintain the muscular fibres in this condition, a due supply of figure of the body and the tendencies of the mind. blood and of nervous energy is requisite. The sources of these are in Where older people have neglected exercise, it is more difficult to a healthful and vigorous digestion, and as this rarely goes on when the find means to induce them to resume its use ; but some such device as system is much disordered, or suffering under general or considerable the following may be tried : “Ogul, a voluptuary, who could be local disease, scarcely any morbid action, or even the natural exercise managed but with difficulty by his physician, on finding himself of mind or body, if pushed to an extreme, can continue without pro- extremely ill from indolence and intemperance, requested advice : 'Eat ducing debility. Tonics are, sooner or later, required, seldom, indeed, a basilisk stewed in rose-water,' replied the physician. In vain did the to remove disease, but to obviate its effects, or that of the treatment it slaves search for a basilisk, until they met with Zadig, who, approaching has been necessary to employ. The use of these requires the greatest Ogul, exclaimed, Behold that which thou desirest! But, my lord, circumspection, for, till we have removed the cause of the disease, continued he, “it is not to be caten; all its virtues must enter through they can rarely be of service; on the contrary, they often do harm. thy pores; I have, therefore, inclosed it in a little ball, blown up, and
We have above pointed out the connection between the state of the covered with a fine skin; thou must strike this ball with all thy might, digestive functions and the energy of the other functions, and it is and I must strike it back again, for a considerable time, and by important to bear in mind that anything loading and oppressing the observing this regimen and taking no other drink than rose-water stomach and bowels will lessen the tone of the system, diminish the for a few days, thou wilt see and acknowledge the effect of my art.' disposition for exertion, and clog alike the action of mind and body. The first day Ogul was out of breath, and thought he should have died A judicious practitioner will here give, according to circumstances, an of fatigue; the second he was less fatigued, and slept better : in eight cmetic or a purgative, and repeat this last for three or four days days he recovered all his strength; Zadig then said to him, 'There is successively; in proportion as these act well, the languor and listless- no such thing in nature as a basilisk ! but thou hast taken exercise and ness disappear, the mind resumes its wonted activity, for the cloud been temperate, and hast, therefore, recovered thy health !"", which had obscured the mental faculties is dissipated, and all again is The Indian-rubber, or caoutchouc balls, will be found as useful for energy, elasticity, and strength. An unskilful practitioner, and still those confined by the weather within doors during the winter months, more frequently the patient or his friends, would recommend some as the ball of Zadig. stimulant, a little brandy, or some bitters, under the influence of which It is possible to fatigue the body beyond a proper point, in which all the symptoms become aggravated. It is a still worse case when the case repose becomes necessary; but this is a rare occurrence compared debility which occurs at the commencement of fevers, particularly with the instances where the mind is stretched beyond its natural ague and typhus, is so treated, though this is not so common an power to bear by the ambitious student, the covetous and care-worn occurrence. A state of great irritation (morbid sensibility), or sub- merchant, or the adventurer in political life. If, in consequence of acute inflammation of the mucous or inner membrane of the stomach, long-continued exertion, the balance of the mind be not already lost, is a frequent condition of that organ with the inhabitants of towns, abstraction from his books for the one, and a withdrawing from their particularly among merchants and others engaged in extensive business pursuits for the others, with change of scene and occupation, must which engrosses their whole attention, giving rise to much anxiety and be enjoined; by doing this before it is too late, each may, in time, leaving little time for exercise or food at proper times. The employ- return to his usual station, to be useful in his sphere to himself and ment here of tonics, in the first instance, will only convert a others, and may still be permitted to enjoy the greatest of earthly manageable case into a difficult and serious one. It is, therefore, blessings,--a sound mind in a healthy body. rather in the stage of convalescence from acute disease that tonics are ANALOGY is the similarity of ratios or relations. A ratio, or required, and as a sequence to other medicines, than articles to be relation, means that two objects (which are called the terms of the ratio) employed in the commencement, if we except some affections of the are considered together in reference either to some quality which they nervous system.
have in common, or to some manner in which one has affected the other.