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improved navigation by facilitating ceedings here in England, and the the means of discovering the longi- commotions in our North-American tude at sea, but has likewise provi- settlements, to which they have ded, in the laft session of parliament, given șise, as matters of far greater for the adequate encouragement of importance. But it is for this very all those, who fhall be found to reason we chuse to speak lait of have made any useful attempts to- them, as, by so doing, we shall wards that important purpose. : be better able to connect them

Having thus examined the pre- properly together, and do them fent general complexion of Eu- all the justice their importance de rope, and the particular aspect serves.-Befides, it will be only adtowards each other of the several justing the order of our narrative to great political bodies that compose the order of time, most of the Eaftit, we shall next proceed to take a India transactions, we have to resurvey of the state of British affairs late, having happened before there in the East Indies, being the only appeared any settled refractoriness foreign affairs of any European in our North-American colonies to power worth our notice, at least by comply with the injunctions of what we know of them, with suf. the mother-country ; and being ficient certainty to ground a nar- previous even to any proceedings rative upon. It might be ex- in the mother-country to give the pected, that we should begin with least colour to such refractoriness a relation of the parliamentary pro- in her colonies,

CH A P. III.

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I!! consequence of Mir Coffim Aly Caun's being driver out of Bengal. Por

litic conduet of Sujah Doula on that occasion. Death of Major Adams. Mir Cofim cuts off a small party of English. I be late Shah Zada joins Sujah Doula, and both draw a formidable arony into the field. Major Munro succeeds Major Adams. State of the English forces under him. He marches to the enemy. Batile of Buxard. Cheap victory over the Indians. Major Munro attacks a very firong fort. Twice repulsed with great Inf. Sujah Doula at the head of another army ; pins down Major Mune ro to the neighbourhood of Baneres.

was rather removing the fire, than ders the cause of one Afiatic extinguishing it. Indeed, the fate prince is the cause of all ; and, alone of so intelligent and entercould they be blind enough not prising a man was enough to fill to see this of themselves, there all the princes of that vax country never, surely, existed a man bet- with the justest apprehensions for ter able to convince them of it, their own safety and independence, than the late Nabob of Bengal, Desperate, therefore, as the conMir Coffim Aly Cawn. The dri- dition of Mir Cossim’s affairs might Ying of him, therefore, into the appear to be by the accounts, with territories of a neighbouring nabob, which we concluded our last vo

lume,

A

lume, ive were very far from think- Englith to them. He is represented ing that of the company's so per- to us, however, as suing for a remanently happy, as not to promise newal of peace, which the compavery soon, and even without the y's servants in India might, percreation of any new nabob, some haps, consider as broken by these fresh matter to this part of our measures work. As long as any part of But, on whatever principle Mir Mir Coslim's army remained on Cofim's allies might think profoot, it was impossible the Eng- per to keep themselves quiet, it lith forces should enjoy any re- was not long before time brought spite ; at the same time that, in about an event sufficient to tempt pursuing these remains through them to action. This was the fud. so extensive a country, they were den death of Major Adams, whole liable to lose more men, than they name alone might be considered as could be supposed to do by the the palladium of the company's sword of a much more numerous military affairs in that part of the Indian enemy in a pitched battle. world. Accordingly, the same

Upon these principles, we must ship, which brought to England allow, that Sujah Doula acted a an account of that unexpected every wise part in not admitting in- vent, brought likewise that of Mir to his country the remains of Mir Coslim's not only being in the field Coflim's army, as long as it could at the head of a body of Indoftans, be kept together, or even in small but of his having actually cut parties, in the territories of Ben- off a small party of our men, and gal, or any other territories than his sending their heads, by way of his own. Indeed, it was doing triomph, to king Shah Zada, and right, at any rate, to keep him the nabob Sujah Doula. The time self quiet for some time, by almost was now come, when these ,princes any means, besides that of giving thought they might as openly ụp his friend, since time alone espouse Mir Coffim's cause, as the might be expected to bring about latter heretofore had protected his many more events to the pre- person ; and for that purpose judice of the English, than that of they immediately drew into the the Indian affairs.

field an army of fifty thouAccordingly, we do not find sand men, with a train of artillery, that Sujah Doula took any part such as might be supposed to folagainst the English, except that, low an European army of equal if it can be called so, of gi- numbers. ving shelter to Mir Coflim, and to But Major Adams, most fortuSomers, who fo barbarously mur- nately for the company's affairs, dered that Nabob's prisoners at was succeeded by another officer, Patna, and his afterwards refusing who, as far as the accounts we to give them up. For, as to his have of him reach, seems to have drawing an army into the field, acted with all that 'pirit and abiwhich we are likewise informed helity, which his predecessor in comdid, it was probably within his mand pofseffed in fo eminent a deown territories, and justified, be- gree. fides, by the near approach of the This officer was Major Hector

Munro,

Munro, of the king's forces. He no this morass, there ftood fmali fooner heard of the enemy's troops wood, from which the Indians, being gathered together, than he feltered by the trees, might fire immediately marched up to them, with great advantage on their naked His forces did not amount to more enemies ; and they, accordingly, than nine thousand men in the took care to occupy it with a suffiwhole, of which not one seventh cient body. This was probably part were Europeans. The num- the only end by which the Indians ber of the enemy was extremely apprehended any danger of the great ; but they were Indian morass being doubled; it was, at troops, such as the most con- least, on this end only we find that summate military abilities are re- any attempt was made to come quisite to render formidable in

any

at them. The morass, it is to proportion to their numbers, and be presumed, extended too far the such abilities were not to be feared other way to require any additionin Mir Coffim himself, and still al affiftance. less in his friends or their generals. The first appearance of such a It is very itrange, however, that situation was alone sufficient to having fó often experienced the ill make major Munro defer an atconsequence of meeting the Eng-, tack, till it could be properly exlith in pitched battle, and fo lately plored. He, therefore, on the the advantage of attacking them day of his arrival in fight of the by surprize and in small parties, he enemy, encamped himself, but did not prevail on his allies care- near enough to them to be but fully to avoid the former kind of just out of the reach of their warfare, and abide entirely by the cannon ; contenting himself with latter,

making the proper difpofitions Major Munro came up with the for readily forming his line of 228 Oct.

Indian army at a place battle in case of any sudden emer

called Buxard, on the gency: 1764. river Camnaffary, about

This precaution was far from one hundred miles above Pat- being superfluous ; for going out na, and found them, as had the next morning by day-break been for some time past usual to reconnoitre the enemy, in order with them, encamped with all to attack them the day following, the advantages nature and art he found them already under could beftow. Before them lay a

Upon this, returning to morass, judiciously lined with can- his camp, he called in all his ad. non, that, whichever way the Eng- vanced posts and grand guards ; lish should move, either forward ordered 'the drums to beat to to pass the morass, or fideways to arms ; and, in less than twenty double it, could not but greatly minutes after, was, in consequence gall them in their approach; and of the wise dispositions made the the troops themselves extended day before, fortunate enough to so far, as greatly to outflank any see his line of battle completely line of baitle, into which it was formed. possible for the major to form his The Indians began to cannonade few forces. Besides, at one end of the English at nine o'clock in the

morn

arms.

morning ; and, half an hour after, ed, at the comparatively small the action became general. The mo- expence to the victors, of 32 rass in the front of our troops pre- Europeans, and

239

Indians killed, vented their moving forward for and 57 Europeans and 473 Indians some time, by which means the wounded. great number of the enemy's can- Nothing now remained in the non, which were as well levelled as enemy's possession at this side of judicioufly disposed, galled them the river but a single fort, called very much. This obliged major Chanda Geer ; but, then, it was Munro to order a battalion of Sea- a place exceedingly strong by its poys, with one gun, from the right situation ; and, as it appeared afof the first line, to move forward terwards, still stronger by the to filence one of the Indian batte- courage and fidelity of the Indian sies, which played upon his flank; officer who commanded in it. This and soon after to detach to its sup- fort stood on the top of a high and port another battalion from the se- steep hill, or rather rock, fituated cond line. These battalions having on the very banks of the Ganges, had the desired success, the major one hundred and fifty miles above ordered both the lines to face to Patna, by which, in all probathe right, and keep marching, in bility, it might have been kept order to clear the left wing of the constantly supplied with provimorass ; and, when that was done, fions ; and as to military stores, to face to their former front, the it could, on account of the height right wing wheeling up to the left, and steepness of the hill on which in order to clear the small wood, it stood, want none, as long as any that was upon their right. Then stones remained to pour down upon the first line moved forward, keep- the assailants. ing a very brisk cannonade. While The only probable method this was doing, major Munro sent of reducing such a place seemed orders to major Pemble, who com- to be that of undermining it, manded the second line, to face it and blowing it up from the foun. to the right about, and follow the dations along with the garrison ; first. But that officer saw the pro- or pouring into it such showers of priety of that movement fo foon, stones and bombs, as might render that he began to put it in execu- it untenable. These, at least, would tion, before he received major Mun. have been the methods taken with ro's orders. Immediately after, it in Europe. But major Munro, both lines pushed forward with so whether he wanted the necessary much ardour and resolution, at stores for operations of this kind, which time the small arms began, or men proper to conduct them, that the enemy foon after began to or both ; or whether he did not giveway, and a little before twelve, dream himself, or thought the Intheir whole army was put to fight, dians would never dream, of those leaving 6000 men on the spot, with cheap and ready weapons of de130 pieces of cannon, a propor- fence, of which their hill was comtionable quantity of military stores, posed ; or, in short, supposed that and all their tents ready pitch- they might be surprised in the night, when, as in a time of perfect deal to take it, if at all expagtruce, it is usual with them, or nable ; and that, consequently, it was, at least, till the Europeans .uft be as strong in the hands of taught them better, to sleep in the undisciplined Indians, as it could greatest security in the neighbour- be in those of the best European hood of an enemy f, he ordered the veterans; thought proper to withwalls of it to be battered ; and, as draw the forces he had sent againft soon as a practicable breach was it, and reserve them for some made, the governor shewing no service, in which their conduct signs of any intention to surren- might be useful, and their courage der, sent a party to storm it in would not be entirely thrown the night-time.

away. If the English thought to fur- This service the Nabob Sujah prise the Indians, they must have Doula was, in the mean time, been, themselves, terribly fur- preparing to throw in their way. prised. For they found them not For, though an army of his had only awake, but prepared to re- been so lately and so completely ceive them. Practicable as the routed, we now find him at the breach might be in itself, the ascent head of another ; whether comto it, difficult enough without any 'posed of the remains of the firkt, additional obstacle, was rendered of which no doubt great numbers absolutely impracticable by the escaped, or of fresh men, we are torrents of stones, which the In- not told. Be that as it will, he dians sent down with hands and seems this time to have acted with feet, while the English had both more caution, at length, no doubt, employed merely in endeavouring instructed by the many overthrows to get at them ; thus burying the the Indian troops had received wretched assailants under the rub- by fighting in bodies too large bih made by their own cannon. for the head, which was to guide Such, however, was the fpirit that and animate them. Though not a prevailed in our troops, or rather little elated by our late ill success such the sense of lame excited by against his fort, instead of marckthis repulse, that they renewed ing up to our troops, which the the attack the next night, but with major had encamped under the walls no better success.

of Baneres, in hopes, we may preIn these attempts we had ma- sume, of the nabob's beingfool-harny private men killed, and dy enough to take that step, he a great many officers wounded; contented himself with sending parmore, perhaps, on the whole, ties of his Aying horse to skirmila than the gaining a pitched bat- with our advanced posts, and kept tle would have cost us. The his main body, with the artillery, at major, therefore, finding that fifteen miles distance. And by this this was a place, which no art was conduct of his, he, in the end, reaprequisite to defend, though a greated one great advantage ; which

* See our 4th val. p. 6.

was,

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