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E have so often had occasion to

thank the public for the reception with which they have been pleased to honour our labours, that the doing of it any more may appear to arise from habit, rather than any consciousness of the obligations we are under to them. We shall, therefore, just beg leave to assure them, that greater pains have been taken with this volume of the Annual Register, to render it worthy of their perusal, than with any of the former; though we are very far, at the fame time, from meaning to assert, that these pains have been attended with proportionable, success; and much less still, that, even in that case, we do not equally stand in need of their tenderness, since every indulgence on their fide is a title to extraordinary exertions on ours. Nay, in one

respect, respect, the lateness of its appearance, we must own something more than bare indulgence may appear necessary to absolve us from want of gratitude; but that too, we hope to obtain, when we have assured our readers, that in the delay we facrificed more to their gratification, than to out own convenience.

However interesting the topics of the year 1765 may be, we hope those of the year 1766 will prove more agreeable: we shall then, it is to be presumed, in consequence of the measures taken in the last fession, be able to view the storm from port; and our fear of danger will be fucceeded by the pleasing remembrance of it. Besides, there seems to have arisen a spirit of liberty in many parts of the world; and such an uncommon one in fome of the Spanish dominions in America, as is not, perhaps, to be equalled in any annals, since it has engaged thofe whom it actuates to give up, in favour of the rights of mankind, a great deal more than they claim for themselves under the same title.



For the YEAR 1765.




E U R O P E.

CH A P. I.

Peaceable aspect of the great powers of Europe towards each orber. Refufal

of the French and Spanish courts to comply with the demands of Great Britain, no sufficient cause to apprehend a rupture between them ; may in the end prove serviceable to the latter. Emperor of Germany dies, after settling his Tuscan dominions on his second son ; and is succeeded, as emperor of Germany, by his eldest, elected, in his life-time, king of the Romans. Several treaties of marriage and their probable effects. Swee den. Portugal. Poland. Corsica.

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Nour last volume, we had the the sharpest and most general wars,

satisfaction to leave the neigh- that Europe had been for a long bouring powers so much on a ba- time afflicted with. Happily for lance with each other, or so much the ease of mankind, this pleasing taken up with their own internal profpe&t still holds up. For, as to concerns, as to afford little or no the points, which yet remain in grounds to apprehend any speedy dispute, between the three most interruption in that repose, which potent of the late belligerent has fo lately succeeded, if not powers, Great Britain on the one one of the longest, at least one of fide, and France and Spain on the VOL. VIII.


other ;

other; though much it is to be it. Nor does the progress of his wished, that every thing had, if reign promise to be less peacepoffible, been thoroughly settled able, than its beginning. The in the last treaty of peace ; it is late emperor never appeared to to be hoped from all the apparent take any share in the troubles circumstances of their present fitu. of Germany, but such as his graation, that the two latter of these titude to his confort and her famipowers will not so far perfift in ly for his elevation to the imperial refusing to comply with the just de- dignity, his dependence upon her mands of the former,as to force her, for the support of that dignity, from motives either of honour or and a very natural regard for his intereft, into a new war; although children, seemed to dictate ; and their litigious disposition on these which, in any other prince in the points may, probably, afford her fame circumstances, might reajust reasons to be more circumspect sonably be expected to have operaand less generous with them in fu- ted in the same manner. And the ture dealings of the same kind present emperor, heir to no part of Nay, this reluctance of the French his father's patrimonial dominions, and Spanish courts to do Great small and insignificant as they were Britain juftice, may, in the end, in the political world, must be turn out to her advantage, by fer- satisfied to tread in his steps, or at ving to justify, on these occa- leaft entirely conform to the views sions, such a strict attention to and intentions of his mother the her own interests, as might other- empress dowager,in whom,as queen. wise give umbrage to the neutral of Hungary and Bohemia, and fo. states of Europe. They may see vereign of Austria and the Nether... that such a conduct is not the effect lands, all the power of the house of of arrogance and a spirit of despo- Austria, notwithstanding the adtism, but proceeds solely from the mislion of her son to the co-regen. most authorised principles of felf. cy of them, fubftantially resides ; defence.

and who is now, in all appearance, Among the events which serve more intent upon settling her nuto diftinguish the period now un- merous issue and improving her der our confideration, the princi- territories, than upon adding to pal, no doubt, would have been them, or even upon recovering the death of the emperor of Ger- those which she has loft. many, had not the troubles usual

There have, indeed, been, fince on such occasions been happily the publication of our last volume, prevented by the previous election several intermarriages, by whic of a king of the Romans. Accor- the heretofore so fanguinely rival dingly, the present emperor Joseph houses of Austria and Bourbon II. who the year before had been have been drawn nearer to each

chosen to that dignity, other, than even by their late po

ascended the imperial litical alliances. A little before 1765.

throne on his father's the late emperor's death, a mar. death, with as little noise and riage was concluded between his buftle, as if he had been born to second son, and an infanta of


Aug. 18th

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