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Spain, on occasion of which he whose strength must ever be in parted with his Tuscan dominions. proportion to the weakness of But it is not probable, that these those in the opposite intereft. Bealliances can affect the tranquillity fides, the chief of the latter have of Europe, till most of the princes been of late equally attentive with who have made these contracts the former, to preserve that comfor their children are removed pactness so necessary to all polifrom the reins of government ; tical bodies by treaties of interevents, considering their ages, of marriage ; in the cementing of no very near prospect. In time, which, as no cessions or transfers no doubt, these marriages and cef- of territory have been made, so no fions will give rise to troubles, seeds have been fown of future filial love and respect giving way difcontent and discord. to the more powerful paflions speak of the late renewals of ami. of ambition and avarice ; and ty between the branches of the mankind may again smart for the Brunswick family, by the nuptials honour, which some sovereigns of the princess Augusta, his mado their subjects, of making them jesty's eldest fifter, with the herediover to each other, without their tary prince of Brunswick Lunenconcurrence, like beasts of the burg, and of a sister of that gallant field. The successor to the Au- prince with the prince royal of Atrian dominions, in right of the Prussia, nephew to the reigning present empress dowager, may king; the treaty of intermarriage look upon himself as equally in- lately concluded between another of titled to those of Tuscany in right his majesty's sisters, and the prince of the late emperor, especially as royal of Denmark, by drawing itill it does not appear, that, as legal closer the already very close bands heir, he has received any equivalent of friendship between these two fo, for them ; whilft a king of Spain great and so good monarchs, how may think it his duty to protect much soever it may contribute a fifter, a coufin, or their issue, to the satisfaction and honour of in the enjoyment of dominions their respective families, and the purchased, perhaps, for them by happiness and security of their subno inconfiderable portion. And, jects, cannot but contribute still after all, it must be owned, that more to the strengthening of the this is but a small part of that Protestant interest. trouble and confusion, which must These two systems, which we robably attend these ineluctable have been surveying, the Protestant vents, considering the complica- and the Roman-catholic, are not ted claims of Spain and Parma to however, and, in all probability, the throne of the Two Sicilies, and never will be, either of them, so that of a Don Lewis to Parnia much one, as to contain no devi. itself.

ous, irregular bodies, politically But gloomy as this profpe&t may tending to the other. For the be in regard to the great Roman- present, these bodies are chiefly, on catholic nations of Europe, it can the Protestant fide, Protestant Swegive no alarm to Great Britain, or den, and on the Roman-catholic, the other greqi Proteftant powers, Portugal; both, beyond all doubt,

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the most intolerantly zealous mem- in need of their ashitance against bers of the persuasions they re- Spain, France, and other powers, spectively belong to, yet both to secure to her a comniunicaItrongly attached to some powers tion with, if not indeed the possesof very different, and extremely fion of, the sources of that prejealous of other powers of the cious metal ; lince France and fame, creed with themselves. Swe- . Spain as far exceed Portugal in den and France ftill persist in their maritime strength, as they are old friend thin, and will, probably, themselves exceeded in that parlong perfiit in it, fince both find ticular by Great Britain. Add their interest in so doing. The to this, that it is not so much in mixt intercourse of trade and poli- the spirit of the British and Dutch ties, which has fo long continued constitutions to conquer countries, between them, and which their as fairly to gain, by the more agreemutual necessities seem in a great able, yet far more prevalent, arts measure to support, gives this con- of husbandry, manufacture, and nection the air of a natural alli- commerce, a share of the riches, ance : France stands in the great- with which these countries may eft need of, and is the best able to happen to be peculiarly blessed. pay for those commodities in trade, It is hardly requisite to say any and those assistances in war, which thing concerning the other RomanSweden is best able to furnish ; catholic or Protefiant powers of viz. metals ; materials for building Europe ; or at least a few words fhips ; lips ready built; and fome will be sufficient. The king of times men, whose bravery and Poland, though not as yet formally fidelity, as well as hardiness and acknowledged by thole powers who discipline, may be fately relied on. protetted againit the diet that

Portugal, from the designs of elected him, is likely to be foun her former masters, and the natu- fo. France has again supplied the ral imbecillity of the country,

Genoese with troops for the garstands much more in need of fo- risoning of the few places left them reign affiftance than Sweden. This in Corfica ; but there is very little afifiance, which Portugal stands probability of her endeavouring to in need of, the wisely looks for at recover for them any of those they the hands of the two greatest ma- have loit. It is not her intereit fitime powers of Europe, Great that the Corsicans Thould be entireFritain and Holland, but at the ly free, or entirely slaves, fince, as fame time the two warmest sup- long as they remain in the dubious porters of the Protestant interest. ftate they now are in, the may exAs much as these powers may pect to command in Genoa one cover the role of Portugal to ac- of the best maritime keys to Italy, cumulate it at home, or want it besides ships and sailors on an to purchase the commodities of emergency, in return for a few other countries, where those of land-forces, that she can raise and their own may not readily find a recruit with

little trouble or vent, so much does Portugal stand expence.

very

CH A P.

CH A P. II.

as

we

Alpe 7 of Ruffia and Turkey. Linleio be apprehended from Rusia, an b,till

lefs from Turkey. Character of the present emperor. Ajpect of Europe, in general, more pacific than ever. State of agriculture, naviga.ioi, und the useful arts.

O complete our survey of the if any thing at all, is to be fear-
European powers, we

are ed from Turkey, the only great next to consider Rusia and Tor- power of Europe, which, as bekey.

The head of the former, ing, by its maxims of religion wisely considering, that as much as and government, quite diftinct. it may

be her duty to deserve, it is, from, or rather diametrically opconsidering her want of an heredis posite to, all the others, which tary or even elective title, we have reviewed, must much ber interest to win, the affec. here take a particular survey tions of her subjects, not only of. The present emperor of that shews the greatest defire to make ill-governed and illiterate, yet, them happy, but endeavours it froin its numbers and enthusiastic by such means, as may not too servility to its head, dangerous glaringly clash with their deep- neighbour to fome of the Christian rooted prejudices either civil or powers, seems to be a very differeligious ; a method of proceeding rent man from all his predeceffuited only to such a sovereign sors. Under him, the spirit of as her predecessor Peter the Great, Turkish despotism and jealousy whose pretenhons to the crown seems to be in fome degree lowered. were themselves supported by these He permits brothers to live, even prejudices. Amongst other steps after escaping from that confinetaken by her to compass so exalt- ment, to which the laws of the ed a design, she has given the feraglio had condemned them ; amplest encouragement for the in. and by sending to France for a troduction of letters and useful arts, collection of astronomical treatises, these fovereign antidotes againit he has shewn a taste for those barbarism and superstition *. Upon sciences, which so much tend to the whole, therefore, there does enlarge and refine the human mind. not appear the least reason to ap- But what does him ftill more hoprehend any thing from Russia for nour, is that truly nei vhbourly the peace of Europe.

part he so lately acted in the afrairs Little as there is to be ap- of Poland, which must make us prehended from Ruffia, fill leis, consider him as a pacific, as well

• Of this the reader will find some proof in a letter written by her imperial majesty to the celebrated Monf. D'Alembert, on his refusing to come to Russia,

to educate the hereditary prince her in; and which, as truly characteristic, we ipserted amongst our Characters for latt year.

as

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as a wise and benevolent prince, have, likewise, been adopted and and only leave us room to regret, improvedA Linnæus and a S.ilthat there are not more poten- lingfeet have hinted the politates of that character amongst bilitv and expediency of parting those educated in principles ir- the hitherto undistingu shed comfinitely better calculated to form mon plants of the field made use of it.

to feed our cattle, in order to give In short, Europe seems, in ge- each its proper soil and cultiva. neral, to wear a much more le- tion, and low and crop it in its rene appearance, than from history proper season. A Wyche, foaring there is any reason to judge the still higher, has, from a just confia ever did.

The spirit of inven- deration of the goodness and power tion, industry, and improvement, of the creator, suggested the exiftare abroad, and seem to have ence of vegetables, fit for the taken place of the spirit of con- fame purpose, hardy enough to queft and rapacity, which fo thrive in the coldest weather. And much disgrace her former annals. these hints and suggestions have Princes, in all appearance, begin been, by the parting of the plants to discover more wealth and power already known, and the discovering in the honeit endeavours of their and the cultivating of other much subjects to enrich themelves, than hardier ones, been proved well they used to do in the fervile ulliit- founded, and brought into pracance of them to ensiave others. d- tice by Mr. Baker, and by Mr. griculture and navigation have, at Rocque, to the vast enlargement of laft, in a great mealuie, obtained the human empire over the veges that attention, which such useful table world ; several plants, which and sublime arts aelerve. Nor have hitherto used to be nursed up in the intermediate handicraft arts, gardens for the immediate and supported by agriculture and sup- Tole use of man, having been comporting navigation, and contri. pelled to do duty in the open fields. buting so much, in other respects, for that of cattle, and made subject to the conveniency and pleasure of to the plough as well as the spade, life, been neglected.

so as to oblige a far greater pora The vegetable system of Tull, tion of the earth's surface to wear after ftanding many years unim- the livery of summer in the depth peached by any casual observations, of winter, has within these few years been The principles of Sir Isaac News confirmed by the express experi. ton, joined to the astronomical ments of Monsieur Duhamel, and observations of Halley and Bradfound to be as true and useful, ley, have been made by M. Mayer as it was ever allowed to be sim- of Goetinghen a ground-work for ple and ingenious. What is more, constructing, with the affittance of his admirable machines, so well theorems furnished by Mr. Euler adapted to that system, and so of Berlin, tables of the moon's happily contrived to combine the motions, by which the absolute intelligence of the rational with time of that heteroclite planet's the strength of the brute creation, appulse to any fixed point of the iheavens, and of course the diffe- things, that have been done for the rence of longitude between any general benefit of mankind, and place and the observer's, may, with the men to whom we are indebted the help of the ingenious Mr. Mal- for the archievement of them, kelyne's new method of finding the after beltowing so much time on proper allowances for parallax and scenes of devastation and flaughrefraction, be precisely determi- ter, we may perhaps be thought to ned ; and ease and expedition have dwelt too long upon them, at have been added to precifion by least for this part of our work, theorems of Mr. Witchell's in- however necessary fome account of vention for the use of lunar ta- them may be to illustrate subjects bles, and other tables for the easy more ftrictly historical, according and expeditious application of to the usual meaning of that word, his theorems. Mr. Harrison's im- which may hereafter occur in this provements in clock-work for ob- part of our work, on a Suppofitaining the fame ends have like- tion of the public's favouring us wise heen pushed to so great a de- with a continuance of their pagree in point of portability, as tience and indulgence. We shall, well as certainty, as to deserve the therefore, refer our readers for highest reward offered by the Bri- fuller accounts of these mattish government.

heavens, im.

ters to the other parts of it, in The members of the royal aca- which they may be introduced at demy of sciences of Paris have al- large with more propriety, and ready published several accounts of consequently more ample justice particular trades, which, however may be done to them. trivial they may appear in some We cannot, however, dismiss the eyes, the fruit of much subject, even in this place, withthought and experience, and yield out observing how many Engroom for a great deal more, so as

lith names

appear amongst the not to be unworthy of the scien- authors we have been celebra. tific manner in which these gen- ting; though a thing no way surtlemen have handled them. Per- prising, since, in this free and fer. haps, it may be with truth affirm- tile country, every man is sure to ed, that the meanest of these enjoy in peace the fruits of his trades is, comparatively, as use- ingenuity and labour, and to gain ful in the scale of those human more by the mere sale of them, inventions which contribute so considering the number and opumuch to make life happy, as the lency of its inhabitants, than could meanest infe& is thought to be in be well expected in any other the scale of created beings to sup- country from the greatest generoport and uphold the whole. New fity in the government. But it is vesocieties have been formed for the ry remarkable, that, notwithstandcultivation of all these useful arts, ing this certainty of meritorious not only in England, but in men being rewarded here withFrance, and most other countries out any legislative intervention, the of Europe.

British legislature has, however, But unpardonable as it might not only been the first to reward kave been to pass over in silence those, (even foreigners) who have

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