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woollen cloth. In those patterns in which the colorsland; the other was named Oberkampf, a calicoare blended into one another at the edges, in what printer at Jouy, in France. We will endeavor, with is called the rainbow style, they are first blended by the assistance of a diagram, to explain the principle a brush on the sieve before being taken up by the of the machine as arranged for printing a pattern in block. Stereotyping has been applied to the pro- } three colors. The cylinders upon which the pattern duction of printing-blocks. A small mould is pro- is engraved, one cylinder for each color, are shown duced from a model of the pattern, and copies are then made by pouring fusible metal into it. A

Olla number of these plates are joined together, and mounted in a stout piece of wood, and thus form a printing-block.

A machine called the Perrotine, in honor of its inventor, M. Perrot, of Rouen, is in use in France and Belgium as a substitute for hand-block printing. It is thus described by Dr. Ure: “Three wooden blocks, from two and a half to three feet long, according to the breadth of the cloth, and from two to five inches broad, faced with pear-tree wood, engraved in relief, are mounted in a powerful cast-iron framework, with their planes at right angles to each other, so that each of them may, in succession, be brought to bear upon the face, top, and back of a square prism of iron covered with cloth, and fitted to revolve upon an axis between the said blocks. The calico passes between the prism and the engraved blocks, and receives successive impressions

in section at c, and a view of one of them. Each

cylinder is mounted on a strong framework, so as to from them as it is successively drawn through by a

revolve against two other cylinders, D and e: the winding cylinder. The blocks are pressed against

cylinder e is covered with woollen cloth, and dips the calico through the agency of springs, which imi

into a trough i, containing the coloring-matter protate the elastic pressure of the workman's hand.

perly thickened, so that as e revolves it takes up a Each block receives a coat of colored paste from a

coating of color and distributes it over the engraved woollen surface, smeared after every contact with a mechanical brush. One man, with one or two chil

roller c. D is a large iron drum covered with sevedren for superintending the color-giving surfaces,

ral folds of woollen cloth, so as to form a somewhat can turn off about thirty pieces English per day, in }

elastic printing surface : an endless web of blanketthree colors, which is the work of fully twenty men

ing a a is made to travel round this drum, which

serves as a sort of guide, and defence, and printing and twenty children in block-printing by hand.”

surface to the calico b b which is being printed. Copper-plate printing, similar to that used in the

Now it is obvious from this arrangement, that the production of engravings, has also been applied to

cylinder e in revolving must spread the color unicalico-printing; but the perfection to which cylin

formly over the engraved cylinder c, whereas it is der-printing, next to be described, has been brought, rendered the extension of this method unnecessary,

wanted only in the depressed or engraved parts;

the excess of color has therefore to be removed The invention of cylinder, or roller-printing, is the

before the roller comes in contact with the calico, or greatest achievement that has been made in the art,

instead of being ornamented with a pattern it would producing results which are truly extraordinary: &

} be disfigured with an unmeaning patch of color. length of calico equal to one mile can, by this me

The superfluous color is removed by a sharp-edged thod, be printed off with four different colors in ono

knife or plate d, usually of steel, called the doctor." hour, and more accurately and with better effect } than block-printing by hand. One cylinder-machine, attended by one man, can perform as much work in

* The origin of this term has been explained by Mr the same time as one hundred men attended by one

Baines in his “ History of the Cotton Manufacture:" When

Mr. Hargreaves, a partner in the factory at Monsey, near bundred tearers. The effect of this beautiful ma

Preston, where cylinder-printing was first introduced, as chine has been greatly to cheapen cotton prints, and

already noticed, was making some experiments with the to create an enormous demand for them, so that, process, one of his workmen said, "All this is very well, while apparently superseding labor in one direction, sir; but how will you remove the superfluous color from it creates a demand for it in all directions.

the surface of the cylinder?" Mr. Hargreaves took up a The invention of this machine is attributed to two

common knife, and pressing the edge parallel with the axis

of the revolving cylinder, at once showed its action in re persons, who had no connection with each other: }

moving the color. After a short pavse, the operative ex. the one is a Scotchman named Bell, who, about the

claimed, “Oh, sir, you have doctored it!” a common phrase year 1785, practised at Monsey, near Preston, Eng- } for “You have cured it;" and the contrivance has ever

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Our large engraving is a view of a cylinder-ma- { iron drum D; but very great nicety of arrangement chine for printing colors. Some of the machines į is required to bring all these rollers to bear upon the are very complicated in appearance, as many as cloth, so as to print at the exact spots required for eight colors being printed at once by one machine ; { forming a complicated pattern; but when the proper but this complication is only apparent, for it is pro- į adjustment is made, a machine for printing eigh duced by the repetition of similar arrangements colors acts with as much precision and regularity as eight times over, each engraved roller, provided } a machine arranged for a fewer number of colors. with its own color trough, &c., revolving against the } As fast as the calico is printed, it is drawn through

a long gallery or passage, raised to the temperature kinor retained the name of the doctor. Another account is, of nearly 200o, by means of a furnace fluo which That the word doctor is a corruption of the Latin, abductor. traverses its whole length. The upper surface of CALICO-PRINTING.

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the gallery is covered with rough plates of cast-iron flat pieces of copper edge-wise. This is termed which radiate heat upon the printed goods. A piece surface printing, probably from the circumstance of of calico of twenty-eight yards is drawn through the the thickened color being applied to a tense surface gallery in about two minutes, during which the of woollen cluth, against which the cylindor recolors become dried and set.

volves and takes up color. A combination of The printing cylinders vary in length from thirty wooden and copper rollers forms what is called the to forty inches, according to the width of the calico: union printing-machine. the diameter varies from four to twelve inches. Another method of calico-printing remains to be Each cylinder, A, and in section c, as shown in the described, namely, press-printing, by which several following figuro, is bored through the axis d d, and colors can be printed at once. The cloth to be

printed is wound upon a roller at one end of the machine, and the design, which is formed in a block of mixed metal about two and a half feet square, is supported with its face downwards in an iron frame, and can be raised or lowered at pleasure. The face of the block is divided into as many stripes, ranging

cross-wise with the table, as there are colors to be accurately turned from a solid piece of metal. For printed. If, for example, the pattern be made up some styles of pattern the engraving is done by { of five stripes of different colors, and each stripe be hand; but, as this is expensive, it is usual to adopt six inches broad, and as long as the breadth of the Perkins's method of transferring engravings from cloth, the colors have to be applied without minone surface to another by means of small steel rol- gling or interfering with each other. This is accomlers, B. The pattern is first drawn upon a scale of plished in the following ranner: The side edges of about three inches square, so that this size of figure} the table are furnished with a couple of rails similar being repeated a number of times will cover the to a railway, and upon this is a shallow tray or printing cylinder. The pattern is then engraved frame, capable of moving backwards and forwards upon a roller of soft steel about one inch in diame- upon wheels. Within this frame is a cushion of ter, and three inches long, so as to occupy its sur. about the same size as the printing-block, and by face exactly. This small roller, which is called the its side are five small troughs containing the thickdie, is next hardened by heating it to redness and ened colors. By means of a long piece of wood, suddenly quenching it in cold water. The roller formed so as to dip into all the troughs at once, the thus hardened is then put into a rotatory press, and tearer applies a small portion of each color to the made to transfer its design to a similar small roller surface of the cushion, and spreads them evenly in a soft state, called the mill. The design which into five portions or stripes, taking care not to mix was sunk in the die, now appears in relief on the { them ; but making their breadth equal to that of mill. The mill in its turn is hardened, and being the stereotype rows on the block. The cushion put into a rotatory press, engraves or indents upon being prepared, the frame is rolled along the railthe large copper cylinder the whole of the intended way until it is immediately under the printingpattern. This is, of course, a work of time, and re. block, which the pressman then lowers upon the quires considerable care to make the numerous cushion, by which means the five stripes of the block junctions of the small roller exactly fit each other become charged, each with its propor color. The upon the printing cylinder. By this process, how block is then raised, the frame rolled away, and the ever, a pattern may be imparted to a large cylinder block brought down upon the cloth, which it prints at the cost of about one-eighth of what it could be in five rows of different colors. On raising the done by hand. By the method just described, a { block, the cloth is drawn forward about six inches worn cylinder can be renewed and made equal to a in the direction of its length, or exactly the width new one. The pattern is also sometimes produced of one stripe on the block; the tearer again pushes by etching, in which case the cylinder is covered forward the cushion with the colors renewed, and with a thin coat of varnish, and on this the pattern the block is again charged and applied to the cloth. is traced with a diamond or steel point. Aqua-fortis Now, as a length of the cloth equal to the width of is then applied to the surface, which bites into or a stripe is drawn from under the block at each imcorrodes the parts which have been removed by the pression, every part of the cloth is brought into con

at. This point or tracer is sometimes applied in t act with all the stripes on the block. Great care is a manner similar to that of the eccentric chuck of a required so to adjust all the moving parts of the lathe, by which means the surface is covered with press, that the colors may not mingle and distort patterns, or a groundwork for patterns of great the pattern. variety and beauty. The electrotype has also been the mechanical portion of the art of calicu.. used for producing the design on the printing cylin- printing having occupied so much space, we will der. The design is also sometimes cut in relief have to give the chemical portion in our article upon wooden rollers; or formed by the insertion of į next month.


The following letter was written by Sir Henry { but such as is without peril of your joints or bones; Sidney to his son Philip, then twelve years of age, it will increase your force and enlarge your breath. at School at Shrewsbury

Delight to be cleanly, as well in all parts of your “I have received two letters from you, which I body as in your garments; it shall make you grateful take in good part; and, since this is my first letter in each company; and, otherwise, loathsome. Give that ever I did write to you, I will not that it be yourself to be merry; for you degenerate from your empty of some advices, which my natural care of { father if you find not yourself most able in wit and you provoketh me to wish you to follow as docu body to do anything when you be most merry. But ments to you in this your tender age.

let your mirth be ever void of all scurrility and biting “Let your first action be the lifting up of your words to any man; for a wound given by a word is mind to the Almighty God by hearty prayer; and oftentimes harder to be cured than that which is feelingly digest the words you speak in prayer, with given with the sword. Be you rather a hearer and continual meditation, and thinking of him to whom bearer away of other men's talk, than a beginner or you pray, and of the matter for which you pray; procurer of speech; otherwise you shall be counted and use this at an ordinary hour, whereby the time to delight to hear yourself speak. If you hear a itself will put you in remembrance to do that which wise sentence, or an apt phrase, commit it to your you are accustomed to do in that time. Apply your memory, with respect to the circumstance when you study to such hours as your discreet master doth shall speak it. Let never oath be heard to come out assign you, earnestly; and the time, I know, he will of your mouth, nor word of ribaldry; detest it in 80 limit as shall be both sufficient for your learning, { others, so shall custom make to yourself a law against and safe for your health. And mark the sense and it in yourself. Be modest in each assembly; and the matter of that you read, as well as the words; rather be rebuked of light fellows for maiden-like so shall you both enrich your tongue with words, and { shamefacedness, than of your sad friends for pert your wit with matter; and judgment will grow as { boldness. Think upon every word that you will years groweth in you. Be humble and obedient to speak before you utter it, and remember how nature your master; for unless you frame yourself to obey hath rampired up, as it were, the tongue with teeth, others, yea, and feel in yourself what obedience is, } lips, yea, and hair without the lips, and all betokenyou shall never be able to teach others how to obey ing reins or bridles for the loose use of that member. you. Be cautious of gesture, and affable to all men, } Above all things tell no untruth; no, not in trifles. with diversity of reverence, according to the dignity The custom of it is naught; and let it not satisfy of the person. There is nothing that winneth so you that, for a time, the hearers take it for a truth; much with so little cost. Use moderate diet, so as, for, after, it will be known as it is, to your shame; after your meat, you may find your wit fresher and for there cannot be a greater reproach to a gentleman not duller, and your body more lively and not more than to be accounted a liar. Study, and endeavor heavy. Seldom drink wine, and yet sometimes do; yourself to be virtuously occupied, so shall you make lest, being enforced to drink upon the sudden, you such a habit of well-doing in you that you shall not should find yourself inflamed. Use exercise of body, { know how to do evil though you would."



(Sce Plate.) The child's first tribute! Surely Ile who spake

A small thing that the humble righteous hath His kind approval of the widow's mite

Is better than the wealth of godless pride: Shall hold this "first fruit” precious in His sight!

A cup of water many sins may hide, Train up the child to love, for Jesus' sake,

If given for Christ's sake, and in modest faith; The suffering and the poor; to feel and know

While he to whom all human praise is given, The claims of penury, and the rights of woe.

Whose ostentatious bounty sounds abroad, Whoso, the Lord hath promised, in my name

Finds in that human fame bis sole reward, The poor, imprisoned, and the sick shall seek,

But stands in naked guilt before just IIeaven. The wounded comfort, and raise up the weak,

Oh, rather train the child to seek His ear And, in the fulness of a Christian heart,

Who hears in secret, and to court His eye Blessings to these, my brethren, shall impart,

Who marks the humble paths of poverty: Bearing the cross, and fearing not the shamo

Teach him to give-but not for human praise, The almsdeeds that he doth shall counted be

But seek high witness, and the thoughts to raise As precious gifts bestowed, through my beloved, on me. To God in Heaven, nor heed what men may see or hear.


BT 28. C. A. WHITE.

With the aid of literary and historic association, { Even Augustus himself seems not to have been a “ trifles as light as air" become charmingly import- shade less luxurious than this “triumphant lady," ant; but perhaps none more so than the subject of and the “curled Antony," for Suetonius describes our paper, every fold of which is replete with inte him in the heat of summer reclining in his peristyle rest, and filled with classic and poetic memories. with a slave fanning him while he slept.

Incentive in itself to pleasant talk, the fan leads { But though the waving of the flabellum so as to us by the short cuts of imagination to its place of produce a cooling breeze was the especial duty of an origin, the East, where nature, in the leaves of { attendant, it was gallantry in a gentleman to take it the fan-palm-tree, seems to have set the type of its in his own hand and wake use of it in compliment fashion, and where, in all probability, these natural} to a lady. Fans appear to have had a religious use screens preluded the use of artificial ones.

amongst the Egyptians from a very early period; In the Orestes of Euripides, the Phrygian slave they were suspended from the roofs of the temples, who relates the death of Clytemnestra, was employed like the punkas of India at the present day; and in waving round the fair shoulders of Helen a fan were also employed to keep off flies from the sacrilike a palm branch, or open leaf, when the matri- } fices, as well as for the purpose of exciting the sacred cides burst into the wretched queen's apartment; } fires. and in the Elgin Saloon of the British Museum, we Mention is made, in the “Dictionary of Greek find a bas-relief representing Hygieia feeding a ser and Roman Antiquities" before alluded to, of a pent out of a patera, and holding in her left hand a } painting of a sacrifice to Isis, in which the priest is fan in the shape of an ivy-leaf.

seen fanning the fire upon the altar, with a trianguBut these primitive and simple forms appear soon lar flabellum, such as is still seen in Italy. to have given place to others; and from the descrip Stavely, in his “ Church History," informs us that tions of Propertius and Claudian, feathers mounted, { in the middle ages fans became part of the church as well as fans made of linen stretched over a light furniture, for the purpose of chasing away flies from frame and painted, were generally used. Sometimes the holy elements during the administration of the we find th made by simply fastening together, { Eucharist; and Moreri has described a magnificent back to back, a pair of wings, and attaching them fan of this kind, preserved in the Abbey of St. Philito a handle ; but in every case, according to the bert de Tournus, which resembled those used by editor of the “ Dictionary of Greek and Roman An- } ladies, but was much larger, and with a longer han. tiquities," however elegant in form, or delicately dle. It was richly decorated with images of saints, colored, or costly in material, they were stiff and of

and bore inscriptions in bad Latin verse, abounding, a fixed shape, incapable of being furled or unfurled;

after the manner of the monks, in false quantities. nor were they carried by the ladies themselves; These fans were held by the deacons on either side "Flabellifera," or female fan-bearers, forming, when

of the altar, as they continue to be in the Greek Plautus wrote, part of every fine lady's retinue.

Church during the celebration of the sacrament. Not that such attendants were confined to women, In Japan, where Siebold informs us, neither sex for the minions of the tyrant Aristodemus at Cumæ,

wear headdresses to shade the face, the fan is seen are described by Dionysius Halicarnassensis, as fol

in the hand or girdle of every inhabitant, and even lowed, whenever they went to the gymnasium, by

priests and soldiers wear them. female slaves bearing fans and parasols, the use of

His fan is to the Japanese dandy what the whaleboth of which had been borrowed from barbarian bone switch is to the London exquisite. Ladies and nations.

gentlemen receive and offer presents on them; the Occasionally, beautiful boys held this office, and schoolmaster uses his in lieu of the forule; the begin the luxurious passage of Cleopatra on the Cyd

gar who asks an alms holds out his fan for its acnus,

ceptance, and it is even said that when presented

on a peculiar kind of salver to a high-born criminal « On each side of her Stood pretty dimpled boys, like smiling Cupids,

it becomes the warrant of his death. With divers-colored fans, whose wind did seem

But the most absurd service in which we have To glow the delicate cheeks which they did cool, found the fan figuring is that suggested by a sepulAnd what they undid, did."*

chral tablet in the Egyptian Room of Antiquities at

our Museum, representing Tete, flabellum-bearer to Antony and Cleopatra.

the Sun!

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