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woollen eloth. In those patterns in whieh the eolors are blended into one another at the edges, in what is ealled the rainbow style, they are first blended by a brash on the sieve before being taken up by the bloek. Stereotyping has been applied to the produetion of printing-bloeks. A small mould is produeed from a model of the pattern, and eopies are then made by pouring fusible metal into it. A number of these plates are joined together, and mounted in a stout pieee of wood, and thus form a printing-bloek.
A maehine ealled the Perrotine, in honor of its inventor, M. Perrot, of Rouen, is in use in Franee and Belginm as a substitute for hand-bloek printing. It is thus deseribed by Dr. Ure: "Three wooden bloeks, from two and a half to three feet long, aeeording to the breadth of the eloth, and from two to five inehes broad, faeed with pear-tree wood, engraved in relief, are mounted in a powerful east-iron framowork, with their planes at right angles to eaeh other, so that eaeh of them inay, in sueeession, be brought to bear upon the faee, top, and haek of a square prism of iron eovered with eloth, and fitted to revolve upon an axis between the said bloeks. The ealieo passes between the prism and the engraved bloeks, and reeeives sueeessive impressions from them as it is sueeessively drawn through by a winding eylinder. The bloeks are pressed against the ealieo through the ageney of springs, whieh imitate the elastie pressure of the workman's hand. Eaeh bloek reeeives a eoat of eolored paste from a woollen surfaee, smeared after every eontaet with a meehanieal brush. One man, with one or two ehildren for superintending the eolor-giving surfaees, ean turn off about thirty pieees English per day, in three eolors, whieh is the work of fully twenty men and twenty ehildren in bloek-printing by hand."
Copper-plate printing, similar to that used in the produetion of engravings, has also been applied to ealieo-printing; but the perfeetion to whieh eylinder-printing, next to be deseribed, has been brought, rendered the extension of this method unneeessary.
The invention of eylinder, or roller-printing, is tho greatest aehievement that has been made in the art, produeing results whieh are truly extraordinary: a length of ealieo equal to one mile ean, by this method, be printed off with four different eolors in one hour, and more aeeurately and with better effeet than bloek-printing by hand. One eylinder-maehine, attended by one man, ean perform as mueh work in the same time as one hundred men attended by one hundred tearers. The effeet of this beautiful maehine has been greatly to eheapen eotton prints, and to ereate an enormous demand for them, so that, while apparently superseding labor in one direetion, it ereates a demand for it in all direetions.
The invention of this maehine is attributed to two persons, who had no eonneetion with eaeh other: the one is a Seotehman named Bell, who, about the yoar 1785, praetised at Monsey, near Preston, Eng
in seetion at e, and a viow of one of them. Eaeh eylinder is mounted on a strong framowork, so as to revolve against two other eylinders, N and e: tho eylinder e is eovered with woollen eloth, and dips into a trough i, eontaining the eoloring-matter properly thiekened, so that as e revolves it takes up a eoating of eolor and distributes it over the engraved roller e. D is a large iron drum eovered with several folds of woollen eloth, so as to form a somowhat elastie printing surfaee: an endless web of blanketing a a is made to travel round this drum, whieh serves as a sort of guide, and defenee, and printing surfaee to tho ealieo 6 6 whieh is being printed. Now it is obvious from this arrangement, that the eylinder e in revolving must spread the eolor uniformly over the engraved eylinder e, whereas it is wanted only in the depressed or engraved parts; the exeess of eolor has therefore to be removed before the roller eomes in eontaet with the ealieo, or instead of being ornamented with a pattern it would be disfigured with an unmeaning pateh of eolor. The superfluous eolor is removed by a sharp-edged knife or plato d, usually of steel, ealled the doetor.*
• The origin of this term has been explained by Mr Balnes in his "Ilistory of the Cotton ManufaetureWhen Mr. Hargreaves, a partner in the faetory at Monsey, near Preston, where eylinder-printing was first introdueed, as already notieed, was making some experiments with the proeess, one of his workmen paid, "All this is very well, sir; but how will you remove the superfluous eolor ^-om the surfaee of the eylinder?" Mr. Hargreaves took up a eommon knife, and pressing the edge parallel with the axis of the revolving eylinder, at onee showed its aetion in removing the eolor. After a short pause, the operative exelaimed, " Oh, sir, you have doetored it I" a eommon phrasa for "You have eured it;" and the eontrivanee has ever
Our large engraving is a view of a eylinder-maehine for printing eolors. Some of the maehines are very eomplieated in appearanee, as many as eight eolors being printed at onee by one maehine; but this eomplieation is only apparent, for it is produeed by the repetition of similar arrangements eight times over, eaeh engraved roller, providod with its own eolor trough, Ae., revolving against the
■loos retained the name of Oie doetor. Another aeeount Is, iSat ths word doetor is a eorruption of the Latin, aMuetor.
iron drum n; but very great nieety of arrangement is required to bring all these rollers to bear upon the eloth, so as to print at the exaet spots required for forming a eomplieated pattern; but when the proper adjustment is made, a maehine for printing eight eolors aets with as mueh preeision and regularity as a maehine arranged for a fewer number of eolors.
As fast as the ealieo is printed, it is drawn through a long gallery or passage, raised to the temperature of nearly 200°, by means of a furnaee flue whieh traverses its whele length. The upper surfaee of
aeeurately turned from a solid pieee of metal. For Bome styles of pattern the engraving is done by hand; but, as this is expensive, it is usual to adopt Perkins's methed of transferring engravings from one surfaee to another by means of small steel rollers, B. The pattern is first drawn upon a seale of about three inehes square, so that this size of figure being repeated a number of times will eover the printing eylinder. The pattern is then engraved upon a roller of soft steel about one ineh in diameter, and three inehes long, so as to oeeupy its surfaee exaetly. This small roller, whieh is ealled the die, is next hardened by heating it to redness and suddenly quenehing it in eold water. The roller thus hardened is then put into a rotatory press, and made to transfer its design to a similar small roller in a soft state, ealled the mill. The design whieh was sunk in the die, now appears in relief on the mill. The mill in its turn is hardened, and being put into a rotatory press, engraves or indents upon the large eopper eylinder the whele of the intended pattern. This is, of eourse, a work of time, and requires eonsiderable eare to make the numerous junetions of the small roller exaetly fit eaeh other upon the printing eylinder. By this proeess, hewever, a pattern may be imparted to a largo eylinder at the eost of about one-eighth of what it eould be by hand. By the methed just deseribed, a t eylinder ean be renewed and made equal to a new one. The pattern is also sometimes produeed by etehing, in whieh ease the eylinder is eovered with a thin eoat of varnish, and on this the pattern is traeed with a diamond or steel point. Aqua-fort is is then applied to the surfaee, whieh hites into or eorrodes the parts whieh have been removed by the point. This point or traeer is sometimes applied in a manner similar to that of the eeeentrie ehuek of a lathe, by whieh means the surfaee is eovered with patterns, or a groundwork for patterns of great variety and beauty. The eleetrotype has also been used for produeing the design on the printing eylinder. The design is also sometimes eut in relief upon wooden rollers; or formed by the insertion of
flat pieees of eopper edge-wise. This is termed surfaee printing, prohably from the eireumstanee of the thiekened eolor being applied to a tense surfaee of woollen eloth, against whieh the eylinder revolves and takes up eolor. A eomhination of wooden and eopper rollers forms what is ealled the union printing-maehine.
Another methed of ealieo-printing remains to be deseribed, namely, presa-printing, by whieh several eolors ean bo printed at onee. The eloth to be printed is wound upon a roller at one end of the maehine, and the design, whieh is formed in a bloek of mixed metal about two and a half feet square, is supported with its faee downwards in an iron frame, and ean be raised or lowered at pleasure. The faee of the bloek is divided into as many stripes, ranging eross-wise with the table, as there aro eolors to be printed. If, for example, the pattern be made up of five stripes of different eolors, and eaeh stripe be six inehes broad, and as long as the breadth of the eloth, the eolors have to bo applied witheut mingling or interfering with eaeh other. This is aeeomplished in the following manner: The side edges of the table are furnished with a eouple of rails similar to a railway, and upon this is a shallow tray or frame, eapable of moving haekwards and forwards upon wheels. Within this frame is a eushion of about the same size as the printing-bloek, and by its side are five small troughs eontaining the thiekened eolors. By means of a long pieee of wood, formed so as to dip into all the troughs at onee, the tearer applies a small portion of eaeh eolor to the surfaee of the eushion, nud spreads them evenly into five portions or stripes, taking eare not to mix them; but making their breadth equal to that of the stereotype rows on the bloek. The eushion being prepared, the frame is rolled along the railway until it is immediately under the printingbloek, whieh the pressman then lowers upon the eushion, by whieh means the five stripes of the bloek beeome eharged, eaeh with its proper eolor. The bloek is then raised, the frame rolled away, and the bloek brought down upon the eloth, whieh it prints in five rows of different eolors. On raising the bloek, the eloth is drawn forward about six inehes in the direetion of its length, or exaetly the width of one stripe on the bloek; the tearer again pushes forward the eushion with the eolors renewed, and the bloek is again eharged and applied to the eloth. Now, as a length of the eloth equal to the width of a stripe is drawn from under the bloek at eaeh impression, every part of the eloth is brought into eontaet with all the stripes on the bloek. Great eare is required so to adjust all the moving parts of the press, that the eolors may not mingle and distort the pattern.
The meehanieal portion of the art of ealieoprinting having oeeupied so mueh spaee, we will have to give the ehemieal portion in our artiele next month.
SIR HENRY SIDNEY.
The following letter was written by Sir Heury Sidney to his son Philip, then twelve years of age, at Sehool at Shrowshury:—
"I have reeeived two letters from you, whieh I take in good part; and, sinee this is my first letter that ever I did write to you, I will not that it be empty of some adviees, whieh my natural eare of you provoketh me to wish you to follow as doeuments to you in this your tender age.
"Let your first aetion bo the lifting up of your mind to the Almighty God by hearty prayer; and feelingly digest the words you speak in prayer, with eontinual meditation, and thinking of him to whom you pray, and of the matter for whieh you pray; and use this at an ordinary hour, whereby the time itself will put you in romembranee to do that whieh you are aeeustomed to do in that time. Apply your study to sueh hours as your disereet master doth assign you, earnestly; and the time, I know, he will so limit as shall be both sufficient for your learning, and safe for your health. And mark the sense and the matter of that you read, as well as the words; so shall you both eurieh your tongue with words, and your wit with matter; and judgment will grow as years groweth in you. Be humble and obedient to your master; for unless you frame yourself to obey others, yea, and feel in yourself what obedienee is, you shall never be able to teaeh others how to obey you. Be eautious of gesture, and affable to all men, w ith diversity of reverenee, aeeording to the dignity of the person. There is nothing that winneth so mueh with so little eost. Use moderate diot, so as, after your moat, you may find your wit fresher and not duller, and your body more lively and not more heavy. Seldom drink wine, and yet sometimes do; lest, being enforeed to drink upon the sudden, you should find yourself inflamed. Use exereise of body,
but sueh as is without peril of your joints or bones; it will inerease your foree and enlarge your breath. Delight to be eleanly, as well in all parts of your body as in your garments; it shall make you grateful in eaeh eompany; and, otherwise, loathsome. Give yourself to be merry; for you degenerate from your father if you find not yourself most able in wit and body to do anything when you be most merry. But let your mirth be ever void of all seurrility and hiting words to any man; for a wound given by a word is oftentimes harder to be eured than that whieh is given with the sword. Be you rather a hearer and bearer away of other men's talk, than a beginner or proeurer of speeeh; otherwise you shall be eounted to delight to hear yourself speak. If you hear a wise sentenee, or an apt phrase, eommit it to your memory, with respeet to the eireumstanee when you shall speak it. Let never oath be heard to eome out of your mouth, nor word of rihaldry; detest it in others, so shall eustom make to yourself a law against it in yourself. Be modest in eaeh assembly; and rather be rebuked of light fellows for maiden-like shamefaeedness, than of your sad friends for pert boldness. Think upon every word that you will speak before you utter it, and remember how nature hath rampired up, as it were, the tongue with teeth, lips, yea, and hair without the lips, and all betokening reins or bridles for the loose use of that member. Above all things tell no untruth; no, not in trifles. The eustom of it is naught; and let it not satisfy you that, for a time, the hearers take it for a truth; for, after, it will be known as it is, to your shame; for there eannot be a groater reproaeh to a gentleman than to be aeeounted a liar. Study, and endeavor yourself to be virtuously oeeupied, so shall you make sueh a hahit of well-doing in you that you shall not know how to do evil though you would."
THE FIRST TRIBUTE.
BT BET. H. HASTINGS WELD.
The ehild's first tribute! Surely He who spake
Train up the ehild to love, for Jesus' sake,
Whoso, the Lord hath promised, in my name
Bearing the eross, and fearing not the shame— . The alnwdrtxls that he doth shall eounted be
As preeious gifts bestowed, through my beloved, on me.
A small thing that the humble righteous hath
If given for Christ's sake, and in modest faith;
While he to whom all human praise is given,
But stands in naked guilt before just Heaven.
Oh, rather train the ehild to seek His ear
To God in Heaven, nor heed what men m&) eot or hear.
&t azs. c.
With the aid of literary and historie astoeintion, "trifles as light as air'' beeome eharmingly important; but perhaps none more so than the subjeet of our paper, every fold of whieh is replote with interest, and filled with elassie and poetie memories.
Ineentive in itself to pleasant talk, the fan leads us by the short euts of imagination to its plaee of origin, the East, where nature, in the leaves of the fan-palm-tree, seems to have set the type of its fashion, and where, in all prohahility, theso natural sereens preluded the use of artifieial ones.
In the Orestes of Euripides, the Phrygian slave who relates the death of Clytemnestra, was employed in waving round the fair shoulders of Helen a fan like a palm braneh, or open leaf, when the matrieides burst into the WTCtehed queen's apartment; and in the Elgin Saloon of the British Museum, we find a has-relief representing Hygieia feeding a serpent out of a patera, and holding in her left hand a fan in the shape of an ivy-leaf.
But these primitive and simple forms appear soon to have given plaee to others; and from the deseriptions of Propertins and Claudian, feathers mounted, as well as fans made of linen stretehed over a light frame and painted, were generally used. Sometimes we find th made by simply fastening together, beek to haek, a pair of wings, and attaehing them to a handle; but in every ease, aeeording to the editor of the "Dietionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities," however elegant in form, or delieately eolored, or eostly in material, they were stiff and of a fixed shape, ineapable of being furled or unfurlod; nor were they earried by the ladies themselves; "Flabellifera," or female fan-bearers, forming, when Plautus wrote, part of every fine lady's retinue.
Not that sueh attendants wore eonfined to women, for the minions of the tyrant Aristodemus at Cumro, are deseribed by Dionysius Ilaliearnassonsis, as followed, whenever they went to tho gymnasinm, by female slaves bearing /ant and parasols, tho use of both of whieh had been borrowed from harharian nations.
Oeeasionally, beautiful boys held this offiee, and in the luxurious passage of Cleopatra on the Cydnus,
■ On eaeh rtVk of her
* Antony and Cleopatra.
Even Augustus himself seems not to have been a shade less luxurious than this "trinmphant lady," and tho "eurled Antony," for Suetonins deseribes him in tho heat of summer reelining in his peristyle with a slave fanning him while he slept.
But though tho waving of the flabollum so as to produee a eooling broozo was the ospeeial duty of an attendant, it was gallantry in a gentleman to take it in his own hand and kmke use of it in eompliment to a lady. Fans appear to have had a religious use amongst tho Egyptians from a very early period; they wero suspended from the roofs of tho temples, like the punkas of India at the present day; and were also employed to keep off flies from tho saerifiees, as well as for tho purpose of exeiting tho saered fires.
Mention is made, in the "Dietionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities" before alluded to, of n painting of a saerifiee to Isis, in whieh the priest is seen fanning the fire upon the altar, with a triangular fiabellum, sueh as is still seen in Italy.
Stavely, in his "Chureh History," informs us that ! in the middlo ages fans beeame part of tho ehnreh furniture, for the purpose of ehasing away flies from the holy elements during the administration of tho ! Eueharist; and Moreri has deseribed a magnifieent ! fan of this kind, preserved in the Abbey of St. Phili; bert do Tournus, whieh resembled those used by ladies, but was mueh larger, and with a longer handle. It was riehly deeorated with images of saints, ; and bore inseriptions in had Latin verse, abounding, after the manner of tho monks, in false quantities. ! These fans were held by tho deaeons on either sido of tho altar, as they eontinue to be in tho Greek Chureh during the eelebration of the saerament .
In Japan, where Siebold informs us, neither sex wear headdresses to shade the faee, the fan is seen in the hand or girdle of every inhahitant, and oven ; priests and soldiers wear them. ; His fan is to the Japanese dandy what the whale• bone switeh is to tho London exquisite. Ladies and \ gentlemen reeeive and offer presents on them; tho j sehoolmaster uses his in lieu of the ferule; the beg'gar who asks an alms holds out his fan for its no! eeptanee, and it is even said that when presented on a peeuliar kind of salver to a high-born eriminal ! it beeomes the warrant of his death.
But the most absurd serviee in whieh we havo found the fan figuring is that suggested by a sepul! ehral tablet in the Egyptian Room of Antiquities at our Museum, representing Teto, ftabellnm-bearer in the Stmt