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Although the different methods of printing are numerous, and the eomhinations of eolors and shades of eolor almost infinite, yet eaeh eolor in a pattern must, in the present stato of the art, he applied by one of six different siyles of work. These are termed, 1, the Madder style; 2, Printing by steam; 3, the Padding style; 4, the Resist style; 5, the Diseharge style; and 6, the China-Blue style. By the proper eomhination of two or more of these styles, any pattern, however eomplieated, is produeed.
Tho madder style is so ealled from its being ehiefly praetised with madder; but it is applieable to most solublo vegetable and animal eoloring matters. The first proeess in this stylo is to print the ealieo with a mordant; that is, instead of printing at onee with eolor, the parts of the surfaee whieh are to have a madder eolor imparted to them are first impressed with a mordant. After tho calieo has passed through the hot flue, it is in many eases suspended free from folds for one or two days in what is ealled tho ageing-room, where by exposure to air the mordant, or n portion thereof, undergoes a ehemieal alteration, whereby it beeomes attaehed to the eloth in an insoluble stats. Any portion of the mordant that remains in a soluble state must be eompletely removed, or the eolor in being subsequently applied would spread over the surfaee, instead of being eonfined within the limits of the pattern. The superfluous mordant is removed by passing the dried ealieo through a warm mixture of eow-dung and water. This is ealled dunging. The mixture is usually eontained in two stone eisterns, plaeed end to end, eaeh about 6 feet long, 3 feet wide, and 4 feet deep. The mixture in one eistern is formed with about 2 gallons of dung to the eistern full of water, heated to about lfiO° or 1S0°. The seeond eistern eontains about half this quantity of dung. The ealieo, guided by rollers to keep it free from folds, is drawn quiekly through the first trough, and
then immediately through the seeond. It is then washed in elean water in what is ealled a winee-pit, and agam in a dash-wheel. [See Bleaehrs0.] Dunging is further useful in removing the thiekening paste by whieh the mordant is applied, and it ; also determines a more intimate union between the mordant and the fibre of the eloth. The proeess is neeesssary for alum, iron, and tin mordants, when applied to the eloth before the eoloring matter.
< The diffieulty of proeuring eow-dung in suifieient i quantities has led to attempts to find substitutes in i those ehemieal substanees whieh an analysis of dung j indieates as the essential ingredients. Thus a solu5 tion of phospate of soda and phosphate of lime, with ? a little glue or some other form of gelatine, has been > used under the name of dung-subatitute, or simply S subatitute,
S After washing in eold water, the mordanted eloth \ is wineed in a weak solution of substitute and size S It is then ready for the eolor. This is not applying \ by the proeess of printing, but simply by drawing * the eloth for two or three hours through a solution j of the eoloring material. The eolor attaehes itself ! permanently to those portions of the eloth to whieh
< the mordant has been applied, and forms a true S ehemieal eompound therowith; but on the unmor1 danted portions the eolor is feebly attaehed, and is ) subsequently removed by washing in soap and water,
or in bran and water, or in a dilute solution of ehloride of lime. This last washing is ealled elearing.
Sueh is a very meagre outline of the most important proeesses eoneerned in printing and dyeing a pieee of ealieo aeeording to the mndder style. The proeesses aetually required for finishing a pieee of eloth are numerous, as for example in produeing a red stripe upon a white ground, tho bleaehed eloth is submitted to nineteen operations, as follows: 1. Printing on mordant of red liquor (a preparation of almina) thiekened with flour, and dyeing; 2. Ageing for three days; 3. Dunging; 4. Wineing in eold water; 5. Washing at the dash-wheel; 6. Wineing in dung-substitute and size; 7. Wineing in eold water; 8. Dyeing in madder; 9. Wineing in eold water; 10. Washing at the dash-wheel; 11. Wineing in soup-water eontaining a salt of tin; 12. Washing nt the dash-wheel; 13. Wineing in soapwater; 14. Wineing in a solution of bleaehing-powder; 15. Washing at the dash-wheel; 16. Drying
J by the water extraetor; 17. Folding; IS. Starehing;
S 19. Drying by steam.
j The operations of washing and drying are very S important, and provision is made for them on a very s eomplete seale. The pieees of eloth are brought \ down into water-tanks, passing under and over rolli era, furnished with halanee-weights to keep the
< ealieo stretehed: these weights ean be adjusted on i their levers, so as to vary the tension to any degree
< required. In pome eases, the bottom of the tank is \ supplied with water in jets, so that the ealieo is subl jeeted to the dashing aetion of the water. In pass
ing out of the washing-maehine, the ealieo is reoetved on a skeleton roller, where it is smoothed by an attendant, and pauses from this to the drying
eylinder*, a seetion of whieh is shown in the following figure, where the arrow on the left shows the ealieo proeeeding from the washing-maehine, passing over a guide-roller R, and then over the drying eylinders, whieh are of metal, and heated by steam. It is then guided by a seeond roller n to the drum N, on whieh it is finally wound.
In another form of washing-maehine, the eloth is arranged in folds upon a shelf to the left of the maehine, whenee it is guided by rollers into the first vat or division of the maehine: it then passes out between rollers whieh press out the water, and thus make it again absorbent, before passing into the seeond division: it proeeeds in this way until it arrives at the seventh division, where the rollers are pressed together with weighted levers, and the ealieo leaves the maehine with most of its moisture pressed out. The objeet of having the divisions of unequal height is to establish a eurrent of water; for the tallest vat being first supplied, overflows into the next, and this into the third from the right, until the eolleeted overflowings eseape by the lowest vat. In this way a eurrent is kept up, and the ealieo, moving in a eontrary direetion to that of the eurrent, is eompletely washed.
Jhe seeond style of ealieo-printing is by steam.
The eolors whieh attaeh themselves firmly to the eloth by being printed on it with a mordant are not numerous, but by exposing the goods so printed to the aetion of steam, an intimate eomhination, takes plaee between the tissue, the eoloring matter, and the mordant. The meehanieal arrangements for steaming are various. In some works the eloth is suspended free from folds in a small ehamber of masoury, into whieh steam is admitted. In ether works the goods are plaeed in a large deal box, the lid of whieh is made nearly steam-tight by edges of felt, and the steam is admitted through a pipe perforated with a multitude of small holes, whieh traverses the box. But the eommon method is to eoil the ealieo round a hollow eopper eylinder, A, (see p. 120,) perforated with holes, the lower end of whieh is eonneeted with a steam-pipe. The eylinder is prepared by mounting it in a horizontal position in a frame. A roll of blanket is first lapped round it, then a pieee of white ealieo, and, lastly, three or four pieees of the printed and dried ealieo stitehed end to end. The eylinder is then fixed upright in a small apartment furnished with a ehimney to earry off the steam. The open end of the eylinder is serowed to a pipe eonneeted with the spheres s s, whieh are supplied with steam from the main boiler of the works, the quantity being regulated by a stopeoek e. The temperature is kept at 211° or 212° to prevent mueh eondensation, whieh makes the eolors run. A higher temperature is injurious, but a slight eondensation is required to keep the goods moist. The steaming is earried on for from twenty to forty minutes, aeeording to the nature of the eolor. When the steam is eut off, the eloth is uurolled immediately, to prevent eondensation. On exposure to the air, the thiekening material soon solidifies, and the goods beeome dry and stiff. The eloth is then aged for a day or two, and the thiekener gently washed out with eold water.
The operation of steaming not only attaehes the eolor firmly, but gives it brillianey and delieaey of finish. It is not always adopted, for some eolors beeome firmly attaehed to the eloth by mero exposure to air. A variety of eheap goods are printed in fugitive eolors; these, not being fixed by steaming or by a mordant, are ealled spirit, faney, or vath-off eolors.
The third style, ealled the padding style, applies to mineral eolors only. By this style a pattern may be produeed on white or eolored ground, and a ground may also be formed for the design in other eolors. For the latter purpose the padding maehine is used. A roller eovered with blanket dips partly into the trough, and above a*nd in eontaet with this is another roller, and the eloth to be padded passes between the two. When the eloth is uniformly im
the eloth only, the eommon printing maehine with a roughened roller is used instead of the padding maehine. The ground is sometimes produeed by the union of two eolors in solution forming within the fibre of the eloth itself an insoluble eolored preeipitate. For this purpose the eloth is first passed through one eolored solution, and then dried. It is next passed through the other eolored solution; the two then reaet upon eaeh other, and produee the desired effeet . Or the eloth may be padded in one solution, and afterwards wineed in the other. In order to produee a design on a white or eolored ground, the eloth is printed with one of the solutions, and then padded or wineed in the other.
In the next style of printing, the resist style, the white eloth is printed with a resist paste, the objeet of whieh is to prevent those portions of the eloth to whieh it is applied in the form of a pattern, from taking up eolor when the eloth is passed through the dye-beek. A white design on a eolored ground is a simple example of this style. There are two elasses of resists—one to prevent a mordant from attaehing itself to the portions of the eloth so proteeted, and the other to shield the eloth from eoloring matter. Somo resists aot meehanieally; sueh
are fat resists. Others aet ehemieally as well as meehanieally.
The objeet of the fifth or diseharge style is to produee a white or eolored figure upon a eolored ground. For this purpose, the dyed or mordanted eloth is printed with a substanee ealled the diseharger, whieh aets either on the eoloring matter or on the mordant before the eloth is exposed to the dye. The diseharger aets by eonverting the eoloring matter on the mordant into eolorless or soluble produets, whieh may thus be removed so as to allow the parts thus diseharged to he dyed in another eolor. A vegetable or animal eoloring matter is usually diseharged by ehlorine and ehromie aeid; and a mordant is dissolved by an aeid solution.
By this style aro produeed the well-known imitations of Bandana handkerehiefs, in whieh white figures are formed on a ground of Turkey-red by means of an aqueous solution of ehlorine. This is made to flow down through the red eloth in eertain points, whieh are defined and eireumseribed by the pressure of hollow lead types inserted into plates of lead eontained in a hydraulie press. The press is furnished with a pair of pattern plates, one attaehed to the upper bloek of the press, and the other to the movable part or sill. From twelve to fourteen pieees of eloth previously dyed in Turkey-red are stretehed over eaeh other as evenly as possible, and then rolled round a drum. A portion of the fourteen layers equal to the area of the plates being drawn through between them, the press is worked and the plates aro brought together with a foree of upwards of 300 tons. The solution of ehlorine is then allowed to flow into tho hollows of the upper lead plate, whenee it deseends on the eloth, and pereolates through it, extraeting the Turkey-rod dye, the intense pressure preventing the bleaehing liquor from spreading beyond the limits of the figures perforated in the plates. When a eertain quantity of bleaehing liquor has passed through, water ia admitted in a similar manner to wash away the ehlorine. The pressure is then removed, and another square of the fourteen layers ia moved forward under the plates, and the proeess is repeated. When all the pieees have been diseharged, they are wineed in water, and further treated so as to improve the lustre both of the white and of the red.
The sixth and last style of printing is for ChinaHue, a peeuliar style, praetised with indigo only, two or three shades of eolor being eommonly assoeiated with white. Tho bleaehed ealieo is printed of the required pattern with a mixture of indigo, orpiment, sulphate of iron, gum and water. It is then aged for a day or two, and afterwards stretehed in perpendieular folds on a reetangular frame of wood. This is immersed in a eertain order in throe liquids, eontained in stono eisterns, the tops of whieh are on a level with the ground: 1, in milk of lime: 2, in a solution of sulphate of iron; 3, in a solution of eaustie soda. The frames are dipped
several times alternately into the first and seeond tisterns, with exposure to the air for a short time
between eaeh dip; they ore not dipped so frequently into the third eistern, but the dipping into this follows immediately after that in No. 2. By these operations, the insoluble indigo, whieh had been applied to the surfaee beeomes eonverted into Molublo indigo, or indigotin, whieh is dissolved and transferred to the interior of the fibres, where it is preeipitated in the original insoluble form.
Sueh i s a general outline of the meehanieal and
ehemieal arrangements of a large print-work. In addition to these, every ealieo-printer must have the means of produeing a eonstant sueeession of now patterns; for, were he to negleet to satisfy the eraving after novelty in dress whieh seems to form a part of the mental eonstitution of all elasses, his goods would bo negleeted, however fine in material, exeellent in weaving, elegant in design, and tasteful in tho ehoiee, variety, and eomhination of eolor. The spring or tho winter fashions of eaeh ^ear must be new; and although millions of patterns have preeeded those of any partieular year, yet the patterns eaeh year must be stamped with the eharaeteristie of novelty, or they will not sell. The produetion of this novelty requires months of previous preparation; and it is the business of a peeuliar set of artists or pattern designers to furnish the printer with a large variety of designs, from whieh he seleets those whieh he thinks likely to suit the taste of his eustomers.
A set of designers is usually attaehed to large print-works, eonsisting of two or three artists, and four or five apprentiees. The designs furnished by them often amount to several thousands every year, from whieh the printer seleets those whieh appear likely to sueeeed, either from novelty of design or the tasteful distribution of form and eolor. Some designers work on their own aeeount, and sell their designs at priees varying from a fow shillings to many dollars. In our next, we will give a deseription of the mode of ealendering various eloths.
DY KATE WILDFIRE.
Avnr Cavenper was a sad trifler in his way. There was seareely a maiden in the village to whom he had not made love at one time or another, and all as a pleasant pieee of pastime; not seeming to understand that maidens' hearts were tender things, and liable to be hurt in the handling.
Many tears had he eaused to flow from beautiful eyes, yet, if he know of the faet, it did not appear to give him serious eoneern. There was always a smile on his Up and a light word on his tongue.
At last, however, Andy's heart reeeived an impression. The image of a fair young girl rested upon it; not as of old, like the image in a speeulum, to pass with the objeet, but like the sun-fixed image of the Daguerreotype. Strange faet! the fiekle, light-hearted Andy Cavender was in love; really and truly in love.
There had eome to Woodland, to pass a fow months during the warm summer-time, a eity maiden, whose eharms were too potent for the village flirt. She eame, he saw, and was eonquered. It was soon plain to every one that it was all over with Andy Cavender. Kate—the lively, witty, darling Kate Areher had subdued him with her eharms, though all uneonseious herself of the eonquost she had made.
But others saw what she pereeived not, and looked on eurious for the issue.
"What do you think of this, Jenny?" said Kate Areher, one day, to the young friend with whom she was spending her summer in the eountry, and she laughed as she spoke, at the same time holding up a letter.
"Nows from home V remarked Jenny, smiling.
"Oh dear, no! It's a love-letter." "What!"
"A real righty love-letter, and, as they say, nothing else. Oh dear! To think that I should have made a eonquest already!"
"A love-letter, Kate? Well, here is an adventure, sure enough! Whose heart have you broken?"
"You shall see and hear for yourself," replied the laughing girl. Then, as she unfolded the letter, she put on a grave eountenanee, and, opening the pages to the eyes of her friend, read aloud—
"Mv Near Miss Arehkr: Will you permit one who, from the moment ho saw you, beeame an ardent admirer, to lay his heart at your feet? Until you appeared in our quiet village, no maiden had passed before me who had power to win my love. But, from the moment I saw you, I no longer had eontrol over my affeetions. They flow to you like a hird to its mate. You eannot but have observed, in all our reeent meetings, that I regarded you with more than a eommon interest, and I have permitted myself to believe that you read tho language of my eyes, and understood its meaning. You did not turn from me; you did not look eoldly on me. Have I erred in believing that your heart responded to tho warm emotions of my own? I trust not. If it be so, then am I of all men most miserable. I will wait, with trembling and impatient hope, your answer to this.
"Tenderly and faithfully yours,
"annrew Ca Venner."
"Now, Jenny dear, what do you think of that?" said Kate, gayly, as she folded up her letter. "Havn't I made a real eonquest?"
"Andy Cavonder! Well, that beats everything!"
"None of your eountry maidens for him," laughod Kate. "He must have a eity belle."
"Country maidens! He's mode love to every good-looking girl within ten miles round."
"Yes. There's no eounting the hearts ho has broken."
"Did ho ever make love to you?"
"Oh, eertainly," replied Jenny, gayiy.
"In real earnest?"
"Ah! now you eome to the point . Perhaps you 'vo not heard that Andy is our village flirt?"
"A flirt, indeed! And so I am to be one of his vietims. Oh dear!"
"I don't know as to that. I more than half suspeet him to be in earnest now. In faet, I 'vo heard, from more than ono souree, that he is desperately in love with you."
"Will he hang himself if I'm inoxorable?"
"There 's no telling. But what kind of an answer are you going to make to his avowal of love?"
"What shall I say?"
j "Oh, that depends on your feelings."
'"He's a regular flirt you say?"
'"I eould name you a dozen girls at least, to whom
his attentions have been of a eharaeter to make ! them believe that his designs were serious. Two or ! three were made very unhappy whon he turned • from them, like a gay inseet, to seek another
j "Then he must be punished," said Kate, reso; lutely; "and be mine tho task to lay tho smarting i lash upon his shoulders. For the man who dolibe; rately trifles with a woman's feelings I have no pity. \ Ho has been the eause of pain boyond what it is \ possible for himself to feel; and, if I ean reaeh his sensihilities in any way, you may be sure that I will do it with a hearty good-will."
"I do not like the thought of giving pain," remarked Jenny, "even to a reptile."
"Pain is salutary in most eases; and will be partieularly so in this, I hope. He will have some \ idea of how it feels, as the woman said, when she rapped her boy over tho head with a stiek for striking his sister." It was as Jenny supposed, and as wo intimated in . the beginning; Andy Cavenderwas really and truly j over head and ears in love with Kate Areher, and 'every line of his amatory epistle was from his heart . j Two or three letters were written and destroyed bej fore he produeed one exaetly to his mind, and this 'ho finally dispatehed in full eonfidenee that, as it \ eame from his heart, it must reaeh tho heart of the ; lovely maiden.
: Two days went by, and no answer was reeeived j by the enamored swain. He began to feel anxious. 'On tho third day, a neat little perfumed envelop eame into his hands, whieh, on opening, he found to j eontain a pink, perfumed, satin-edged sheet of notej paper, on whieh were a fow lines most delieately \ written. They were as follows :—
j "mr Near Sir: Your letter, eontaining a most ; flattering avowal of regard for one who is eompara> tively a stranger, has been reeeived. Its effeet I I will not attempt to deseribe; nor will I, at this ! time, venture to put in written language what I feel.
i To-morrow evening I will spend at Mrs. T 's.
j May I hope to see you thero?
i" Yours, Ae., Kare." Andy was in ecstasies at this answer to his epistle, i Its meaning to him was as plain as if Kate had said, "Dear Androw, my heart is yours."
On the next evening, he repaired to Mrs. T 's,
j trembling with fond antieipation. On entering the ! parlor, he found but a single person therein, and } that a young lady named Herbert, to whom ho had 1 formerly paid very marked attentions. Aware that j she had been made unhuppy by his fiekleness, not I to eall it by a harsher name, the meeting rather throw a damper over his feelings. But Andy had