صور الصفحة

sereen. We have startled a dinner-party of six or seven, who are taking advantage of the reeess. Two! more are employed with hasin and towel in washing 5 the delf from whieh they hare just finished their j meal. j

They smile very good-naturedly at the interrup- j tion—we blushing a little, it may be, at our own > eurious inspeetion of the domestie arrangements of j ladies every whit as well bred as ourselves—and S point ont the reeess with its fitting of stove and S eulinary utensils, where one of their number is just j now browing a most inviting eup of tea. The din- j ing-room has a goodly row of shelves, with eanis- i ters, ehina, ete. ete., like any other store-room ; and,! as eaeh person or party play eook and waiter for s themselves, all is neatness and order. J

Ten minutes have passed, and the reeess is not j yet over. The pretty faees are gathered in groups < around the room and dressing-room. Some in the j window-seats are watehing us euriously, as we lin- j ger by the raised table of the direetress, whieh eom- j mands a viow of the room; others are in knots of i threes and fives, diseussing the fashion of a sleeve j or the bright spring dresses displayed in the shop- J windows. A fow, more studiously inelined, have \ drawn forth a faseinating volume, and are dispateh- j ing page after page; even an industrious needle or two have made their appearanee, and a fow busy stitehes are set. How little there is here to mark diseontent or suffering, overwork or overtaxed! strength! The employment, though monotonous, j requires eonstant thought and attention, so that the I mind is not wearied by hahitual reverie, and the eheerful hum of voiees, or musie of laughter, would satisfy the most exaeting philanthropist. They are paid on an average, and not for the exaet amount eaeh person exeeutes: aetive or indolent, they reeeive four dollars and a half per week; but, in justiee, we must say that eaeh seemed striving to do her best .

We are struek with the ease and propriety of the employment, the neat and eheerful aspeet of the room; so mueh pleasanter than if the same number of men and boys had been at work; and are reminded to inquire whether this employment of women is uupreeedented. Entirely so: the philanthropy and good taste of the suggestion are entirely due to tho ehief eoiner, our attentive guide, Franklin Peale, Esq. It is nearly two years sinee the experiment was eommeneed, and is found to answer admirably. "Women are at onee more easily taught, and quieker in movement; and," adds Mr. Peale, "we find them more eoneeientiout," whieh truly noble eompliment to our sex we eould but aeknowledge by a most respeetful bow.

In making seleetions from the erowd of applieants, the most intelligent and well-edueated have beon ehosen, and we doubt if fifty pleasanter-looking faees eould be gathered together. The manners of many mark them as edueated and refined, whieh

must, of eourse, give a tone to the whole eirele. We j eould but faney the intimaeies and agreeable aequaintanees whieh are no doubt frequently formed among them.

A situation in the adjusting-room being, for these various reasons, so eligible, it is no wonder that eonstant applieations are made; but we were not prepared to hear that the number of disappointed applieants eould not fall far short of tix hundred, a faet of the greatest weight in proving our proposition with regard to the neeessity for female employment.

As we hid adieu to the eheerful room and its amiable direetress, we will linger for a moment in a division of the apartment below, in whieh we saw the pieees prepared, where they are now undergoing the last proeess before the eertain toueh of the die stamps them the eurrent eoin of our eountry. It is not strietly german to the plan of our sketehes; but our own euriosity was gratified in following the tempting pieees to their final embellishment, and we faney, dear ladies, that this you share with us.

Here we are, then, in range with the glowing furnaees, in one of whieh we eateh a glimpse of apparent short, thiek hars of iron, red with the fervent heat. They are, in reality, iron boxes, eontaining a portion of the unfinished eoin, whieh, after the adjusting, has been milled, or passed through a simple maehine, where, by systematie pressure between two grooves of steel, the narrow rim or edge has been made to eneirele it. Formerly, it also ineluded the fine ridges, or border, whieh eounterfeiters have found so bard to imitate; but this is now aeeomplished by the one stroke of the die. In these iron boxes, then, the golden eireles are plaeed, still with the red and green stains upon them, whieh you may have notieed, eaused by the aetion of the external air in some former annealing proeess. This is now to be eleansed; therefore the lid of the box is luted fast with wet elay, and the whole subjeeted to heat, until it has attained what tho workmen eall "eherry red." Here it eomes sliding down the iron hars, supported by the pineers of the workman on either side, to its hath, a weak infusion of sulphurie aeid. A huge sieve is suspended by a erane above it, the eover is removed, and the glowing metal thus retained is plunged into the vat beneath. Now it appears onee more ehanged in eolor, but the same in form. Another hath, more j eooling, of elear Sehuylkill; and still a third, s warmer in temperature, for it must be dried in haste, lest it should tarnish. Onee more the huge sieve swings round, and now its eontents, bright and bur\ nished as we see the beautiful eoin before it is dimmed by the toueh of trafiie, is emptied into the long j sawdust-filled trough that oeeupies the eentre of the room; and here the drying proeess is eompleted by the quiek manipulation of the workmen.

There is so mueh to see! There is a faseination in the noiseless, regular working of the steam-engine A LEGEND OF THE SECOND CRUSADE IN THE HOLY LAND.


in the next apartment. It is an apt illustration of these quiet, foreible eharaeters whe aeeomplish so n:hoh witheut jar or tumult. But we must not linger j the opening door displays the ropid maehinery for whieh it supplies the motive power; and ,'ere again we find piles of the burnished golden eireles. They are reeeiving the final mark of their perfeetion: the quiek, sure stroke of the die eonveys the rapid impression, and fast as the workmen can feed the insatiate engino, the pieees, one by one, are passed beneath the powerful foree, and fall, in all their glowing and finished beauty, into the reeeptaele beneath.

Did you ever wonder hew all this eoin is to be eounted ?—the dull, tiresome proeess of telling the half million adjusted in a day? For the larger gold pieees the original proeess is still retained, separating the pile by fives, and gathering them into rouleaux of ten eaeh. Or there is the eutting, a wooden har, at right angles, like a wide and thiek earpenter's rule, notehed at regular intervals; the piles are plaeed within the angle, as you sometimes

gather the eounters of a haekgammon board, and, when thus evenly adjusted, they are mueh soonor told. But for these bright eoppers, silver, and smaller gold pieees, there is a triumph of meehanieal ingenuity, and yet so simple in its applieation you wonder it was not theught of long ago. The workman sits, with a wooden frame before him, lined with eopper, hewever, to save the eonstant attrition that would soon wear away the wood. This frame is divided into eompartments the width of the pieees, and is earelessly heaped with bright new eoppers. A few slow movements haekwards and forwards, and the eoins have arranged themselves between the grooves. The praetised eye seans the board to see that the layers are not double; a hinged seetion falling, preeipitates all over the sum required into a trough below, and the board has measured its five hundred pieees in mueh less time than the deseription has been written.

Thus ends our morning's investigations, with grateful aeknowledgments to our eourteous guide.




'How to eommand, and bow to obey, was the edueation of a Spartan."—Plutaaeh.

TnE mingled waters of the Syrian and Phoenieian seas beat high and angrily against the sheres of the Holy Land, eooling with spray the low white buildings of Tripolis, whieh at a league's distanee resembled these hirds of the air and of the water, as they hever and dip, disappear and rise again in the eversounding waters of the main.

A boat of Oriental strueture floated before the port; but so distant was it that it might have been easily mistaken for a dark eloud merging above the disk of the herizen, with an oeeasional mezzetint toueh from the sun: its deek was ornamented by a small pavilion, beneath whieh sat a Saraeen Assassin, and a Frank, or Western Christian.

"I will relate," said the former, "aeeording to your request, some eireumstanees whieh may be of interest to you. Yes, friend of my soul, what would not Hasan do either to benefit or amuse you!

"The founder of the seet of Assassinss was Hasan Sabah. My father gave mo his name in eonsequenee of his admiration of him. It is said he obtained our hill fort of 'Allahmout,' or the 'Eagles' Nest,' by the same stratagem whieh Dido praetised in gaining Carthage.

"As soon as I eould understand, he took me by

• So ealled from their peeuliar dagger, and derived, It Is said, from the Sanserit or Persian language.

the hand and pointed all around, as far as I eould see, saying: 'Your namesake gained this fort by hargaining for as mueh of the ground as an ox's hide would eover. Malek Shah, a prinee to whem the eountry belonged, readily eonsented, thinking Hasan Sabah very modest, or very poor. He even said: "I will give you as mueh again, and you ean raise vines suffieiently to supply a part of the market at Kazveen,'" but he sheok his head, thanked him, and insisted that be wanted no more than what an ox's hide would surround. "Well," said the prinee, "you are an odd fellow, or half witted."

"'Hasan bought the hide, and, sitting down, took sueh a dagger as this'—pointing to the one at his side—'and eommoneed shredding the hide into thengs and joining them until they multiplied suffieiently to eover as mueh of the ground as he desired.

'"We gnard the tenots of our religion with jealousy, and its mystieisms are earried by us to an extreme.

"' Mohammed's religion was ealled Islam—resignation, or religion of salvation—and these whe adhered to it were by the Arabs denominated Moslems, and by the Persians Mussulmant. The head of the empire, both temporally and theologieally, is the lehalif, or sueeessor of the Prophet. The Fatimites or Ismaelites, from Is mae], a deseendant of Fatima, daughter of Mohammed's sueeessors, established a dynasty in the north of Afriea, on the eoast, making a eonquest of Egypt and of Syria, while they reigned 1i» Cairo. They were the enemies of the Khalif of Bagdad, eaeh regarding the other as hereties. Mozuriah, a deseendant of the unele of Mohammed, elaimed the khalifate after the death of Ali, and reigned for ninety years at Damaseus. From hit family one ealled Abbos sprang from another of the uneles of the Prophet, wrested the khalifate, and reigned at Bagdad; while one of iloawiah't deseendants, also elaiming the khalifate, eseaped to Spain and reigned at Cordova.

'"The Iimaelitet or Attamint were in the Abhatide dominions the disguised advoeates of the Fatimite sueeession, but their religion will ever remain hidden and mysterious. Our ehief's faee is ever veiled; his power is unlimited; he has but to signify his wish, and it is obeyed. "Strike thyself to the heart; throw thyself from yonder tower;" and it is no sooner expressed than exeeuted.'"

Hasan was silent for a shert time, when he again ealled the attention of his Christian friend to the pavilion above them. It was lined with azure silk, upon whieh was wrought in silver a ereseent, with some of the planets and satellites. They were delineated as aeeurately as if traeed upon a eelestial globe, and so artfully eontrived as to represent a semi-sphere.

"See," said he, "the type of the ereseent; of an inereasing glory and power whieh ends, you know, in a perfeet eirele, and that, we all know, is typieal of eternity. This reealls to my remembranee an event eonneeted with my history.

"Sultan Sanjar, of Persia, was the son of Malek Shah. He is most justly regarded as the best and greatest of the Seljookian monarehy. Seven years ago, he was importuned, by some whese names I need not now reeur to, to undertake the overthrow of our raee. We were soon apprised of the eireumstanee, and our ehief ealled upon me to set forth with a warning for the Sultan and for Fakir Razee, a doetor of laws, whe was styled 'The Imaum of Rhe.' This grave fakir was suspeeted of leaning towards the Itmailee seet, and, fearing that it would be noised abroad, he undertook to express his herror of our tenets in a severe hemily while attending the serviees of the mosque.

"The Sultan reigned at Kherassan. His dominions extended from beyond the Indus in one direetion to the Jaxartes in another. Disguising myself as a merehant, I repaired to a earavansary in Meshed, the eapital of Kherassan, and offered in the hazaar a few silks from Ghilen. While bartering for a eouple of Cashmere shawls of the finest goat hair, I heard a erier proelaiming that the 'worshipful Imaum of Rhe would at sunset pronounee again his hemily in the mosque.' This was preeisely what I desired most, and, setting forth quite early, I examined the mosque, and seated myself near a plaee ealled the 'Imaum's pulpit,' to await the hemily, and

in due time heard the muezzin; after whieh the people assembled, and with them Fakir Razee. He was remarkably eorpulent and very shert, with a laughing eye, whieh was forever twinkling; so mueh so as to produee an ineongruity when he undertook a grave subjeet.

"While he abused us, I was one of his most attentive auditors, and after he dismissed the erowd and rotumed to put on his slippers and lay asido his robe, I quietly followed him, and will never forget the ludierous expression of his frightened eountenanee when I seized him by the beard, and, pointing to my dagger, asked him 'if he knew whe I was?'

"'Indeed I do not,' said he, almost fainting with herror.

'"You abused the Ismnilee seet,' said I.

'"I was wrong: I will nevor do so again: I repent from the bottom of my heart!' was his reply.

"' Swear by the Holy Prophet to what you have just said.'

"' I swear,' replied the Imaum, gasping for breath.

"'Very well,' said I, quitting my held; 'I have orders not to slay you, or my poniard sheuld before this have beon erimsoned with the blood of your heart . The lord of the Assassins, Allah-u-deen, desires his respeets to you, and inquires if you are well informed of the tenets of that seet whieh you have darod to abuse? He advises you to be eareful of your future eonduet; and as he has a respeet for your eharaeter, he sends you this hag, whieh eontains three hundred and sixty gold moburs,e and here is an order for a similar sum, to be paid annually by one of his agents.'

"Fakir Rnzee took the money, and eontinued for many years to reeeive his pension. Ho never mentioned to his pupils, or even in leetures, the Ismnilee seet . Whenever asked why he abstained from the expression of sueh opinions, he was wont to observe 'that he had some sharp and weightg arguments whieh indueed him to waive all diseussion on the subjeet.'

"I had now a more diffieult task to aehieve, in my warning to the Sultan. After remaining four days at Meshed witheut seeing him, exeept when surrounded by a strong guard, I betheught me of an expedient .

"In Persia, students need but a slight aequaintanee with astronomy to be regarded as adepts in the mysteries of judieial astrology. To take an altitude with an astrolabe; to know the position of the planets, stars, and satellites, with a perfeet knowledge of astrologieal almanaes—whieh are published annuallv—is suffieient, partieularly when a few teehnieal phrases are added.

"The ehief physieian of the Sultan was in the daily hahit of taking an evening walk. I managed, aa he entered the shade of some date-trees, to attraet

s Equal to two dollars.



Lis attention by exelaiming—'Alas for Sultan Sanjar, sheald he take the antelope hunt on to-morrow, as I have heard he designed doing. Oh that a poor astrologer like myself eould influenee him: I read his heroseope, and now that his'

"' Hold there!' said the physieian, stepping to the spot where I was seated—' what is that, friend, that I heard thee lamenting?'

"I tore my beard and beat my breast, in silenee, until he promised to send for me on the following morning whilo the Sultan was breakfasting, so as to enable me to explain in person my apprehensions for his safety. I now rose from my seat, standing ereetly, and erossing my hands until he repeated—

"'You shall be weleome; where shall I send for you?'

"I prostrated myself as I said, 'Most worshipful follower of Jalenouss and Boerat,f at the earavansary of Mohammed Ali Khan, if it pleases your worship.'

"As the religion of the Sultan oxaeted his rising early, and his popularity in his dominions depended upon his striet observanee of the Koran, I had not long after suurise to await the summons. The ehief| steward, or nauzee of the Sultan, a man of remarkably ugly, and indeed almost deformed appearanee, presented himself as my guide to the palaee. As he stood before me but four feet high, and nearly as broad, his earroty hair hanging in strings beneath his lamb's-wool eap, a foot and a half high, his eyes large, and with the eolor and expression of a tiger's, I feared lest I sheuld wound his feelings by the gaze of euriosity my faee expressed: but whether he had beeome aeeustomed to sueh expressions of surpriso or not, remains to be aseertained: eertain it is, he did not notiee me. We walked in silenee for some time, until Hliz ealled to me, saying, 'Ilark ye.' I turned as he pointed to a slave-merehant, whe in an audible voiee was saying to a riebly-dressed Persian—

"'Thirty-nine, only thirty-nine.'

'"What do you say?' replied the merehant.

"'Only thirty-nine.'

"'That number,' eontinued Tllis, 'is deeply wrought in the tapestry of my life." "'How, brother?' said I.

"'Why, but four years sinee, standing in that very plaee with thirty-nine Turks, earried with myself to market, all of whieh the vizier bought for his royal master exeepting mysolf, and when about to depart with them, I ealled to the minister—" Oh I vizier, if you have purehased thirty-nine slaves for the Sultan's sake, buy me, for God's sake!" The minister was pleased, and I was ineluded with the others. From my wretehed inferior appearanee, I was theught worthy only of a seullion's plaee in the king's kitehen. I am not too humble to say that there I made so many improvements and friends,

s Oolen. t Hippoerates.

t that I was gradually promoted until I arrived at the

plaee of steward, whieh I now held.' j "We arrived at the palaee, and found that the j Sultan was awaiting his breakfast heur in one of his private halls. The nauzee now left me at the vestii bule, and summoned the physieian, after whieh the j door was opened; and as we entered two offieers raised j their gold-enamelled wands, and we twiee made 'obeisanee. The Sultan was seated upon a divan of \ blue satin ornamented heavily with fringe of gold > thread strung with pearls, and festooned with eords j and tassels of the same: four square pillars of por< phyry supported the divan, and upon eaeh rested a \ golden peaeoek set with preeious stones, and bearing eostly pearls in their beaks. Ho was a remarkably I fine-looking man, with eyes more lustrous than the diamonds and other preeious stones whieh looped \ his turhan, notwithstanding, when thero was the \ least inflexion of his body, they flashed and sparkled i most refulgently: his beard was blaek, and in tho form of a fan: his dress the eatebea or robe, eomposed of eloth of gold and broeade, elasped with j diamonds. There were on eaeh side of him pages 5 splendidly dressed, whe refreshed him by burning perfumes in vases, and fanning him with the feathers j of the ostrieh and hird of paradise. But these are j the mere externals of eastern hahits. The Sultan possessed the three great traits whieh Xenophen j enumerates as the national eharaeter of the aneient Persians: riding, sheoting with the bow, and speaking the truth.

I "I listened with pleasure at the history given by his lieutenant of the eountry of Egypt . The Sultan had never visited the Nile, and was eurious to hear j a deseription from an eye-witness of his own eourt, and had just seated the lieutenant a few feet below I him and eommanded him to proeeed. When I en\ tered, I had eonsequently to fold my arms aeross my j breast and stand respeetfully aside, while he detailed i the following narrative:—

j e "' Oh, eommander of the faithful, Egypt is a eountry of blaek earth and green plants, between a pulverized mountain and red sand. The distanee . from Syeno to the sea is a month's journey for a j herseman. Along the valley deseends a river, on ! whieh the blessing of the Most High reposes, both j in the evening and the morning, and whieh rises and falls with the revolutions of the sun and moon. • When the annual dispensations of Providenee unj loek the springs and fountains that nourish the earth, the Nile rolls his swelling and sounding waj ters through the realms of Egypt; the fields are $ overspread by the salutary flood, and the villages j eommunieate with eaeh other in their painted harks. j The retreat of the inundation deposits a fertilizing 'mud, for the reeeption of the various seeds. Tho

s Translated from an Arablan manuseript in the possession of Cardinal Mazarln, in a volume published in the year 1660.

erowds of hushandmen who blaeken tho land may be eompared to a swarm of ants, and their native indolenee is quiekened by taskmasters, who punish, or promise tho flowors and fruits of a plentiful inerease. Their hope is seldom deeeived, but the riehes whieh they extraet from the wheat, the harley, and the riee, the legumens, the fruit-trees, and the eattle, are equally shared between those who labor and those who possess. Aeeording to the vieissitudes of the season, the faee of the eountry is adorned with a silver wave, a verdant emorald, and the deep yellow of a golden harvest.'

"It was my time next to speak, and I had eommeneed approaehing the Sultan in the usual formula, by stepping towards him, then stopping, and hesitating as if dazzled by his appearanee, then advaneing again, when the nauzee 111 is announeed the king's breakfast. It was borne upon a tray eovered by a rieh shawl, whieh was removed, and laid upon an elegantly embroidered eloth spread before the Sultan, who'left the divan for a seat on a earpet, whieh I need only deseribe as from the looms of the Wats. The nauxee then proeeeded to break the seal and unloek the tray. It eontained dishes of very fine China, with silver eovers. They being also removed and the dishes of viands plaeed before the Sultan, the physieian stepped forward and remained standing by him until he had breakfasted and for an hour afterwards. During the latter period, I was ealled upon for proofs of my skill in judieial astrology. I went through the usual forms and ealeulations, pointing out to him that the invisible but haneful eonstellation Sukez yeldoz was exaetly opposite the ehief and only gatoway leading towards the forest, and must eonsequently shed its dangerous influenoe in that direetion. The Sultan was eonvineed that I had interposed between himself and some impending danger, and, drawing a ring from his finger, he plaeed it here'—pointing to the third finger of his right hand—' saying:—

"' Should tho blaek elouds of sorrow ever lower over you, and Sultan San jar be possessed of the power to dispel them, even in a slight degree, sond this to him.'"

The Assassin paused for some time while he gazed on his monareh's gift, and, as he raised his jowelled hand to his turhan in respeetful remembranee of him who was now a eaptive, a tear dropped upon his silken vestments, and spangled into a thousand brilliant partieles. Thus in a fow moments the ineidents of many years glided before him in a multitude of sorrowful yet brilliant reminiseenees, and, to use the language of his own eountry, were "full of the waters of the eye."

"We managed that the Sultan should not be disappointed in his hunting expedition; and on the following morning, after returning from the mosque, he agreed to pass through the eity in the opposite direetion of the eonstellation, and eontinue a route fir ten or eleven leagues towards Killaat. I was to

'' aeeompany tho party for the purpose of reminding i the Sultan to keep his head in a proper direetion, 'so as to avoid the eonstellation. When the eavaleade ; drow up in front of the palaee, it resembled mueh ! more a earavan fitted out with merehandise for J Bagdad, than a party of pleasure. There were ten 'eamels laden with tents, furniture, and provisions; f forty horses, and sixteen mules: two of the former ! bore rieh saddles, plated with gold, and set with ! ruhies and turquoise or ferouzah, one of whieh was led for, and the other ridden by the Sultan. The j remainder of the horses were variously eaparisoned, some with silver-mounted saddles, others with embroidered velvet and gilding. Spears were fastened i to the saddles, and eaeh man earried in his hand a ( bow, and in his sa'h a quiver full of arrows. The j Sultan and vizier bore eaeh a hawk upon his glove,

and there were ten or fifteen dogs led in leashes. !" We vaulted into our saddles and filed off through the eity, uniting again in the suburbs. I rode by the Sultan, and the vizier on the opposite side. There wero twenty-four arehers as a body-guard, twelve in the van and twelve in the rear: then followed many of the nobles, the gentry, and menials. We had travelled five or six leagues, when an outrider, who oeeupied the plaee of seout, returned for the purpose of informing tho Sultan that he had diseovered the traeks of a stag. The monareh was an exeellent horseman as well as marksman, and, spurring his horse, he dashed forward, forgetting Sukez yeldoz. When within a hundred yards of tho animal, he dismounted and advaneed fifty steps, fitting at tho same time an arrow to his bow; but the pieturesque appearanee of the seene before him arrested its flight. In a deep valley through whieh a stream bubbled and glided over pebbles as white as snow, lay sleeping one of tho noMest stags I ever saw. So porfeet was his rest, and so harmonious to repose the surrounding seenery, that it appeared a violation of nature to disturb him. An arrow flow from the monareh's bow, and a shower of dowy flowers fell from the shrubbery above, and earpeted tho spot so lately oeeupied by the now bounding and almost invisible stag. I had followed the Sultan elosely, and now for the first time addressed him.

"'Sword of Porsia, eommander of the faithful, and noble Sultan, have you forgotten the haneful oonstellation?'

"He quietly surrendered his head into my keeping, and we journeyed on, until the hawks were flown. Away they went, rising higher and higher, now wheeling, now poising upon ontstretehed wings, and now darting until lost in the vapory elouds whieh sailed in fragments below the summits of the mountains. A sudden deseent of tbe hawks, with a ery from the seout, informed us that the stag had been diseovered, and that his rapid flight was now impeded by their attaeking his head. Presently four dogs were unleashed, now four more, and so on, until the animal was almost fainting with fatigue,

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