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It is a matter of question whether the fan came large sum in these days, but insignificant compared direct to us from the East during the Crusades, in with the price of some modern ones, of which we the reign of Richard II., or was imported from Italy shall have occasion to speak. in that of Henry VIII., more than a century after In an old comedy of 1610, called the “ Fleire,” it wards. At any rate, it is not until the time of Eliza- is said: “She hath a fan with a short silver handle, beth that we find it popularly used; but at this { a description which reminds us that the handle of period, both sexes wore it, and young gentlemen the fan, when Shakspeare wrote, was the most valuwho would have thought it shockingly effeminate to able part of it; and lets us into the secret of Falbe seen in a coach, made no scruple of carrying fans staff's observation in the second act and second and feathers in their hands, which in war, continues scene of “The Merry Wives of Windsor,” where the our authority, “their ancestors wore on their heads." Knight upbraids Pistol with the obligation he is In the “Book of Table Talk,” (a modern work,) we under to him, and amongst other matters reminds learn that men, in the south of Italy, continue to him that “when Mistress Bridget lost the handle of use them, and that it is no unusual thing, in sultry { her fan," he “ took 't upon his honor de (Pistol) had weather, to see a captain of dragoons, moustached it not.” Steevens, in his notes upon this passage, and “bearded like the pard,” fanning himself with has given four cuts of these fans, one from the all the graces and dexterity of a young coquette. frontispiece of a play of 1616, ("Englishmen for My

In a collection of ancient costumes we find the Money,") the others from drawings by Titian and fan making its first appearance in the simple form his brother Cesare Vecelli, in " Habiti Antichi e of a single ostrich plume; but soon after it is formed Moderni di tutto il Mondo." (Venice, 1598.) of three or four feathers fastened into a handle; the It is rather singular, that in Herbé's “ Costumes more costly of these handles being composed of gold, Français," the fan does not make its appearance till or silver, or ivory, curiously wrought and occasionally between 1540 and 1550, although it is stated, on set with precious jewels. Wharton, in the Sidney good authority, that as early as 1522, the master Papers, mentions a fan presented to Queen Eliza- fan-makers made one of the Companies of Arts and beth, the bandle of which was studded with dia- Manufactures of Paris and its environs; a circummonds; and Nichols, in his progresses of the same stance which proves that even at this period tho royal lady, in a list of jewels presented to her at business had become one of considerable importance. Ver Year's Tide, in 1589, mentions a “Faune of { It was not until many years subsequent to the fethers, white and red, the handle of gold enamelled { first East Indian voyage from this country, which with a half moone of mother of perles, within that a { was in 1591, that the folding fan of the Orientals half moone, garnished with sparks of dyamonds and superseded the ever-open ones of our ancestral fasha few seede perles; the one side having her Majes. ionables; and though Herbé has placed one in the ty's picture, and on the other a device with a crown { hands of a demoiselle so early as the time of Catheover it."

rine de Medicis, other authors date their introduction This superb trinket was the offering of Sir Francis into France to the return of some missionaries from Drake. Looking-glasses were sometimes set in the China, in the reign of the luxurious Louis Quatorze. broad part of these fans, as we still see them at Du The quaint and elaborate carving of the Chinese, vellóroy's, in those intended for the use of the ladies till within the last few years, was better known to of the Harem. They were placed at the summit of our sex through the medium of the card-case and the hardle just below the feathers, which were very fan, than from any other articles of commerco; and frequently the beautifully colored one's of the pea exquisitely as the tiny watch-spring saw used by Cuck's tail

the French artificers enables them to work the most These fabled eyes of Argus had been a favorite delicate designs in the bone, or ivory, or mother-ofmaterial for the flabellum of the ancients ; but the pearl brins of the French fan, the miracles of miElizabethan form and mode of mounting them was nutiæ effected in the same space by the patient a great improvement on that of the ancients, who, craftsmen of the Celestial Empire, surpass whatever after binding the separate feathers at the base, fur- European fan-makers have hitherto executed in this ther united them by a thread passing along their branch of their art; and, at the present time, China tips, and another tied to the middle of the shaft of may be considered the only country that prevents each feather, after which they were attached to a { the French from enjoying a monopoly in the manuhandle nearly two feet long, and were thus fixed, facture of this article. and except when moved bodily, inflexible.

Madame de Genlis, who appears to imagine the The feather fans of the sixteenth century, on the fan a pure invention of French modesty, informs us, contrary, were light, graceful, and easily handled; that prior to the Revolution it was worn of a large and we learn from Marston's Satires that as much size, and served the ladies who often blushed, at as forty pounds were occasionally given for them; a once for a veil and a countenance. “By agitating

the fan," continues the Mother of the Church,* "the * Some wooden fan-handler, from Memphis, in the R. B.} Museum, measure from 1 ft. 5 in. to 1 ft. 6 in. length.

* “La Mère de l'Eglise," a name given to Madame de

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female concealed herself. In the present time ladies pear to have been the most usual subjects; and Adblush but little, and are not at all timid; they have dison, in his charming paper on the exercise of the no desire whatever to conceal themselves, and they fan,* alludes, in his paragraph on unfurling it, to carry only invisible fans," (des éventails impercepti the effect of this manæuvre, discovering on a sudden bles.)

an infinite number of Cupids, garlands, altars, birds, Lady Morgan, with her usual archness, reminds beasts, and rainbows. We were treated the other us that those vaunted times of excessive delicacy day to the sight of one, that, if not Watteau's, looked so far as the fan was concerned-were those of very like his; it represented a trio in a triumphal Agnes Sorel, Diana of Poictiers, Mdes. de Montes car in the centre, drawn by lions led by Cupids, pan, Pompadour, and Du Barri; a series suggestive with nymphs dancing, with musical instruments of the pretty hypocrisies of the periods, as well as before them, and others scattering fruits and flowers of the coarseness and freedom of conversation and in the path. But occasionally, less poetical subjects manners which subjected the fair companions of } were chosen, and in the reign of George the Second, kings and courtiers to the reality or affectation of we find a fan-painter named Loggan,t sketching, such a frequent repetition of blushing.

for his professional purpose, from the windows of The ladies of the court of our Charles the Second, his house, at the south end of the walk at Tunbridge in whose time as well as that of his successor, fans Wells, the most remarkable characters that appeared became very fashionable, if not less faulty dames amongst the company; with such fidelity, Richardthan Madame de Genlis's Dianas, as Lady Morgan son tells us, that they were immediately recognized calls them, were at least more frank :

by their forms.

It was in Addison's time that the discipline of the “The modest fan was lifted up no more, And virgins smiled at what they blushed before."

fan appears to have reached its perfection; the con

stant use of it familiarized ladies with all those Or, if they did blush at the Bull in Vere Street, graceful and coquettish motions of which the instruClare Market, or afterwards at Drury Lane, at the ment is capable; and by many allusions in the comedies acted there by Killigrew's company in writings of the period, it appears to have been albroad daylight, it was under a mask. The fan was }

most as dangerously fascinating in the hands of reserved for less serious business, and became, for} English ladies then, as it still is in those of the all the purposes of Airting, wonderfully potent in Spanish donnas. the hands of the Hampton Court beauties.

“Women," says the essayist, “women are armed The marriage of James the Second with the prin- } with fans, as men with swords, and sometimes do cess of Modena, maintained for our subject the popu- more execution with them; an expression playfully larity it bad gained in the preceding reign; but it seconded in his Chapter on the “Mother of Poetry," was not until the latter part of that of Anne, in 1709, by one or two cases on a list of metaphorical deaths, that it became of sufficient importance as a branch one of which reports “ Tim Tattle killed by the tap of national manufacture, to bring about the incorpo of a fan on his left shoulder by Coquetilla, as he ration of the Fan-makers' Company in London. { was talking carelessly with her in a bow-window;"

During this Queen's reign, which may be called while Sylvius is shot through the sticks of one at St. the "golden age" of fan-making, as well as of some James's Church. These are precisely such effects other matters, this “ornamental trinket" was used (figuratively speaking) as the novelists are fond of by women of almost every degree, "to hide their į giving to the fan in the hands of a Spanish lady, facer at church, and to cool them by gently exciting { who to a natural grace of action and consummate the air, in sultry weather and close places." It was practice in the use of the implement (which, from indeed the high tide of the fan's fashion, no lady's her third year, is scarcely ever out of her hand), dress being complete, whether at ball, or supper, adds all those piquant arts which the love of comorning promenade, or evening drive, unless one quetry, and the consciousness of surveillance inspires; hand held the indispensable fan, which was either and, as flowers in the East, from similar causes, painted or composed of feathers. High art was at have grown eloquent, so the love of intrigue on the this period occasionally employed in ornamenting one hand, and the necessity of deceit on the other, them; and amongst other exquisite specimens with} have given language to the movements of the fan in which our researches for this paper have acquainted Spain; and ladies are said to make appointments by us, we were shown, at an elegant repository of means of them, the peculiar manner of opening, antique fans, one, the mount of which, representing } holding, and shutting them indicating the how, a Greek wedding, was painted in those days by when, and where. After the French revolution of Watteau.

1789, which introduced Madame de Genlis's “ évenArcadian scenes, such as the French painters still often choose with which to decorate them, ap * Spectator, No. 102.

+ He had been dwarf to the Prince and Princess of Genlis, on the occasion of her publishing “La Religion Wales, and, in spite of his diminutive size, appears to havo Considerée."-LADY MORGAN.

been a person of considerable intellect. VOL. XLV.--2

tails imperceptibles," the manufacture of fans fell almost wholly into English hands, and both the American and Spanish markets were, for the most part, supplied by English makers.

The only peculiarities of the Spanish fan are its size and shape (the half circle we at present make use of), and the necessity, in technical phrase, of its ploying easily. Without this virtue, however otherwise attractive, it would not please the Iberian dames; who never use more than one hand in practising the fan; its evolutions for the most part { being effected by the turn of the wrist, so that any stiffness of the rivet which confines the radiants at the base, would of course preclude this ease of mo- } tion, and the graceful effects consequent upon it.

The battle of Waterloo appears to have been as fatal to this branch of manufacture in England, as the revolution had been in France.

With the peace, this branch of art, in common with others, began to revive at Paris and elsewhere. The scattered artificers returned to their ateliers, and French fans, not only from their elegance, but comparative cheapness, extinguished the English trade. In point of fact, there are no fan-makers in London; those who call themselves so, simply deal. ing in the article, which is imported from China and } France. The largest manufactory in Paris is that of M. Duvelléroy. This house alone employs more than two thousand men, and fans are manufactured } in it from the value of a halfpenny to several thousand francs each; yet the commonest of these, as well as the most costly, passes through the hands of fifteen individuals, before it is ready for use, or for the retailer. Not only the different parts which compose the fan, but those parts themselves, give occasion for a division of labor; the leaf, which is sometimes simple, but more frequently made of two pieces pasted together, passes through the hands of the printer, paster, colorist, and painter, before it is mounted—this last operation being usually performed by women; the process of plaiting is executed by means of a board, cut for that purpose, upon the principle of a crimping machine, upon the exactness of which the perfection of the fan in folding depends. Beside mounting, the fan passes in the women's workshop through the hands of the borderer, who fixes the edge; the borderest, who finishes it; and, finally, through those of the examiner, who minutely scrutinizes every part of the work.

In the meanwhile, the other portions of the toy have given employment to no less than seven indivi. duals; the handle or wood, as it is indifferently called, which forms the frame of tho fan, and upon the radi. ants of which the leaf is pasted, has passed from the smoother who planes, to the fashioner who cuts it out, then to the finisher who polishes it; afterwards to the carver who cuts the designs on the ivory, tortoise-shell, mother-of-pearl, ebony, horn, or any other material of which the bandle is formed. It is

then handed to the engraver, who ornaments the metal, after which it passes from the gilder to the riveter, who fastens the two outside ends (which the French call the panache), and the brins, or radiants, with a rivet passing through the base of them all; sometimes set with diamonds or other precious stones, or it may be gold, or mother-of-pearl, or simply wood, according to the price of the article.

One most exquisite specimen which was shown us amongst the antique fans before mentioned, had the leaf formed of the most delicate point d'Angleterre, mounted on carved mother-of-pearl brins, finished with a brilliant rivet; it was at once so simple and elegant, that all we afterwards saw could not displace the impression of its superiority.

Its superiority, we should remark, was acquired from the lace of which it was composed. The idea, we believe, originated with the proprietor, and wo were told it was the only house that possessed any. thing of the kind.

In the latter part of the eighteenth century, sunfans made of green silk, or paper, and of an immense size, were worn instead of parasols, and for a time gave considerable employment to the manufacturers, while the spangled fans so popular in the young days of our mammas afforded a respectable livelihood to numbers of our sex-an income of from fifty to sixty pounds per annum being easily earned at it.

Female reigns have always proved auspicious to our subject. It grew into vogue in that of Elizabeth, reached the climax of its popularity with us in that of Anne, and why may we not hope for the revival of its manufacture in that of Victoria, the noblo Patroness of Art and Science ?



I'm lonely here without thee,

Though others round me are; I miss from day its sunshine,

And from the night its star.

The green trees look not half so green,

The flowers not half so bright; It is thy presence, love, I want,

To give them clearer light.

Then come to me: my heart awaits,

With greeting warm and true, Thy loved caress; it droops without,

As flowers for want of dew.

I've none to tell of all the love

I've garnered up for thee: My heart will break if it must keep

Such heavy secrecy.

Then come, oh come! I'm lonely here,

Though others round me are; I miss from day its sunshine,

And from the night its star.



{ of a Mogul lady: “Her drawers of green satin, flow

ered with gold, were seen under a chemise of transTHE TOILET IN THE MOGUL AND BIRMAN EMPIRES.

parent gauze, reaching to her slippers, which were The dress of the princes and nobles in Homer's richly embroidered. A vest of pale blue satin, edged time resembled the jama, girdle, and kincob draw with gold, sat close to her shape, which an upper ers, flowered with gold and silver, now worn by the robe of striped silver muslin, full and flowing, disMoguls, as we find by the description of Ulysses in played to great advantage. A netted veil of crimhis royal attire; and it is worthy of notice that the son silk, flowered with silver, fell carelessly over her custom of making presents of garments, as men long braided hair, which was combed smooth and

divided from the forehead, where a cluster of jewels was fastened by strings of seed pearl. Her earrings were large and handsome—the ring worn in her nose, according to our idea of ornament, less becoming. A necklace, in intermingled rows of pearl and gold, covered her bosom, and several strings of large pearls were suspended from an embroidered girdle set with diamonds; bracelets of gold and coral reached from her wrist to her elbow, golden chains encircled her ankles, and all her toes and fingers were adorned with valuable rings."

The silk-net veil of a crimson or purple color, embroidered in silver, which the Mogul ladies wear, either to cover the face or to throw back over the shoulders as an ornament, is similar to that men tioned in the “Odyssey" as being presented by Holen to Telemachus:

“The beauteous queen, advancing, then displayed

A shining veil, and thus endearing said:
• Accept, dear youth, this monument of love,
Long since in better days by Helen wove;
Safe in thy mother's care the vesture lay,

To deck thy bride and grace thy nuptial day.'”
The court of Hyder Ali was the most brilliant of
his time in India. His company of comedians was

very celebrated, both on account of their riches and tioned in the last two lines, has continued ever since,

the beauty as well as the harmonious voices of the

Bayadères or dancing-girls. The dimpled cheeks and is still prevalent among Eastern nations. In the description of the reception of the ambassadors

of these lovely creatures are tinged a yellow color,

which, though a strange adornment in the eyes of a sent by the Uzbek Tartars to Aureng-Zêbe, we read that he commanded there should be given to each

European, is much admired by the Orientals. Their of the ambassadors a seraph, or vesture from head

black hair hangs in flowing tresses to the ground.

Their dress is always made of fine gauze, very richly to foot-namely, a vest of brocade, a turban, and a

embroidered with gold, and they are covered with sash of silk in embroidery. The dress of Hyder Ali, the most formidable ene

jewels. The head, neck, ears, breast, arms, fingers,

logs, and toes, have each their own peculiar ornamy the English ever met with in the East, like that of most of the natives of India, consisted of a robe {

ment, and even the nose is adorned with a diamond.

Small bells are frequently used as ornaments by these of white muslin, with a turban of the same. The

fair maidens. vest, which is fashioned much like the gown of a }

“A zone of sweet bells European lady, is fastened at the body and sleeves

Round the waist of some fair Indian dancer is ringing." by strings; the rest of the robe hangs loosely in folds, so that the grandees of India, when they walk, The Sikhs, the most rising people of modern Inhave a page to support their train.

dia, next come under our observation. Runjeet Forbes gives the following description of the dress Singh, their celebrated chief, like Hyder Ali, had a great taste for the adornments of fashion, and was are ornamented in gold and silver threads by these imitated in his love of fine clothes by his whole } industrious workmen. court, which was in this respect unequalled in all the East.


The Sikhs wear a small flat turban, which becomes them well, and a short tunic, which only descends as far as the knee, leaving the rest of the leg exposed. Costly brocades and shawls lined with fur} are employed by the great for these tunics. The Sikhs wear their hair long; the ladies of the tribe knot it at the crown, and throw over the head a robe, which also envelops the body, and gives them a singular appearance. They pull the hair so tight to form this knot that the skin of the forehead is drawn with it, and the eyebrows are considerably removed from the visual organs.

The glowing descriptions in the "Arabian Nights” are not moro gorgeous than the realities often met with in India.

A scene which took place at the Maharaja's court at Lahore is worthy of description. “The hall of audience is built entirely of marble, and is the work of the Mogul emperors; part of the roof was gorgeously decorated by a pavilion of silken cloth, studded with jewels. The Maharaja himself wore a necklace, armlets, and bracelets of emerald, some of which were very large; the nobles likewise displayed upon their persons vast quantities of jewels, and all the court was habited in yellow, the favorite

With the Birmans many articles of daily use as color of the nation."

well as of ornament indicate the rank of the posThe neighbors of the Sikhs, the Scindians, from

sessor. The shape of the betel-box, which is carried religious motives, wear garments of dark color, and

by an attendant after the people of distinction; the form their turbans of tight and round folds of cloth. }

ear-rings, cap of ceremony, horse furniture, and The weaving and embroidery of India are justly

even the metal drinking-cup, all indicate the differcelebrated, and have been so for many ages. The ent degrees of society; and woe be to him who stuffs of Mooltan and Bhawalpoor are now inter assumes the insignia of a rank to which he has no woven with gold, and frequently of a purple color; and we read that Aureng-Z@be had a tent lined with The common dress of a man of distinction conMasulipatam chintzes, figured with flowers, so natu- sists of a tight coat with long sleeves made of mus. ral in appearance, and of such vivid colors, that the lin, or of very fine nankeen, and a silk wrapper tent resembled a real parterre.

fastened at the waist. The court-dress of the noThe muslin drawers worn by the women in India b ility is very becoming: it is formed of a long robe, are frequently most richly and beautifully embroi- either of flowered satin or velvet, reaching to the dered with needlework, and some of them are of so ankles, with an open collar and loose sleeves. Over fine a texture as only to allow of once putting on. this there is a scarf, or flowing mantle, that hangs Satins and silks are also embroidered in the hand, from the shoulders; and on their heads they wear in great quantities. One of the garments worn by high caps made of velvet, or silk embroidered with Aurong-Z@be is described as having been a vest of flowers, according to the rank of the wearer. Earwhite delicately-flowered satin, adorned with a silk

rings are an indispensable part of the attire. Some and gold embroidery of the finest texture and the of them are made of gold tubes about three inches brightest colors.

in length, expanding into a ball at the lower end; In this country men as well as women devote others consist of heavy masses of gold, the weight much time to embroidery; and it is not unusual to of which often drags the ear down to the extent of see several of the former seated cross-legged on a two or three inches. mat, employed in a manner that in Europe would be The Birman women have their distinguishing considered effeminate, and quite below the dignity ornaments as well as the men: their hair is tied in of the nobler sex. But in India the needle does not a bunch at the top of the head, and bound round belong exclusively to woman; her prerogative is with a fillet, the embroidery and jewels of which there invaded; and the most delicate patterns of mark their respective ranks. Their dress consists tinted flowers, or muslins fine as the spider's web, of a short chemise, and a loose jacket with tight

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