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against the Puritans, yet the band of Leonidas was continued the governor, “and I own I have felt that not more determined on victory or death. “It is the young lady must make a great sacrifice of inthe will of God that we should be tried," continued clination to duty in going thus solitary to a strange the governor; “if our faith faint not, the crown of land. I know she has excellent and dear friends in victory, either of life or death, will be ours."

your ladyship and Mr. Johnson, but still I do think There was not a pale cheek or lip among the men, { a kind protector, one of our strong and firm sex, is nor a tear seen, or a cry heard among the women peculiarly necessary for the support of a delicate and children. That Providence would direct the { woman who ventures to be a sojourner in the wilderissue for their best good, all believed, trusted ; and ness." when they discovered those they had mistaken for The Lady Arabella looked on her husband with Dunkirkers were indeed their own countrymen, the that expression of trusting love that told on whom good Providence that had sent the trial, and yet she depended; the smile that answered her appeal shielded them from injury, was still more apparent. spoke how fondly her confidence was appreciated. And it was thus every event that marked their pas The governor raised his handkerchief, as if clearing sage to America was interpreted.

his eye of some mote that pained him, but the pain Did fair weather and fair winds prevail ?-how was at his heart; for at that moment the thoughts providentially it was ordered that they might have of his own wife, whom he had left, perhaps never a quick voyage when so much depended on their to be united again, rushed so tumultuously on bis arrival early in the season! If they were retarded mind, that, firm as he was, it unmanned him, and by storms and contrary gales, God had seen that he strove to conceal the tears he could not restrain. it was good for them to be afflicted; and by a dis “I think Lucy Perry will make an excellent wife,” pensation of his Providence was testing their pa- } observed Mr. Johnson. tience and submission.

“And I have no doubt Oliver Temple will be a And thus, when Governor Winthrop bad, from { kind husband,” said the Lady Arabella. Mr. Johnson and his wife, learned the particulars “I believe their meeting thus together on board of Oliver Temple's history, did be discover, in every the vessel was providential; and that we shall be misfortune which had befallen that young man, in the way of duty to endeavor to promote a marsome particular bearing on his future destiny, on riage between them," said the governor. the part which Providence was fitting him to per So the affair was settled, and, though nothing like form. And he felt persuaded that Oliver was to a modern match-making was undertaken by the gobecome a distinguished Christian, a shining light in vernor or his coadjutors in the plan, yet they conthat sanctuary from persecution, that pure church, trived sometimes to bring the young people together, which was to be founded in America. Yet the go either to join in singing a particular tune in which vernor was not a visionary; he calculated with the it had been remarked their voices harmonized wonshrewdness of worldly prudence when worldly things derfully, or else Lucy sat by the Lady Arabella as a were under discussion; and he calculated that Oliver listener, while Oliver was persuaded to read a chapTemple would be a more active, and consequently ter in “ Precious Consolations for Weary Souls," or a more useful man, could he be aroused from the some other of those quaint and devout books that torpor of sorrow which seemed to benumb his facul formed the light reading of our ancestors. ties, and was evidently preying fast on his health. Day after day thus passed, and though Oliver But the sagacious governor did not trust to argu Temple had paid no more attention to Lucy than ments merely to effect his purpose. He knew that the ceremonious civility of those days, which was words were never more idly used than in endeavors most conspicuous in the frequency and flexibility of to combat by reasoning the indulgence of those the bows of a gentleman, required, yet the governor griefs which the mourner's heart has consecrated as was firmly persuaded of the success of his scheme. sacred. But he calculated that, if he could interest He conferred with the Rev. Mr. Wilson respecting the young man's affections, those sensibilities which it, and his approval seemed still further to stamp it bind the human heart in fellowship with its kind, as designed by Providence. And Zechariah Long's he would soon appear soberly cheerful as became opinion was a coincidence that appeared almost his age and character.

miraculous, or at least prophetic. The governor communicated his views and feel. The governor had thought it his duty to confer ings on the subject to the Lady Arabella and her with that somewhat stern and peculiar, but yet husband. They both agreed it would be judicious. esteemed and pious man, concerning Oliver. He

“If it is practicable,” said the governor, “what found the suspicions of Zechariah were first awakdo you think of promoting a match between this ened by hearing Oliver sigh and groan repeatedly young man and your friend Lucy Perry ?”

in his sleep, as if his mind was burdened, and then The lady smiled with that kind of meaning which he overheard him one day lamenting, in bitter terms, argued satisfaction.

to the Lady Arabella, for the death of some person. “I have marked her modest deportment and pious } “And so," said Zechariah, “I found his sorrow was attention to religious duts with much approbation," for the decease of some one, and I thought it could



not be a relation, as he was not clothed in mourning of the deep; the land they had sought as their place garments, and he had come on board privately, and of rest was reached, their home! no person knew him save Mr. Johnson and his lady, } “There, my Arabella, must be our home; can and so I inferred that he was a son of some of their you be contented to dwell there ?" said Mr. Johnson friends, and that he had in a quarrel—such things to his wife, as he pointed to the sea of forest that happen among the children of this world, and are stretched in the distance, far as the eye could penecalled honorable—slain a man, a friend perhaps, trate. especially as I thought he showed guilt with his • The tear that was gathering in her dark eyes did grief."

not fall, it only brightened their expression, as she “You judged hardly," said the governor.

met her husband's gaze, and calmly replied, "It will “I do repent me of it, since you have told me his be home to me wherever you dwell, my husband." history. And I wish we could devise something “I wish the young man had better improved the whereby the sadness of his countenance might be opportunity that so providentially placed him in her changed."

society. But we must be content. It is, however, “I can join in your wish," said the governor. impressed on my mind that you will shortly be

Zechariah raised his finger twice before he spoke; called to bless his nuptials,” said Governor Winas if the weight of his subject required deliberate throp to Mr. Wilson. They were both regarding pondering, then he came close to the governor, and Oliver Temple, who seemed, as he stood gazing on said, in what he meant for a whisper-it might } the shore, so rapt in the contemplation of the new have been heard three paces

and strange scene before him, that he was totally “I have a thought; if it may be spoken, governor, unmindful of the questions and exclamations his to you I will say it. Would it not be well if the companions were pouring forth, as a boat from the young man should find among us a companion who harbor approached the vessel. Mr. Endicott and would comfort him for the loss of his first love? some others were in the boat. There is Lucy Perry; the maiden is comely, and

“Welcome, welcome to Salem," was the greeting. seems heavenly-minded."

Oliver did not regard it. His eye was caught by Zechariah paused, fearing he had said too much { a young man who remained in the boat; the cry of on so worldly a subject; but the smile of the other “Robert Welden! is it you ?" burst in a shriek from reassured him.

his lips; and the next moment they were in each "If such is the will of Providence, it would ex other's arms. ceedingly rejoice me," replied the governor.

Robert and Rebecca had escaped. The tale of And from that time he felt assured it would be the their death was an invention of Oliver Temple's fawill of Providence, and even spoke confidently to ther, to efface, as he hoped effectually, the romantic the Rev. Mr. Wilson respecting the marriage which dream of his son, that he should ever obtain the he might hold himself ready to solemnize.

sister. Their long voyage at length drew to a close.

“How providential it was that this young man The cold winds of spring, that hitherto had chilled } and Lucy Perry did not fall in love !" said the gothe passengers, were exchanged for the warm breath vernor to Mr. Johnson a few days after they had of a summer gale laden with the perfume of fruit landed. “We may see by this how easy it is for and flower, as if to welcome them to the shore where the wisdom of man to be turned into foolishness. I such treasures of the earth abounded. It was the thought I had laid a mighty prudent plan; but lo! season when the approach to our then wild country

I now see my folly. We must submit ourselves and was the most inviting. The forest foliage was suffi all that we have to God. He will in his good proviciently expanded to conceal the rudeness and deso dence order events for our best happiness." lation that a leaflegs mass of trees presents; and it When the fleet, that brought over the colonists, had not that dense, dark aspect which, in its full had all arrived safely, a day of thanksgiving was maturity and verdure, made it look frowning and appointed. This was July 8th, 1630, and on that almost impenetrable. Some of the wild trees, the day of rejoicing Oliver Temple and Rebecca Welden dogwood in particular, were in bloom, and their } were married. blossoms contrasted beautifully with the bright green This was the first wedding celebrated in the coloof the young leaves, thus softening the majesty of ny that laid the foundation of Boston. There was the scene. They had been for more than two great joy and many congratulations, and none of months confined on board a crowded ship, and the the guests appeared more disposed to kindly feelidea of liberty to range abroad on the shore before ings on the occasion than Mr. Zechariah Long. them was of itself sufficient to bring rapturous excla His suspicions were all removed, and he stood so mations from almost every tongue. But there were

erect that his superior altitude was never afterwards higher and holier considerations that called for re

a matter of question. joicing. They had been preserved amid the perils

“How beautifully everything is ordered by Pro{ vidence !" said the governor.



When we examine the various plants around us, į soil on which they finally decay. The end of being and notice their phenomena, we at once see that all accomplished, these beautiful and evanescent forms are subject to certain fixed and immutable laws, decay, they become disorganized, the pile of matter which operate with as much constancy and regu- } falls, and is restored by the influence of secret, inlarity as the laws governing the motions of the pon-} visible affinities to the air and earth from which it derous worlds that roll in the depths of space. was borrowed for a little while.

Thus all plants have a definite period of life The period of time during which these phenomena assigned them, more or less limited, during which take place varies according to the peculiar organizatime we see them, as it were by successive incre tion of each species. Thus plants whose organizaments, slowly elaborated out of the earth and atmo- { tion is very simple, as ferns, mosses, and many of sphere, arrive at the full perfection of their growth our flowering plants, come to perfection, reproduce and beauty, reproduce themselves, and then die. themselves, and then die, and this all in a single With the cessation of life plants become disorgan season. In those, however, whose organization is ized or chemically decomposed, decay, and disap higher, the duration of life is proportionably longer. pear, the materials out of which their fabric was But the forest tree, lifting its massive stem for cenconstructed being reunited unto other bodies by the turies to the light of day, has an appointed period influence of that mutual attraction which subsists to its life as regular as the lowly moss that grows not only between worlds, but amongst atomic parti beneath its shade. The duration of these phenocles of matter, however small.

mena is alone different. The phenomena themselves The law of material attraction may be thus ex are precisely analogous. The growth of the humble pressed: Matter may attract matter at all distances, moss with its beautiful little reproductive mechanism from zero to infinity. This attraction takes place is only a simpler expression of the same law which with a force varying directly in proportion to its operates in the production of the forest tree. A few quantity and inversely as the square of the distance. months, however, suffice to perfect the one, whilst Now when matter collects into masses, as we see it } many centuries are required by nature before she has done in the case of the starry heavens and pla can build up the other. It would seem from this netary bodies, the bodies thus mutually attracting that the study of the simple plants ought to take each other separate sometimes to distances all but precedence of those whose structure is more complex infinite, but according to fixed and determinate laws and intricate. It is these plants which first clothe which may be calculated by the higher mathematics, the surface of the barren rock. They are the first the distance increasing in the ratio of their respect settlers on those new lands which, after unnumbered ive magnitudes. We call the name of this species ages, according to geologists, rise from their parent of attraction gravity. But when matter retains its waves. Successive generations of these plants die, elementary condition and exists in the form of those and form by their decay a humus for the growth and invisible particles called atoms, two or more mutually nutrition of higher plants. attracting particles must be brought by the same We will take nature for our guide. We will follow law infinitely near to each other before they can the footsteps of her successive creations. We are exercise any mutual influence; and we give the satisfied that the plan and structure of her higher Dame of chemical affinity to this kind of attraction. organizations may be successfully studied in detail

To apply this philosophy to plants. They are the in the humbler. Let us begin at the beginning. result principally of the atomic or chemical affinity, How can we possibly comprehend what is intricate combined with other agents, and are a beautiful pile when we stumble at what is simple? It is a philoof matter borrowed from the atoms in the earth and sophical as well as scriptural truth that “all flesh is air, and united together by the operation of natural as grass." We depend on plants for the materials laws for a little space of time. Fabricated by nature of our own growth; the development of our own as material for the building up of higher organic being is closely connected with that of the vegetable forms, they perform their part in the ever-shifting world; and, if we know nothing of wild flowers, how scenery of life. Some of them become incorporated is it possible that we should know anything properly as food into animal bodies; others retain their state { of ourselves? The highly organized body of man as plants, and are the instruments used by nature can never be thoroughly understood unless the whole to extract fertilizing principles from every falling series of forms of life beneath him engages his attenshower and passing breeze, which they impart to the tion.


. The world has been frequently entertained with to portray the manners of the class in their rusticadescriptions given of the manners of the great, by tion, both of those whose permanent residence is in fortunate individuals who, with the help of "letters the country, and those votaries of fashion who visit of introduction," and the practice of suave obsequi- } it during the interregnum of the London " season." ousness, have climbed to the summits of refine- } The residences of these great people in England ment" in Europe, and in wondering admiration have are in the vicinity of small country towns, in which surveyed, from the height, the world of “white Kid- no manufacture is carried on, and whose inhabito.nts dom” around them. Intoxicated perhaps by the are supported in fact by their trading with them. * thin air” which pervades those regions, their de Their houses embrace every style of architecture, scriptions of the aristocracy have become tinctured from the modern mansion with its three or four with a kind of servile amazement an envious idola- { hundred acres of land, to the old turreted castle, try—which will provoke the quiet contempt of wise ? embosomed in its wide domain of hill and dale, men, and excite wonder and imitation in the foolish. woods and lawns. These establishments during the A young tourist-fresh from a republican country, greater part of the year present a dull and desolate visiting for the first time the land of his ancestors, appearance. An over-fed butler with a pompous and mingling with the noble and the high-born, is housekeeper exercise a despotio viceroyalty over a apt to be dazzled by the glare that surrounds him, troup of inferior domestics. The coach-houses and and to forget that tinsel glitters as brightly as pure adjacent offices are hermetically locked, and no signs gold. He cannot perceive in a match-making of life are visible except among grooms“ breathing" countess the practice of arts 'which, when stripped the horses, or a dozen dogs leaping to the extreme of their fashionable cloak, a green-grocer's wife length of their chains from their kennels, to fright would spurn-nor detect under the bland smile of an intruding stranger with their aristocratic yelping. conventional coldness, a wreck of good feeling, a The mantle of command descends at these intervals blight of genuine nature, and a frigid selfishness, from the proprietor to the butler, who makes the most that are too often to be found in their withering of such opportunities to impress the lower servants perfection among these envied classes.

and the towns-people with an immense idea of his We listen to bis excited narrative—some with importance. The dreariness infects the towns, and delight and others with charitable patience. In the shopkeepers grumble away their mouths in deperfect good faith he assures us how that, one fine ploring the badness of trade, and the degeneracy of morning, he sat with Lady X. in her ladyship's things in general. boudoir ; how that her ladyship was attended by a But a change comes o'er the spirit of the scene in sky-blue page who handed her a scented note on a September and October, when parliament is presilver salver-he becomes learned in millinery, and rogued and “all the world" flies into the country to minutely describes her ladyship's dress, and informs slaughter domesticated game, and destroy hecatombs us that in the important tête à tête he enjoyed with of tame hares in fashionable batteue. The Marquis her ladyship, she said that “she was fond of Ameri of A., an old peer whose park wall bounds the town cans." To all this we attend with laudable gravity; on one side, whose trees pry into the windows of we bless the penetration of our tourist, and Lady X. some of the houses, and whose rooks keep up an is immortalized in our thoughts.

eternal clamor above the streets, returns from his arLady X. does not tell him that she is voted a bore duous parliamentary duties of dining at his club, by the clique at Almacks that her life is spent in and sleeping his dinner off in the House of Lords, to petty intrigues--that her expenditure exceeds her the halls of his ancestors. He is accompanied by his income, and she condescends to be mighty humblo two sons, the Earl of B. and Lord Frederick C., bis to plebeian creditors, and coax French milliners right honorable daughters the Ladies C., and a highwith fashionable scandal. We have seen gentlemen bred gout, of very ancient pedigree, yet lively withal, of this kind who have left home, plain citizens and aristocratic, imperious, and yet painfully eccentric. good men, and, during their sojourn in Europe, have The Marquis's arrival is soon followed by that of merged manhood in fashion, and native goodness in other noblemen and gentry who reside from two to second-hand foppery; drowned nature in fastidious seven miles around; and the dosing townsmen, whose ness, and sacrificed nationality to puerile imitations respect for rank is hereditary and extreme, shake of foreign follies.

hands with each other in fervid congratulation, and There is an aristocracy of the country as well as invite the servants of the establishments (who have the town, and in this paper the writer will endeavor | profitable patronage to bestow), to snug evening VOL. XLV.-3


parties in the taverns, where they make laborious shoulder-knot, and sublime in white silk stockings, speeches and drink solemn toasts. The quiet streets { into which he has inserted two falso calves making are distracted with mounted horsemen in gaudy { --with one real one-a total of three. His duties liveries, who are dispatched for perfumeries for la- { are to hold on to the carriage, to preserve a stolid dies-maids, and physic for horses, fish-sauces for the gravity in his face, a small frown of importance on cook, and boluses for his Lordship's gout, letters and his brow, an unwrinkled state of spruce erection in lozenges for her Ladyship, and dog-lashes and horse his white cravat, to leap from his stand when the girths for the stables.

carriage stops, to touch his hat wbenover he is The Marquis (who may be taken as a sample of looked at, and to treat the lady's maid with a kind the whole tribe) is invisible for a few days, and the of deferential familiarity, which he wishes to impose townsmen shake their sagacious heads and propa upon the world for love-making. gate dim rumors among themselves, that “it's the One would naturally suppose that this brilliant gout,” or that “there's a screw loose up at the equipage was called into action to do honor to some Hall,” “things have not all gone right in his ab- important occasion of infinitely greater consequence sence," and such like, while he, good gentleman, is than shopping; but so it is. In the carriage are overhauling the accounts of his steward, learning of two young and handsome ladies of eighteen or theredefaulters in rent, or prosecutions for poaching. abouts, reclining in attitudes of Eastern voluptuousThe young sprigs of nobility are examining the ness, and a young man of unimpeachable moustaches shrubbery and gardens, listening to the feats per and cravat, lolling luxuriously back, smiling and formed by one or two favorite thoroughbreds, or biting a rose-bud, in order to show his white teeth. trying the scent and training of a few young point- { A young gentleman invited “ down" probably, on ers. After business is attended to, and a few days some speculation of alliance, perhaps merely because immurement in the hall has proved a bore, the dif he has gained celebrity as a “diner-out," and has & ferent members of the noble family begin to emerge { happy knack of saying smart things at a dull season. from their splendid solitude, to make morning calls At his side on cushions are seated two Blenheim upon the surrounding gentry, and condescend even spaniels; and an Italian greyhound, with a silto go “a shopping" on fine mornings.

{ver collar and chain, is standing "rampant," with The reader has perhaps some crude notion of his two forefeet upon the carriage door, barking with shopping, but I doubt if he (or she rather) have any a tiny gnappish voice at foot-passengers. The carjust idea of the mysteries of that important science, riage is also accompanied-by way of foot-guardsas practised by these classes. Let us suppose an by two large spotted Danish dogs, running one on elegant barouche of a light-brown color, pricked out each side of it. with dark-green, with a full-grown coat of arms sur The elegant" set out" now stops at an apothecary's mounted with a coronet upon the panel. To this shop, the tall follow behind leaps from his standing vehicle are attached four “bright bays, "each seven- } place; and, walking to the door of the carriage, asteen bands high, glittering in silver-mounted har sumes a demure look, and touches his hat. The proness, arching their shining necks and snorting in prietor of the shop, in his haste forgetting to remove contemptuous pride as they spurn the ground. These bis white apron, runs to the carriage and shows a animals are managed by two boys (one boy to each shining bald head to the ladies, as he bows obsequi. pair) of fourteen years old, clothed in small tight { ously. They order him to send a few bottles of eau green jackets buttoned up to the chin, and display. { de cologne to the Hall; this he promises to do, with a ing in front three rows of round gilt buttons, two of profusion of compliments and thanks for their pawhich pass over their shoulders and penetrate a { tronage. You may observe, while they are stopping, short distance down their backs; they have faultless } half a dozen fellows who were talking gossip in a white gloves and silver-handled whips, their legs group about forty yards distant; three of them has. are bound in stainless breeches and Lilliputian top} tily retire to their shops in expectation of a call, and boots, and their business is to look straight before the others instinctively "hem" to clear their throats, them without moving a muscle of their necks, and although they have no idea of speaking, and walk rise and fall at the same moment in their saddles, with a sanctified gait past the carriage, merely to with the undeviating regularity with which infantry have the gratification of lifting their hats to the soldiers, on their own horses, "keep step.” At the } great people. You may perceive, also, that every back of the carriage is a tall human being, who has horseman, and every other passenger, ease their cheated Nature by forsaking the sphere of usefulness consciences by performing the same action; and you for which he was sent upon earth, and voluntarily { may notice likewise, if you are a person of acute torturing himself into that biped anomaly-a foot observation, that a couple of beggars (one of whom man, or flunkey-there is some excuse for a bear is blind, and led by a young girl) who have assailed that is compelled to learn the art of dancing, but no every person they have met with importunities, apology can be formed for a rational animal, who leave off begging, as if by some tacit agreement, as submits of his own free will to the tricks of lackeyism. they near the carriage, and hurry past it like conThis gentleman is superb in flaming livery and victed criminals. To all these obeisances the young

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