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against the Puritans, yet the hand of Leonidas was not more determined on vietory or death. "It is the will of God that we should be tried," eontinued the governor; "if our faith faint not, the erown of vietory, either of life or death, will be ours."

There was not a pale eheek or lip among the men, nor a tear seen, or a ery heard among the women and ehildren. That Providenee would direet the issue for their best good, all believed, trusted; and when they diseovered those they had mistaken for Dunkirkers wero indeed their own eountrymen, tiie good Providenee that had sent the trial, and yet S shielded them from injury, was still more apparent.; And it was thus every event that marked their pas- { sage to Ameriea was interpreted.

Did fair weather and fair winds prevail ?—how S providentially it was ordered that they might have < a quiek voyage when so mueh depended on their . arrival early in the season! If they were retarded by storms and eontrary gales, God had seen that it was good for them to be afflieted; and by a dispensation of his Providenee was testing their patienee and submission.

And thus, when Governor Winthrop had, from Mr. Johnson and his wife, learned the partieulars of Oliver Temple's history, did he diseover, in every misfortune whieh had befallen that young man, some partieular bearing on his future destiny, on the part whieh Providenee was fitting him to perform. And he felt persuaded that Oliver was to beeome a distinguished Christian, a shining light in that sanetuary from perseeution, that pure ehureh, whieh was to be founded in Ameriea. Yet the governor was not a visionary; he ealeulated with the shrowdness of worldly prudenee when worldly things were under diseussion; and he ealeulated that Oliver Temple would be a more aetive, and eonsequently a more useful man, eould he be aroused from the torpor of sorrow whieh seemed to benumb his faeulties, and was evidently preying fast on his health. But the sagaeious governor did not trust to arguments merely to effeet his purpose. He know thnt words were never more idly used than in endeavors to eomhat by reasoning the indulgenee of those griefs whieh the mourner's heart has eonseerated as saered. But he ealeulated that, if he eould interest the young man's affeetions, those sensihilities whieh hind the human heart in fellowship with its kind, he would soon appear soberly eheerful as beeame his age and eharaeter.

The governor eommunieated his viows and feelings on the subjeet to the Lady Arabella and her hushand. They both agreed it would bo judieious.

"If it is praetieable," said the governor, "what do you think of promoting a mateh between this young man and your friend Luey Perry?"

The lady smiled with that kind of meaning whieh argued satisfaetion.

"I have marked her modest deportment, and pious attention to religious duOs with mueh approhation,"

eontinued the governor, "and I own I have felt that the young lady must make a great saerifiee of inelination to duty in going thus solitary to a strange land. I know she has exeellent and dear friends in your ladyship and Mr. Johnson, but still I do think a kind proteetor, one of our strong and firm sex, is peeuliarly neeessary for the rapport of a delieate woman who ventures to be a sojourner in the wilderness."

The Lady Arabella looked on her hushand with that expression of trusting love that told on whom she depeuded; the smile that answered her appeal spoke how fondly her eonfidenee was appreeiated. The governor raised his handkerehief, as if elearing his eye of some mote that pained him, but the pain was at his heart; for at that moment the thoughts of his own wife, whom he had left, perhaps never to bo united again, rushed so tumultuously on his mind, that, firm as he was, it unmanned him, and he strove to eoneeal the tears he eould not restrain.

"I think Luey Perry will make an exeellent wife," observed Mr. Johnson.

"And I havo no doubt Oliver Temple will be a kind hushand," said the Lady Arabella.

"I believe their meeting thus together on board the vessel was providential; and that we shall be in the way of duty to endeavor to promote a marriage between them," said the governor.

So the affair was settled, and, though nothing like a modern mateh-making was undertaken by the governor or his eoadjutors in the plan, yet they eontrived sometimes to bring the young people together, either to join in singing a partieular tune in whieh it had been remarked their voiees harmonized wonderfully, or else Luey sat by the Lady Arabella as a listener, whilo Oliver was persuaded to read a ehaptor in " Preeious Consolations for Weary Souls," or some other of those quaint and devout books that formed the light reading of our aneestors.

Day after day thus passed, and though Oliver Temple had paid no more attention to Luey than the eoremonious eivility of those days, whieh was most eonspieuous in the frequeney and flexihility of the bows of a gentleman, required, yet the govornor was firmly persuaded of the sueeess of his seheme. He eonferred with the Rev. Mr. Wilson respeeting it, and his approval seemed still further to stamp it as designed by Providenee. And Zeehariah Long's opinion was a eoineidenee that appeared almost miraeulous, or at least prophetie .

The governor had thought it his duty to eonfer with that somowhat stern and peeuliar, but yet esteemed and pious man, eoneerning Oliver. He found the suspieions of Zeehariah were first awakened by hoaring Oliver sigh and groan repeatedly in his sleep, as if his mind was burdened, and then he overheard him one day lamenting, in hitter terms, to the Lady Arabella, for the death of some person. "And so," said Zeehariah, "I found his sorrow was for the deeease of some one, and I thought it eould

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not be a relation, as he was not elothed in mourning garments, and he had eome on board privately, and no person know him save Mr. Johnson and his lady, and so I inferred that be was a son of some of their friends, and that he had in a quarrel—sueh things happen among the ehildren of this world, and aro ealled honorable—slain a man, a friend perhaps, espeeially as I thought he showed guilt with his grief."

"You judged hardly," said tho governor.

"I do repent me of it, sinee you have told me his history. And I wish we eould devise something whereby the sadness of his eountenanee might be ehanged."

"I ean join in your wish," said the governor.

Zeehariah raised his finger twiee before he spoke; as if the weight of his subjeet required deliberate pondering, then he eame elose to the governor, and said, in what he meant for a whisper—it might have been heard three paees—

"I have a thought; if it may be spoken, governor, to yon I will say it. Would it not be well if the young man should find among us a eompanion who would eomfort him for the loss of his first love? There is Luey Perry; the maiden is eomely, and seems heavenly-minded."

Zeehariah paused, fearing he had said too mueh on so worldly a subjeet; but the smile of the other reassured him.

"If sueh is the will of Providenee, it would exeeedingly rejoiee me," replied the governor.

And from that time be felt assured it would be the will of Providenee, and even spoke eonfidently to the Rev. Mr. Wilson respeeting the marriage whieh he might hold himself ready to solemnize.

Their long voyage at length drow to a elose.

The eold winds of spring, that hitherto had ehilled the passengers, were exehanged for the warm breath of a summer gale laden with the perfume of fruit and flower, as if to weleome them to the shore where sueh treasures of the earth abounded. It was the season when the approaeh to our then wild eountry was the most inviting. The forest foliage was suffieiently expanded to eoneeal the rudeness and desolation that a leafless mass of trees presents; and it had not that dense, dark aspeet whieh, in its fall maturity and verdure, made it look frowning and almost impenetrable. Some of the wild trees, tho dogwood in partieular, were in bloom, and their blossoms eontrasted beautifully with the bright green of the young leaves, thus softening the majesty of the seene. They had been for more than two months eonfined on board a erowded ship, and the idea of liberty to range abroad on the shore before them was of itself suffieient to bring rapturous exelamations from almost every tongue. But there were higher and holier eonsiderations that eulled for rejoieing. They had been preserved amid the perils

of the deep; the land they had sought as their plaee of rest was reaehed, their home!

"There, my Arabella, must be our home; ean you be eontented to dwell there?" said Mr. Johnson to his wife, as he pointed to tho sea of forest that stretehed in the distanee, far as the eye eould penetrate.

The tear that was gathering in her dark eyes did not fall, it only brightened their expression, as she met her hushand's gaze, and ealmly replied, "It will be home to me wherever you dwell, my hushand."

"I wish the young man had better improved the opportunity that so providentially plaeed him in her soeiety. But we must be eontent . It is, however, impressed on my mind that you will shortly be ealled to bless his nuptials," said Governor Winthrop to Mr. Wilson. They were both regarding Oliver Temple, who seemed, as he stood gazing on the shore, so rapt in the eontemplation of the now and strange seene before him, that he was totally unmindful of the questions and exelamations his eompanions were pouring forth, as a boat from the harbor approaehed the vessel. Mr. Endieott and some others were in tho boat.

"Weleome, weleome to Salem," was the greeting.

Oliver did not regard it. His eye was eaught by a young man who remained in the boat; the ery of "Robert Welden! is it you?" burst in a shriek from his lips; and the next moment they were in eaeh other's arms.

Robert and Rebeeea had eseaped. The tale of their death was an invention of Oliver Temple's father, to effaee, as he hoped effeetually, the romantie dream of his son, that ho should ever obtain the sister.

"How providential it was that this young man and Luey Perry did not fall in love !" said the governor to Mr. Johnson a fow days after they had landed. "We may see by this how easy it is for tho wisdom of man to be turned into foolishness. I thought I had laid a mighty prudent plan; but lo! I now see my folly. We must submit ourselves and all that we have to God. He will in his good provideneo order events for our best happiness."

When the fleet, that brought over the eolonists, had all arrived safely, a day of thanksgiving was appointed. This was July 8th, 1630, and on that day of rejoieing Oliver Temple and Rebeeca Welden were married.

This was the first wedding eelebrated in the eolony that laid tho foundation of Boston. There was great joy and many eongratulations, and none of the guests appeared moro disposod to kindly feelings on the oeeasion than Mr. Zeehariah Long. His suspieions were all removed, and he stood so ereet that his superior altitude was nover afterwards a matter of question.

"How beautifully everything is ordered by Providenee !" said the governor.

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY

BT UABLA

When Wo examine the various plants around us, and notiee their phenomena, we at onee see that all are subjeet to eertain fixed and immutable laws, whieh operate with as mueh eonstaney and regularity as the laws governing the motions of the ponderous worlds that roll in the depths of spaee.

Thus all plants have a definite period of life assigned them, more or less limited, during whieh time we see them, as it were by sueeessive inerements, slowly elaborated out of the earth and atmosphere, arrive at the full perfeetion of their growth and beauty, reproduee themselves, and then die. With the eessation of life plants beeome disorganized or ehemieally deeomposed, deeay, and disappear, the materials out of whieh their fabrie was eonstrueted being reunited unto other bodies by the influenee of that mutual attraetion whieh subsists not only between worlds, but amongst atomie partieles of matter, hewever small.

The law of material attraetion may be thus expressed: Matter may attraet matter at all distanees, from zero to infinity. This attraetion takes plaee with a foree varying direetly in proportion to its quantity and inversely as the square of the distanee. Now when matter eolleets into masses, as we see it has done in the ease of the starry heavens and planetary bodies, the bodies thus mutually attraeting eaeh other separate sometimes to distanees all but infinite, but aeeording to fixed and determinate laws whieh may be ealeulated by the higher mathematies, the distanee inereasing in the ratio of their respeetive magnitudes. We eall the name of this speeies of attraetion gravity. But when matter retains its elementary eondition and exists in the form of these invisible partieles ealled atoms, two or moro mutually attraeting partieles must be brought by the same law infinitely near to eaeh other before they ean exoreise any mutual influenee; and we give the name of ehemieal affinity to this kind of attraetion.

To apply this philosophy to plants. They are the result prineipally of the atomio or ehemieal affinity, eomhined with other agents, and are a beautiful pile of matter borrowed from the atoms in the earth and air, and united together by the operation of natural laws for a little spaee of time. Fabrieated by nature as m a to rial for the building up of higher organie forms, they perform their part in the ever-shifting seenery of life. Some of them beeome ineorporated as food into animal bodies; others retain their state as plants, and are the instruments used by nature to extraet fertilizing prineiples from evory falling shewer and passing breeze, whieh they impart to the

D COULTA.S.

soil on whieh they finally deeay. The end of being aeeomplished, these beautiful and evaneseent forms deeay, they beeome disorganized, the pile of matter falls, and is restored by the influenee of seeret, invisible affinities to the air and earth from whieh it was borrowed for a little while.

The period of time during whieh these phenomena take plaee varies aeeording to the peeuliar organization of eaeh speeies. Thus plants wheso organization is very simple, as ferns, mosses, and many of our flowering plants, eome to perfeetion, reproduee themselves, and then die, and this all in a single season. In these, hewever, whese organization is higher, the duration of life is proportion ably longer. But the forest tree, lifting its massive stem for eenturies to the light of day, has an appointed period to its life as regular as the lowly moss that grows beneath its shade. The duration of these phenomena is alone different . The phenomena themselves are preeisely analogous. The growth of the humble moss with its beautiful little reproduetive meehanism is only a simpler expression of the same law whieh operates in the produetion of the forest tree. A few months, hewever, suffiee to perfeet the one, whilst many eenturies are required by nature before she ean build up the other. It would seem from this that the study of the simple plants ought to take preeedenee of these whese strueture is more eomplex and intrieate. It is these plants whieh first elothe the surfaee of the harren roek. They are the first settlers on these new lands whieh, after unnumbered ages, aeeording to geologists, riso from their parent waves. Sueeessive generations of these plants die, and form by their deeay a humus for the growth and nutrition of higher plants, 'We will take nature for our guide. We will follow the footsteps of her sueeessive ereations. We are satisfied that the plan and strueture of her higher organizations may be sueeessfully studied in detail m the humbler. Let us begin at the beginning. How ean we possibly eomprehend what is intrieate when we stumble at what is simple? It is a philosophieal as well as seriptural truth that "all flesh is as grass." We depend on plants for the materials of our own growth; the development of our own being is elosely eonneeted with that of the vegetable world; and, if we know nothing of wild flowers, hew is it possible that we sheuld know anything properly of ourselves? The higbly organized body of man eon never be therougbly understood unless the whele series of forms of life beneath him engages his attention.

ARISTOCRACY.

The world has been frequently entertained with deseriptions given of the manners of the great, by fortunate individuals whe, with the help of "letters of introduetion," and the praetiee of suave obsequiousness, have elimbed to the "summits of refinement" in Europe, and in wondering admiration have surveyed, from the height, the world of "white Kiddom" around them. Intoxieated perhaps by the "thin air" whieh pervades these regions, their deseriptions of the aristoeraey have beeome tinetured with a kind of servile amazement—an envious idolatry—whieh will provoke the quiet eontempt of wise men, and exeite wonder and imitation in the foolish. A young tourist—fresh from a republiean eountry— visiting for the first time the land of his aneestors, and mingling with the noble and the high-born, is apt to be dazzled by the glare that surrounds him, and to forget that tinsel glitters as brightly as pure gold. He eannot pereeive in a mateh-making eountess the praetiee of arts 'whieh, when stripped of their fashionable eloak, a green-groeer's wife would spurn—nor deteet under the bland smile of eonventional eoldness, a wreek of good feeling, a blight of genuine nature, and a frigid selfishness, that are too often to be found in their withering perfeetion among these envied elasses.

We listen to his exeited narrative—some with delight and others with eharitable patienee. In perfeet good faith he assures us hew that, one fino morning, he sat with Lady X. in her ladyship's boudoir; hew that her ladyship was attended by a sky-blue page whe handed her a seented note on a silver salver—he beeomes learned in millinery, and minutely deseribes her ladyship's dress, and informs us that in the important ttle d ttle he enjoyed with her ladyship, she said that " she was fond of Amerieans." To all this we attend with laudable gravity; we bless the penetration of our tourist, and Lady X. is immortalized in our theughts.

Lady X. does not tell him that she is voted a bore by the elique at Almaeks—that her life is spent in petty intrigues—that her expenditure exeeeds her ineome, and she eondeseends to be mighty bumblo to plebeian ereditors, and eoax Freneh milliners with fashionablo seandal. We havo seen gentlemen of this kind whe have left heme, plain eitizens and good men, and, during their sojourn in Europe, have merged manheod in fashion, and native goodness in seeond-hand foppery; drowned nature in fastidiousness, and saerifieed nationality to puerile imitations of foreign follies.

There is an aristoeraey of the eountry as well as the town, and in this paper the writer will endeavor Vot Xlv.—3

to portray the manners of the elass in their rustieation, both of these whese permanent residenee is in the eountry, and these votaries of fashion whe visit it during the interregnum of the London "season."

The residenees of these great people in England are in the vieinity of small eountry tovras, in whieh no manufaeture is earried on, and whese inhahitants are supported in faet by their trading with them. Their heuses embraee every style of arehiteeture, from the modern mansion with its three or four hundred aeres of land, to the old turreted eastle, embosomed in its wide domain of hill and dale, woods and lawns. These establishments during the greater part of the year present a dull and desolate appearanee. An over-fed butler with a pompous heusekeeper exereise a despotie vieeroyalty over a } troup of inferior domesties. The eoaeh-heuses and > adjaeent offiees are hermetieally loeked, and no signs j of life are visible exeept among grooms " breathing" j the herses, or a dozen dogs leaping to the extreme

< length of their ehains from their kennels, to fright j an intruding strangor with their aristoeratie yelping. 1 The mantle of eommand deseends at these intervals j from the proprietor to the butler, whe makes the most j of sueh opportunities to impress the lower servants 5 and the towns-people with an immense idea of his

importanee. The dreariness infeets the towns, and j the shepkeepers grumble away their mouths in de) ploring the hadness of trade, and the degeneraey of j things in general.

But a ehange eomes o'er the spirit of the seene in j September and Ootober, when parliament is prerogued and "all the world" flies into the eountry to slaughter domestieated game, and destroy heeatombs of tamo hares in fashionable hallem. The Marquis of A., an old peer whese park wall bounds the town * on one side, wheso trees pry into the windows of some of the heuses, and whese rooks keep up an eternal elamor above the streets, returns from his arduous parliamentary duties of dining at his oluh, and sleeping his dinner off in the House of Lords, to the halls of his aneestors. He is aeeompanied by his two sons, the Earl of B. and Lord Frederiok C, his right henorable daughters the Ladies C, and a highbred gout, of very aneient pedigree, yot lively withal, aristoeratie, imperious, and yet painfully eeeentrie.

The Marquis's arrival is soon followed by that of other noblemen and gentry whe reside from two to seven miles around; and the dosing townsmen, whese respeet for rank is hereditary and extreme, shake \ hands with eaeh other in fervid eongratulation, and { invite the servants of the establishments (who have

< profitable patronage to bestow) to snug evening

25

parties in the taverns, where they make laborious speeehes and drink solemn toasts. The quiet streets are distraeted with mounted hersemen in gaudy liveries, whe are dispatehed for perfumeries for ladies-maids, and physio for herses, fish-sauees for the eook, and boluses for his Lordship's gout, letters and lozenges for her Ladyship, and dog-lashes and hersegirths for the stables.

The Marquis (whe may bo taken as a sample of the whele tribe) is invisible for a few days, and the townsmen shake their sagaeious heads and propagate dim rumors among themselves, that " it's the gout," or that "there's a serew loose up at the Hall," "things have not all gone right in his absenee," and sueh like, while he, good gentleman, is overhauling the aeoounts of his steward, learning of defaulters in rent, or proseeutions for poaehing. The young sprigs of nohility aro examining the shrubbery and gardens, listening to the feats performed by one or two favorite theroughbreds, or trying the seent and training of a few young pointers. After business is attended to, and a few days immurement in the hall has proved a bore, the different members of the noble family begin to emerge from their splendid solitude, to make morning ealls upon the surrounding gentry, and eondeseend even to go " n shepping" on fine mornings.

The reader has perhaps some erude notion of shepping, but I doubt if he (or she rather) have any just idea of the mysteries of that important seienee, as praetised by these elasses. Let us suppose nn elegant harouehe of a light-brown eolor, prieked out with dark-green, with a full-grown eoat of arms surmounted with a eoronet upon the panel. To this vehiele are attaehed four "bright hays,"eaeh seventeen hands high, glittering in silver-mounted harness, arehing their shining neeks and snorting in eontemptuous pride as they spurn the ground. These animals are managed by two boys (one boy to eaeh pair) of fourteen years old, elothed in small tight green jaekets buttoned up to the ehin, and displaying in front three rows of round gilt buttons, two of whieh pass over their sheulders and penetrate a shert distanee down their haeks; they have faultless white gloves and silver-handled whips, their legs are bound in stainless breeehes and Lilliputian top boots, and their business is to look straight before them witheut moving a musele of their neeks, and rise and fall at the same moment in their saddles, with the undeviating regularity with whieh infantry soldiers, on their own herses, " keep step." At the haek of the earriage is a tall human being, whe has eheated Nature by forsaking the sphere of usefulness for whieh he was sent upon earth, and voluntarily torturing himself into that hiped anomaly—a footman, or flunkey—there is some exeuse for a bear that is eompelled to learn the art of daneing, but no apology ean bo formed for a rational animal, whe submits of his own free will to the trieks of laekeyism. This gentleman is superb in flaming livery and

sheulder-knot, and sublime in white silk stoekings, into whieh he has inserted two false oalves making —with one real one—a total of three. His duties are to held on to the earriage, to preservo a stolid gravity in his faee, a small frown of importanee on his brow, an unwrinkled state of spruee ereetion in his white eravat, to leap from his stand when the earriage stops, to toueh his hat whenever he is looked at, and to treat the lady's maid with a kind of deferential familiarity, whieh he wishes to impose upon the world for lovo-making.

One would naturally suppose that this brilliant equipage was ealled into aetion to do henor to some important oeeasion of infinitely greater eonsequenee than shepping; but so it is. In the earriage are two young and handsome ladies of eighteen or thereabouts, reelining in attitudes of Eastern voluptuousness, and a young man of unimpeaehable moustaehes and eravat, lolling luxuriously haek, smiling and hiting a rose-bud, in order to shew his white teeth. A young gentleman invited "down" prohably, on some speeulation of allianee, perhaps merely beeause he has gained eelebrity as a u diner-out," and has a happy knaek of saying smart things at a dull season. At his side on eushions are seated tw/> Blenheim spaniels; and an Italian greyheund, with a silver eollar and ehain, is standing "rampant," with his two forefeet upon the earriage door, harking with a tiny snappish voiee at foot-passengers. The earriage is also aeeompanied—by way of foot-guards— by two large spotted Danish dogs, running one on eaeh side of it .

The elegant" set out" now stops at an apotheeary's shep, the tall fellow behind leaps from his standing plaee; and, walking to the door of the earriage, assumes a demure look, and touehes his hat. The proprietor of the shep, in his haste forgetting to remove his white apron, runs to the earriage and shews a shining hald head to the ladies, as he bows obsequiously. They order him to send a few bottles of ran de eologne to the Hall; this he promises to do, with a profusion of eompliments and thanks for their patronage. You may observe, while they are stopping, half a dozen fellows whe were talking gossip in a group about forty yards distant; three of them hastily retire to their sheps in expeetation of a eall, an d the others instinetively " hem" to elear their throats, altheugh they have no idea of speaking, and walk with a sanetified gait past the earriage, merely to have the gratifieation of lifting their hats to the great people. You may pereeive, also, that every herseman, and every other passenger, ease their eonseienees by performing the same aetion; and you may notiee likewise, if you are a person of aeute observation, that a eouple of beggars (one of whem is blind, and led by a young girl) whe have assailed every person they have met with importunities, leave off begging, as if by some taeit agreement, as they near the earriage, and hurry past it like eonvieted eriminals. To all these obeisanees the young

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