صور الصفحة
النشر الإلكتروني

at the altar she committed her future destiny into Jilted this one must have been, his beau idéal prethe keeping of the man of her choice? Beautiful, ferring the adoration of mammon to that of love. indeed, are those virtues in the nature of woman Thus if we proceeded, should we not find some good that only shine the brighter when tested by the apology for every one? But opposed to such we stern ordeal of affliction and neglect.

find many like these we now cite:Woinan by nature is admirably fitted for her

“When pain and arguisd wri:g tư.) :w, sphere. Although her physical constitution is by

A ministering angel thou.” far weaker than that of man, she possesses a

« There is that sweetness in a female's mind strength of will, and an energy of purpose, that

Which in a man's we cannot hope to find.” render her powers of endurance, under allliction or distress, much stronger than his. At the bedside

“The falling snow descends

To prove her breast less fairof the sick, on the field of battle, in all the most

But, grieved to see itself surpassed, trying events and accidents of life, we find innu- ?

It melts into a tear.” merable proofs of this. Wherever we behold the

“Woman, be fair; we must adore thee; direful visitations of misfortune, disease, or distress,

Smile, and a world is weak before thee." there also we find the gentle influence of a ministering angel, in the guise of that being who was “ The world was sad, the garden was a wild; "last at the cross, and first at the sepulchre.” The

And man, the hermit, sighed, till woman smiled. classic writer of Sunny Side, after having alluded “ Without a smile from partial beauty won, to the fortitude with wbich women undergo misfor

Say, what were man? A world without a sun." tune and reverses, introduces the following beautiful “Last, softly beautiful, as music's close, simile : As the vine, which has long twined its

Angelic woman into being roge." graceful foliage about the oak, and been lifted by it

It is thus that authors of undoubted genius hayo into sunshine, will, when the hardy plant is rifted

portrayed woman. If some have been too severe ip by the thunderbolt, cling around it with its caressing

their criticisms, others have been too partial. If tendrils, and bind up its shattered boughs, so it is

some have represented her in all her native purity beautifully ordered by Providence that woman, who

of heart, as an angel of light, others have shown us is the mere dependent and ornament of man in his

how revolting she appears when, regardless of her happier hours, should be his stay and solace when

own high destiny, she has buried, in infamy and dissmitten with sudden calamity; winding herself into

grace, the existence which Heaven designed should the rugged recesses of his nature, tenderly support

reflect beams of cheerfulness and purity upon the ing the drooping head, and binding up the broken

broad-spread waste of life. heart. Woman has been the theme of the poet and the

The inquiry, can woman approach man in an in

tellectual point of view? is often made. If we do novelist from the earliest times to the present. Some

not bring forward any new arguments to prove the writers who have made her their subject have been

affirmative of this question, we may at least be more ready to censure than to praise, to ridicule

allowed to express onr views in relation to it. The than flatter. But for all such we must make due allowances. We find a Sbakspeare, for example,

great majority of those who have considered this

subject favor the negative. They assert that her expressing such sentiments as the following: “ Frailty, thy name is woman.” “Ay me, how weak

reasoning powers may be quicker in their operations,

and that her conclusions may be very accurate; but a thing the heart of woman is !” “ These women are

then she lacks that real vigor of thought, so essential shrewd tempters with their tongues.” “There is

to the attainment of intellectual greatness. They never a fair woman has a true face.” But should

deem her too weak and fickle a being to excel in letwe not take into consideration the position occupied by woman at the time he wrote, the general laxity

ters, and a knowledge of the arts and sciences.

These, they say, do not belong to her sphere. We of manners that then prevailed, ere we rebuke too

would by no means be considered an advocate for harshly the genius of a Shakspeare for having been

female rights societies, but deem it perfectly proper thus severe with the fairer sex? If another has

that woman in this relation should receive her full said,

meed of praise. Let us for a moment glance at the “Oh, woman, woman, whether lean or fat,

catalogue of lady writers. Do we not find here the In face an angel, but in soul a cat,"

names of many who rank high indeed ?-a Martiwe can readily excuse so ungallant a rhyme, sup. neau, a More, a Hemans, a Hale, a Bremer, an posing, of course, this poor fellow to have wedded a Edgeworth, an Osgood, a Sigourney, a Willard, a fair shrew. A third has said,

Howitt, a Smith, a Forester, a Sherwood, a Landon, a “Women, like moths, are always caught by glare,

Greenwood;* have not these, with numerous others, And Marmon wins his way where seraphs might

performed a truly worthy part in the great world of despair."

literature? Then we would refer you to a De Stael,

* Name of Irving's country-seat.

* Miss Clarke.

[blocks in formation]

whose gigantic intellect caused even the “Child of too much the public mind in our progressive age; Destiny" to tremble at the powerful emanations from but we would have her better fitted intellectually for her pen. But if those who dissent from our views the faithful performance of the lofty trust reposed on this subject ask us where we find a second De in her, as the being who is to give an indelible stamp Stael, or a second Hemans-viewing them only as to the future character of our country, and the world. grand exceptions to the general rule-we boldly ask And we should find that this, so far from causing in reply, where is your second Shakspeare? where her to assume a false position, so far from making your second Byron? The fact that woman has ex her desire to exercise prerogatives unbecoming to celled in literature establishes sufficiently the prin her, would give her a correct view of her own sphere, ciple that, under propitious circumstances, she may and of the relations she sustains in it to others. It acquire intellectual greatness. Nor is it at all to is generally the case that those who aro most enbe wondered at that she so seldom arrives to an thusiastic in advocating their rights are the very eminence equal with man in this respect, if we con persons who, had they been properly educated, would sider how great a disparity there is in the early have plainly perceived the inconsistency and folly mental training of the two.. Of the fact that the of the scheme they vindicate. The great policy of intellectual wants of woman are too little attended woman in the present age is, we believe, the corto in our own country--that the whole system of įrection of those errors in sentiment and education female education is sadly defective—there can be into which a few ambitious spirits have betrayed very little doubt; and when we behold such a reform her; proving, by her contempt of everything like as is really needed in this, then we may expect to } agitation or uncalled-for excitement, that her only see woman occupying the dignified position which proper hall of legislation is Home, and that she who her lofty destiny so richly entitles her to.

makes the politics of home her peculiar study, disIn advocating thus her peculiar claims and privi- } charges more faithfully her duty, enhances her own leges, we do not demand too much for her. We happiness, and that of those about her, adds much would by no means have her introduced into a to the dignity of her position, and encircles, with an sphere that does not belong to her; nor would we } amaranthine wreath of purity and brightness, the hare her whole attention engrossed by those prevail cherished name of Woman. ing excitements in the political world that influence


FRANCIS JOSEPH HAYDN, MUSICIAN AND } One Sunday, a relation, whose name was Frank, COMPOSER.

came to see the cartwright. He was well ac

quainted with music, and was pleased with the perFrancis JOSEPI HAYDN was born on the 31st formance which his cousin offered after church for of March, 1732, at Robran, a small town fifteen his amusement; but, above all, he was so struck leagues from Vienna. His father was a cartwright, { with the astonishing precision with which Haydn, and his mother, before her marriage, had been cook then six years of age, beat time, that he offered to in the family of Count Harrack, the lord of the vil- } take him home with him, and teach him music. lage. The father of Haydn held also the office of This proposal was joyfully accepted by the paparish sexton. He had a fine tenor voice, and was rents; for Frank was respectably fixed as a schoolfond of music. Having occasion to visit Frankfort master at Hamburgh, and they thought if, in addion-the-Maine, he there learned to play upon the ? tion to the general branches of education, their little harp, and on holidays, and in the intervals of busi Joseph could be taught music also, they might be ness, he used to amuse himself with this instrument, { enabled, at a future period, to get him into holy to which his wife joined the accompaniment of her orders, to accomplish which was the summit of their voice. During these little domestic concerts, Haydn, parental ambition. almost as soon as he could go alone, used to stand Haydn accordingly set off for Hamburgh with his between his parents with two pieces of wood in his relation. The first proof he gave of his ability was hands, one of which served him as a violin, and the by performing, on a tambourine, which he found in other as a bow, delighted with the idea that he con Frank's house soon after his arrival, an air-though tributed his share to the music; and such was the the instrument itself is susceptible only of two tones impression, even at this early age, which his mo. } —which attracted the attention of all who came ther's simple airs made upon his feelings, that to the to the school-house. Haydn found a sharp master latest period of his existence he often sang them in his cousin, and the benefit he reaped from his with unabated pleasure, whilst his own sublime instructions was such as to enable him not only to compositions were delighting all Europe.

play on the violin and harpsichord, but also to up. derstand Latin, and to sing at the parish desk in a little worthy of the honor of expressing all his first style which spread his reputation throughout the thoughts and finest feelings. By the side of this canton. Haydn had been two years with his cousin, wretched instrument he often pursued his studies when it happened that Reüter, the maître de cha- { until so late an hour of the night, that, benumbed pelle of St. Stephen's, the cathedral church of { with cold and faint with hunger, he would drop bis Vienna, called at Frank's house in the course of a { head upon it, and lose in sleep all uneasy sensations. journey, which he was making for the purpose of Yet morning constantly found him alert and happy. seeking out children of musical talents wherewith to Haydn was about eighteen years of age, when a recruit his choir. Frank thought it a favorable noble Venetian, named Cornaro, came to Vienna as opportunity to advance the interests of his little} ambassador from the Republic. He had in his train relative. He sent for him into the room, and Reüter a musician of the name of Porpora, a Neapolitan gave him a canon to sing at sight. The precision, by birth, and one of the most celebrated composers the spirit, the purity of tone with which the child of that time. Haydn longed to be acquainted with executed it astonished him, and when he returned this man; and having fortunately obtained an introto Vienna he took Haydn with him, and enrolled duction into the ambassador's family, in a musical him in the choir. From this time Haydn devoted capacity, he was taken by him, along with Porpora, himself to the art with an assiduity that bas rarely to the baths of Manensdorff, which were the fashionbeen equalled—perhaps never excelled. Left en able resort at that time. Neither fashion nor splentirely to his own guidance, and only obliged, by the dor, however, had any influence on the mind of rules of St. Stephen's, to practise two hours in the { Haydn. He was happy, not because he was in the day, he yet regularly studied sixteen, and some train of the ambassador, but because he was under times eighteen, hours out of the twenty-four. If the same roof with a man of genius like Porpora, and he was at play with his young companions in the from whom he hoped to receive instruction in the square near St. Stephen's, the moment he heard the art to which he was so devotedly attached. To atorgan he would leave them, and go into the church; tain so desirable an object, he thought no assiduity and the sound of any musical instrument whatsoever wearisome-10 offices degrading. He rose every was to him a gratification far beyond what he could morning earlier even than usual--for, with his ardor find in any amusement that could be proposed to and industry, it is not necessary to say that he was him.

always an early riser-in order that he might beat When Haydn was thirteen years old, he composed Porpora's coat, clean his shoes, adjust his periwig, a mass, which he showed to Reüter, who, with that and put everything in order for him by the time he sincerity which is the best proof of real friendship, should rise. Porpora was so crabbed in his temper, pointed out to him the faults ånd inaccuracies with and so whimsical in his habits, that, for the first few which it abounded; and Haydn, with the good days of his attendance upon him, Haydn had nosense and entire absence of vanity which character thing but fault-finding and harsh epithets for his ized him throughout life, immediately saw and ac- } reward. It is not, however, in human nature to be knowledged the justice of the critique. He was sen otherwise than pleased and flattered with a sucsible that, in order to avoid committing similar errors } cession of good offices, tendered with cheerfulness another time, a knowledge of counterpoint and the and humility. Porpora began gradually to like the rules of harmony was necessary; but the attainment services of Haydn, and the wish to make him some of such knowledge was attended with difficulties return for them soon followed. This return was of a that to him, poor and friendless as he was, appeared description of all others to Haydn the most valuable. almost insuperable. He had no money to pay any} Porpora began by teaching him the principles and person for instructing him, and it was only by execution of some of his own airs, many of which abridging himself of food that he was enabled to were extremely difficult; and he then proceeded to purchase a few second-hand books which treated of initiate him into all the sweetness and expression the theory of music, and by the aid of which he en which have so long rendered Italy unrivalled in deavored to find out the rules of composition. The vocal music. He also taught him to accompany life of Haydn was, at this period, an unremitting himself on the piano-forte with spirit and correctscene of labor and privation. His father was so ness—an art far more difficult of attainment than is poor that he could with difficulty find bread, and the generally imagined. In short, Haydn found himself son being unfortunately robbed of his clothes, all } greatly improved, both in taste and knowledge, by that he could scrape together to refit his wardrobe the acquaintance he had so fortunately formed with for him scarcely amounted to eleven shillings. Porpora ; and the ambassador, astonished at the Small as this sum was, Haydn received it with a rapid progress which this young man, apparently thankful heart, and a contented spirit. He lodged so friendless and destitute, had made in his house, in a garret, where he could not, piercing as are the generously endeavored to alleviate the poverty winters in Vienna, afford himself the comfort of a which only made his genius appear the more refire. The most important piece of furniture was an markable; and, on his return to Vienna, allowed old harpsichord, falling to pieces in all parts, and him a monthly pension of six sequins, or about three

[ocr errors]
[blocks in formation]

pounds sterling, and admitted him to the tables of more in this trim-your appearance is not worthy his secretaries.

of you.” Haydn kissed the prince's hand, and reThis act of kindness on the part of the ambassa tired to one corner of the orchestra, to meditate dor was the beginning of Haydn's future prosperity. { upon the figure he should make in his new costume. He was enabled by it to provide himself with a suit The next morning he appeared in it at the prince's of black sufficiently respectable to allow him to pre levee, and had the title of Second Professor of sent himself in any society that it might be desira Music conferred upon him. The first use that Haydn ble for him to frequent, and to instruct a few pupils; made of the competence thus secured to him was to invariably closing his industrious day by sitting a } acquit himself of his debt of gratitude to a perukepart of the night at the harpsichord.

maker named Keller--who had given him an asylum Ilaydn's first productions were some sonatas for when he was poor—by marrying his eldest daughter. the piano-forte; he wrote also a few minuets, The match, however, did not prove a happy one. waltzes, and serenatas, and the music for an opera, When Haydn had been in the service of Prince at the request of Curtz, the director of one of the Antony twelve months, that nobleman died, and his principal theatros, and himself a celebrated buffa title descended to Prince Nicholas, who was, if posperformer. For this, including the Tempest, Haydn sible, a still more passionate lover of music. Attachreceived about twelve pounds sterling.

ed to the services of a patron immensely rich, and In 1758, Haydn obtained a situation in the estab- fully capable of appreciating his talents; placed at lishment of Count Mortzen, who had an orchestra the head of a grand orchestra, and possessing full of his own, and gave musical parties every evening. leisure for study; Haydn now saw himself placed in Prince Antony Esterhazy, an ardent amateur, hap that happy union of circumstances so rarely found, pened to attend one of these concerts, which opened { which at once excites the powers of genius and with a symphony of Haydn's. The prince was so affords the opportunity of displaying them. From charmed with this piece, that he requested Count this time, bis life was uniformly busy and tranquil. Míortzen to give up Haydn to him, being desirous of We do not venture to enter into a critical account making him second leader in his own orchestra. of Haydn's music. Its general character is that of Count Mortzen very generously consented; but, } romantic imagination. He has been compared to unfortunately, Haydn bad not been introduced to Ariosto or Shakspeare in poetry, and to Claude Lor. the prince, being prevented by indisposition from raine in painting. Liberty and joy breathe throughattending the concert the evening he was present; out his works, the grateful exultation of a mind and he heard no more of his appointment. He had, delighting in the innocent exercise of its exalted however, a kind friend in Friedberg, one of Prince talents. He said himself that he was always most Antony's composers, who greatly admired his talents, happy when he was at work. Haydn's most elaboand determined to take an opportunity of bringing { rato performance is the Oratorio of the Creation. him to the prince's recollection. Accordingly, he was sixty-three years of age when he began it, and requested him to compose a symphony to be per } employed two entire years upon it. Its success was formed at Eisenstadt, where the prince resided. in proportion to the pains he bestowed upon it. It Friedberg fixed on the prince's birthday for the was in England that Haydn composed some of his introduction of the piece. Scarcely had the perform finest pieces. ers got to the middle of the first allegro, when the The last time that Haydn appeared in public was prince, who was seated on his throne and surround at the palace of Prince Lobkowitz, at the performed by his court, interrupted them, and asked who {ance of his own Creation by one hundred and sixty was the author of that fine composition. “ Haydn," { musicians, amidst a company of the most illustrious replied Friedberg, making the trembling composer personages in Vienna, all assembled to do him hocome forward at the same time. “What!" said the į nor. It was the proudest, the most affecting moment prince, “is it this man's music ?” Poor Haydn's ļ of his life ; and he took his leave of that society, complexion was of a very sombre hue, and his coun- which he had so long delighted, with tears of gratenance, when not lighted up with either genius or titude, whilst the most heartfelt eulogiums were benevolence, wore an expression of corresponding bestowed upon him in return. From this time he gloom. It will be easily imagined that he did not confined himself entirely to his house and small appear to particular advantage on this remark. The garden. The last spark of his original enthusiasm prince, however, continued: “Well, Moor, hence- flamed forth when the French approached Vienna in forth you remain in my service. What is your 1809. He heard the cannonading of his beloved city. name?” “ Joseph Haydn.” “Haydn! surely I re- } With the small remnant of voice that age had left member that name; you are already engaged to me; } him, he sang, God preserve the Emperor! It was the how is it that I have not seen you before ?” Haydn, song of the swan. Whilst he was sitting at the abashed by the brilliant circle around him, could piano, he fell, exhausted by his emotion, into a kind make no reply. The prince went on, with somewhat of stupor: and being taken to his hod, tranquilly more encouragement in his manner—“Go, and dress breathed his last on the 31st of May, 1809, aged yourself like a professor; do not let me see you any { seventy-eight.


The Stereoscope must rank amongst the most in- sess a quality which no copy on a flat surface by teresting and most marvellous of modern discoveries. the hand of our greatest artists can produce. This With the aid of this instrument, we now possess the is solidity or distance, and the appearance of objects means of transmitting to posterity the exact image standing immediately behind each other. In using of all that is physically remarkable in the present this term solidity, it should be borne in mind that day; at least so much as can be appreciated by the distance is the same thing; since solids are only sense of vision.

made up of the relative distances of parts of a single Those who have not yet had an opportunity of object. To these qualities may be added another, witnessing the effect of photographic pictures in the which is the painting on the retina of each eye picStereoscope, can form only a small idea of the tures of the same object, differing slightly in peramount of astonishment they have yet to experience. spective. This last quality is peculiarly the proWhen Daguerreotype portraits are first seen with perty of natural pictures, and which distinguishes the Stereoscope, a feeling of regret is common to all them especially from paintings. Distance or solidity that this discovery does not date from a more dis- { only enables single objects to produce this curious tant time. What would not be the value of a Stere- { effect, in which we shall see the resemblance in oscope portrait-gallery of our greatest historical { stereoscopic pictures; the latter, indeed, being only characters, including Shakspeare, presenting all the an imitation of the former. Another quality in nalifelike character, and resembling in every respect tural pictures is the necessity of converging and the reflection of the human face in a mirror. Un- } diverging the axis of the eyes when regarding diffortunately, the examples of past wonders, a sight }ferent parts of the picture ; to this may also be addof which we must now more than ever lament the } ed change of focus. This latter quality is familiar loss of, are far too numerous ; but now we do pos t o all who have used a telescope or an opera-glass, sess this astonishing power, it behoves us to think and consists of the slight adaptation of the lenses of the future, and not allow coming generations to for different parts of the natural picture. These accuse us of a selfish negligence in not leaving to effects of convergence and divergence of the eyes them a legacy which science has placed at our dis with focal change are also peculiar to solid objects. posal. It is to be hoped that galleries will be It will be readily understood that, as objects are formed, oontaining all that is most remarkable in more or less distant, the pupils of the eyes, when the animate and inanimate world of our own time, regarding them, converge or diverge towards or and that none of the great and beneficent charac from each other; objects placed nearly in contact ters of our day will pass away without leaving the with the end of the nose compel the eyes to conlight of their countenances for the admiration and verge to the degree of squinting, whilst with distant laudable curiosity which real greatness must always objects they are nearly parallel. create. To the generality of persons it must be in The accompanying diagram will render this part conceivable that the combination of two pictures of the subject quite clear. Suppose three objects in nearly alike can produce such an extraordinary result; and, as the curiosity to know something of the “why and because" of this matter will be felt by all who know nothing of the laws by which the effect of solidity or distance is produced, I may, perhaps, not be trespassing on your valuable space in attempting a popular explanation of how two perfectly flat pictures produce the effect of solidity.

Like cause produces like effect; hence like effects result from similar causes : consequently, as pictures in the Stereoscope present the appearance of { a direct line (e, d, f), and a third similar object in nature, it is reasonable to conclude results so nearly the position e: to the left eye (a) the object f would alike are produced by similar means. Before enter- be invisible; and to the right eye (b) the object e ing directly on the causes which produce the effect would be also invisible, from the intervention of c;

f solidity, it will be better to clearly understand į but f is always visible to the right eye, and e to the the qualities of natural images or pictures in their left eye ; consequently, with a pair of eyes, these relations to the organs and sense of vision. When objects are never invisible. This is the simple exa house or landscape is looked at, it is found to pog. } planation of the power possessed by two eyes to see

« السابقةمتابعة »