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at tho altar she eommitted her future destiny into the keeping of the man of her ehoieo? Beautiful, indeed, are those virtues in the nature of woman that only shine the brighter when tested by the stern ordeal of afflietion and negleet.

Woman by nature is admirably fitted for her sphere. Although her physieal eonstitution is by fur weaker than that of man, she possesses a strength of trill, and an energy of purpose, that render her powers of enduranee, under afflietion or distress, mueh stronger than his. At the bedside of the siek, on the field of hattle, in all the most trying events and aeeidents of life, we find innumerable proofs of this. Wherever we behold the direful visitations of misfortune, disease, or distress, there also we find the gentle influenee of a ministering angel, in the guise of that being who was "last at the eross, and first at tho sepulehre." The elassie writer of Sunny Side,* after having alluded to the fortitude with whieh women undergo misfortune and reverses, introduees tho following beautiful simile: As the vine, whieh has long twined its graeeful folinge about the oak, and been lifted by it into sunshine, will, when the hardy plant is rifted by the thunderbolt, eling around it with its earessing tendrils, and hind up its shattered boughs, so it is beautifully ordered by Providenee that woman, who is the mere dependent and ornament of man in his happier hours, should be his stay and solaee when smitten with sudden ealamity; winding herself into the rugged reeesses of his nature, tenderly supporting the drooping head, and hinding up the broken heart.

Woman has been the theme of the poet and the novelist from the earliest times to the present. Some writers who have made her their subjeet have been raoro ready to eensure than to praise, to ridieule than flatter. But for all sueh we must make due allowanees. Wo find a Shakspeare, for example, expressing sueh sentiments as the following: "Frailty, thy name is woman." "Ay me, how weak a thing the heart of woman is!" "These women are shrowd tempters with their tongues." "There is never a fair woman has n true faee." But should we not take into eonsideration the position oeeupied by woman at the time be wrote, tho general laxity of manners that then prevailed, ere we rebuke too harshly tho genins of a Shakspeare for having been thus severe with the fairer sex? If another has said,

"Oh, woman, woman, whether lean or fat,
In faee an angel, but in soul a eat,"

we ean readily exeuse so ungallant a rhyme, supposing, of eourse, this poor fellow to havo wedded a fair shrow. A third has said,

** Women, like moths, are always eaught by glare, And Mammon wms his way where seraphs might despair.

Jilted this one must have been, his heau UUal pref ferring the adoration of mammon to that of love.

> Thus if we proeeeded, should we not fi'*d ^ood j apology for every one? Bx.t opposed to Tm-a we J find many like these we now eite:—

"When pain and axguUb wri;*3 tt.) hiiiw,
A ministering angel thou."

"There is that sweetness in a female's mind
Whieh in a man's we eannot hope to find."

"The falling snow deseends

To provC her breast less fair—
But, grieved to see itself surpassed,

> It melts into a tear."

"Woman, bo fair; we must adore thee;
Smilo, and a world is weak before thee."

"The world was sad, the garden was a wild;
And man, the hermit, sighed, till woman smiled.

"Without a smile from partial beauty won,
Say, what were man? A world without a sun."

"Last . softly beautiful, as musie's elose,
Angelio woman into being rose."

j It is thus that authors of undoubted genins bevn

S portrayed woman. If some have been too severe in

< their eritieisms, others have been too partial. If j some have represented her in all her native purity I of heart, as an angel of light, others have shown us j how revolting sho appears when, regardless of her

• own high destiny, she has buried, in infamy and dis; graee, the existenee whieh Heaven designed should

( refleet beams of eheerfulness and purity upon tho '} broad-spread wasto of life.

! The inquiry, ean woman approaeh man in an in; telleetual point of viow? is often made. If wo do \ not bring forward any new arguments to prove tho \ affirmative of this question, wo may at least bo \ allowed to express our viows in relation to it. The ', great majority of those who havo eonsidered this s subjeet favor the negative . They assert that her reasoning powers may be quieker in their operations, j and that her eonelusions may be very aeeurate; but '■, then she laeks that real vigor of thought, so essential [ to the attainment of intelleetual greatness. They S deem her too teeak and fiekle a being to exeel in Iet'< ters, and a knowledge of the arts and seienees. ; These, they say, do not belong to her sphere. We I would by no means be eonsidered an advoeate for female rights soeieties, but deem it perfeetly proper that woman in this relation should reeeive her full \ meed of praise. Let us for a moment glanee at the

• eatalogue of lady writers. Do we not find hero the names of many who rank high indeed?—-a Marti

J neau, a More, a Hemans, a Hale, a Bremer, an ; Edgeworth, an Osgood, a Sigourney, a Willard, a i Ilowitt, a Smith, a Forester, a Sherwood, a Landon. a Greenwood!* have not these, with numerous others, J performed a truly worthy part in tho great world of \ literature? Then we would refer you to a De Stael,

* Name of Irving's eountry-seat.

* Miss Clarke.


whese gigantie intelleet eaused even the "Child of Destiny" to tremble at the powerful emanations from her pen. But if these whe dissent from our views on this subjeet ask us where we find a seeond De Stael, or a seeond Hemans—viewing them only as grand exeeptions to the general rule—we boldly ask in reply, where is your seeond Shakspeare? where your seeond Byron? The faet that woman hat exeelled in literature establishes suffieiently the prineiple that, under propitious eireumstanees, she may aequire intelleetual greatness. Nor is it at all to be wondered at that she so seldom arrives to an eminenee equal with man in this respeet, if we eonsider hew great a disparity there is in the early mental training of the two.- Of the faet that the intelleetual wants of woman are too little attended to in our own eountry—that the whele system of female edueation is sadly defeetive—there ean be very little doubt; and when wo beheld sueh a reform as is really needed in this, then we may expeet to see woman oeeupying the dignified position whieh her lofty destiny so riebly entitles her to.

In advoeating thus her peeuliar elaims and privileges, we do not demand too mueh for her. Wo would by no means have her introdueed into a sphere that does not belong to her; nor would we have her whele attention engrossed by these prevailing exeitements in the politieal world that influenee

I too mueh the publie mind in our progressive age; I but we would have her better fitted intelleetuallg for the faithful performanee of the lofty trust reposed j in her, as the being whe is to give an indelible stamp { to the future eharaeter of our eountrg, and the world. And we sheuld find that this, so far from eausing her to assume a false position, so far from making her desire to exereise prerogatives unbeeoming to s her, would give her a eorreet view of her own sphere, and of the relations she sustains in it to others. It is generally the ease that these whe are most en{ thusiastie in advoeating their rights are the very persons whe, had they been properly edueated, would have plainly pereeived the ineonsisteney and folly j of the sehemo they vindieate. The great poliey of J woman in the present age is, we believe, the eor\ roetion of these errors in sentiment and edueation j into whieh a few amhitious spirits havo betrayed j her; proving, by her eontempt of everything like i agitation or unealled-for exeitement, that her only proper hall of legislation is Home, and that she whe I makes the polities of heme her peeuliar study, dis? eharges more faithfully her duty, enhanees her own { happiness, and that of these about her, adds mueh I to the dignity of her position, and eneireles, with an > amaranthine wreath of purity and brightness, the I eherished name of Woman.


Fkanois Josesii Havun, Musioian Anu Oomsosek.

Fnaneis Joseph Havnn was born on the 31st of Mareh, 1732, at Rohran, a small town fifteen leagues from Tienna. His father was a eartwright, and his mother, before her marriage, had been eook in the family of Count Harraek, the lord of the village. The father of Haydn held also the offiee of parish sexton. He had a fine tenor voiee, and was fond of musie. Having oeeasion to visit Frankforton-the-Maine, he there learned to play upon the harp, and on helidays, and in the intervals of business, he used to amuso himself with this instrument, to whieh his wife joined the aeeompaniment of her voiee. During these littlo domestie eoneerts, Haydn, almost as soon as he eould go alone, used to stand between his parents with two pieees of wood in his hands, one of whieh served him as a violin, and the other as a bow, delighted with the idea that he eontributed his share to the musie; and sueh was the impression, even at this early age, whieh his mother's simplo airs made upon his feelings, that to the latest period of his existenee he often sang them with unahated pleasure, whilst his own sublime eompositions were delighting all Europe.


One Sunday, a relation, whese namo was Frank, eame to see the eartwright. He was well aequainted with musie, and was pleased with the performanee whieh his eousin offered after ehureh for his amusement; but, above all, he was so struek with the astonishing preeision with whieh Haydn, then six years of age, beat time, that he offered to take him heme with him, and teaeh him musie.

This proposal was joyfully aeeepted by the parents; for Frank was respeetably fixed as a seheolmaster at Hamburgh, and they theught if, in addition to the general branehes of edueation, their little Joseph eould be taught musie also, they might be enabled, at a future period, to get him into hely orders, to aeeomplish whieh was the summit of their parental amhition.

Haydn aeeordingly set off for Hamburgh with his relation. The first proof he gave of his ahility was by performing, on a tambourine, whieh he found in Frank's heuse soon after his arrival, an air—theugh the instrument itself is suseeptible only of two tones —whieh attraeted the attention of all who eame to the seheol-heuse. Hnydn found a sharp master in his eousin, and the benefit he reaped from his instruetions was sueh as to enable him not only to play on the violin and harpsieherd, but also to un.

dors tan d Latin, and to sing at the parish desk in a style whieh spread his reputation throughout the eanton. Haydn had been two years with his eousin, when it happened that Reiiter, the maltre de ekapelle of St. Stephen's, the eathedral ehureh of Vienna, ealled at Frank's house in the eourse of a journey, whieh he was making for the purpose of seeking out ehildren of musieal talents wherowith to reeruit his ehoir. Frank thought it a favorable opportunity to advanee the interests of his little relative. He sent for him into the room, and Reiiter gave him a eanon to sing at eight . The preeision, the spirit, the purity of tone with whieh the ehild exeeuted it astonished him, and when he returned to Vienna ho took Haydn with him, and enrolled him in the ehoir. From this time Haydn devoted himself to the art with an assiduity that has rarely been equalled—perhaps never exeelled. Left entirely to his own guidanee, and only obliged, by the rules of St. Stephen's, to praetise two hours in the day, he yet regularly studied sixteen, and sometimes eighteen, hours out of tho twenty-four. If he was at play with his young eompanions in the square near St. Stephen's, the moment he heard the organ he would leave them, and go into the ehureh; and the sound of any musieal instrument whatsoever was to him a gratifieation far beyond what he eould find in any amusement that eould be proposed to him.

When Haydn was thirteen years old, he eomposed a mass, whieh he showed to Router, who, with that sineerity whieh is the best proof of real friendship, pointed out to him the faults and inaeeuraeies with whieh it abounded; and Haydn, with the good sense and entire absenee of vanity whieh eharaeterized him throughout life, immediately saw and aeknowledged the justiee of the eritique. He was sensible that, in order to avoid eommitting similar errors another time, a knowledge of eounterpoint and tho rules of harmony was neeessary; but the attainment of sueh knowledge was attended with diffieulties that to him, poor and friendless as he was, appeared almost insuperable. He had no money to pay any person for instrueting him, and it was only by abridging himself of food that be was enabled to purehase a fow seeond-hand books whieh treated of the theory of musie, and by tho aid of whieh he endeavored to find out the rules of eomposition. The life of Haydn was, at this period, an uuremitting seene of labor and privation. His father was so poor that he eould with diffieulty find bread, and the son being unfortunately robbed of his elothes, all that he eould serape together to refit his wardrobe for him seareely amounted to eleven shillings. Small as this sum was, Haydn reeeived it with a thankful heart, and a eontented spirit. Ho lodged in a garret, where ho eould not, piereing as are the winters in Vienna, afford himself the eomfort of a fire. The most important pieee of furniture was an old harpsiehord, falling to pieees in all parts, and

j little worthy of the honor of expressing all his first thoughts and finest feelings. By the side of this \ wretehed instrument he often pursued his studies j until so late an hour of the night, that, benumbed with eold and faint with hunger, he would drop his head upon it, and lose in sleep all uneasy sensations. j Yet morning eonstantly found him alert and happy. I Haydn was about eighteen years of age, when a noble Venetian, named Cornaro, eame to Vienna as J amhassador from the Republie. He had in his train \ a musieian of the name of Porpora, a Neapolitan by hirth, and one of the most eelebrated eomposers of that time. Haydn longed to be aequainted with this man; and having fortunately obtained an introi duetion into the amhassador's family, in a musieal \ eapaeity, he was taken by him, along with Porpora, j to the haths of Manensdorff, whieh were the fashionj able resort at that time. Neither fashion nor splenj dor, however, had any influenee on the mind of

< Haydn. He was happy, not beeause he was in the i tram of the amhassador, but beeause he was under i the same roof with a man of genins like Porpora, and I from whom he hoped to reeeive instruetion in the

art to whieh he was so devotedly attaehed. To at\ tain so desirable an objeet, ho thought no assiduity j wearisome—no offiees degrading. He rose every I morning earlier ovon than usual—for, with his ardor \ and industry, it is not neeessary to say that he was > always an early riser-—in order that he might beat j Porpora's eoat, elean his shoes, adjust his periwig, \ and put everything in order for him by the lime he \ should rise. Porpora was so erabbed in his temper, ! and so whimsieal in his hahits, that, for the first fow

days of his attendanee upon him, Haydn had no\ thing but fault-finding and harsh epithets for his j roward. It is not, however, in human nature to be S otherwiso than pleased and flattered with a suej eession of good offiees, tendered with eheerfulness

and humility. Porpora began gradually to like the i seriiees of Haydn, and the wish to make him some i return for them soon followed. This return was of a f deseription of all others to Haydn the most valuable. ! Porpora began by teaehing him the prineiples and

exoeution of somo of his own airs, many of whieh

were extremely diffieult; and he then proeeeded to

initiate him into all the sweetness and expression 1 whieh have so long rendered Italy uurivalled in j voeal musie. He also taught him to aeeompany

himself on the piano-forte with spirit and eorreetj ness—an art far more diffieult of attainment than is j generally imagined. In short, Haydn found himself

greatly improved, both in taste and knowledge, by

< the aequaintanee ho had so fortunately formed with Porpora; and the amhassador, astonished at the rapid progress whieh this young man, apparently

! so friendless and destitute, had made in his house, J generously endeavored to alleviate the poverty \ whieh only made his genins appear the more rej markable; and, on his return to Vionna, allowed him a monthly pension of six sequins, or about three

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pounds sterling, and admitted him to the tables of his seeretaries.

This aet of kindness on the part of the amhassador was the beginning of Haydn's future prosperity. He was enabled by it to provide himself with a suit of blaek suffieiently respeetable to allow him to present himself in any soeiety that it might be desirable for him to frequent, and to instruet a fow pupils; invariably elosing his industrious day by sitting a part of the night at the harpsiehord.

Haydn's first produetions were some sonatas for the piano-forto; he wrote also a fow minuets, waltzes, and serenatos, and the musie for an opera, at the request of Curtz, the direetor of one of the prineipal theatres, and himself a eelebrated buifa performer. For this, ineluding the Tempest, Haydn reeeived about twelve pounds sterling.

In 175S, Haydn obtained a situation in the establishment of Count Mortzen, who had an orehestra of his own, and gave musieal parties every evening. Prinee Antony Esterhazy, an ardent amateur, happened to attend one of these eoneerts, whieh opened with a symphony of Haydn's. The prinee was so eharmed with this pieee, that he requested Count Mortzen to give up Haydn to him, being desirous of mnking hini seeond leader in his own orehestra. Count Mortzen very generously eonsented; but, unfortunately, Haydn had not been introdueed to tho prinee, being prevented by indisposition from attending the eoneert the evening ho was present; and he heard no more of his appointment. He had, however, a kind friend in Friedberg, one of Prinee Antony's eomposers, who greatly admired his talents, and determined to take an opportunity of bringing him to tho prinee's reeolleetion. Aeeordingly, he requested him to eompose a symphony to be performed at Eisenstadt, where the prinee resided. Friedberg fixed on the prinee's hirthday for the introduetion of the pieee. Seareely had the performers got to the middle of the first allegro, when the prinee, who was seated on his throne and surrounded by his eourt, interrupted them, and asked who was the author of that fine eomposition. "Haydn," replied Friedberg, making the trembling eomposer eome forward at the same time. "What!" said the prinee, "is it this man's musie?" Poor Haydn's eomplexion was of a very sombre hue, and his eountenanee, when not lighted up with either genius or benevolenee, wore an expression of eorresponding gloom. It will bo easily imagined that he did not appear to partieular advantage on this remark. Tho prinee, however, eontinued: "Well, Moor, heneeforth you remain in my sorviee. What is your name?" "Joseph Haydn." "Haydn! surely I remember that name; you are already engaged to me; bow is it that I have not seen you before?" Haydn, ahashed by the brilliant eirele aronnd him, eould make no reply. The prinee went on, with somowhat more eneouragement in his manner—" Go, and dress yourself like a professor; do not let me see you any

! more in this trim—your appearanee is not worthy

< of you." Haydn kissed the prinee's hand, and re\ tired to one eorner of the orehestra, to meditate . upon tho figure he should make in his now eostume. j Tho next morning ho appeared in it at the prinee's

; levee, and had the title of Seeond Professor of ; Musie eonferred upon him. The first use that Haydn made of the eompetenee thus seeured to him was to \ aequit himself of his debt of gratitude to a perukemaker named Keller—who had given him an asylum when ho was poor—by marrying his eldest daughter. The mateh, however, did not prove a happy one. When Haydn had been in the serviee* of Prinee > Antony twelve months, that nobleman died, and his title deseended to Prinee Nieholas, who was, if possible, a still more passionate lover of musie. Attaeh; ed to the serviees of a patron immensely rieh, and ;i fully eapable of appreeiating his talents; plaeed at the head of a grand orehestra, and possessing full leisure for study; Haydn now saw himself plaeed in that happy union of eireumstanees so rarely found, !; whieh at onee exeites the powers of genins and ! affords tho opportunity of displaying them. From \ this time, his life was uniformly busy and tranquil. ! We do not venture to enter into a eritieal aeeount of Haydn's musie. Its general eharaeter is that of romantie imagination. He has been eompared to Ariosto or Shakspeare in poetry, and to Claude Lor; raine in painting. Liberty and joy breathe through! out his works, the grateful exultation of a mind !. delighting in the innoeent exereise of its exalted ;! talents. He said himself that he was always most happy when ho was at work. Haydn's most elabo; rate performanee is the Oratorio of the Creation. He was sixty-three years of age when he began it, and s employed two entire years upon it. Its sueeess was I in proportion to the pains he bestowed upon it. It j was in England that Haydn eomposed some of his s finest pieees.

j The last time that Haydn appeared in publie was S at tho palaee of Prineo Lobkewitz, at tho perform\ aneo of his own Creation by one hundred and sixty musieians, amidst a eompany of the most illustrious personages in Vienna, all assembled to do him honor. It was the proudest, the most affeeting moment of his life; and ho took his leave of that soeiety, whieh he had so long delighted, with tears of gratitude, whilst the most heartfelt euloginms were bestowed upon him in return. From this tide be eonfined himself entirely to his house and small garden. The last spark of his original enthusiasm flamed forth when the Freneh approaehed Vienna in 1809. He heard the eannonading of his beloved eity. With the small remnant of voiee that age had left him, ho sang, God preserve the Emperor! It was the song of the swan. Whilst he was sitting at the piano, he fell, exhausted by his emotion, into a kind of stupor: and being taken to his b?d, tranquilly breathed his last on the 31st of May, 1S09, aged seventy-eight.


The Stereoseope must rank amongst the most interesting and most marvellous of modern diseoveries. With the aid of this instrument, we now possess the means of transmitting to posterity the exaet image of all that is physieally remarkable in the present day; at least so mueh as ean be appreeiated by the sense of vision.

Thoso who have not yet had an opportunity of witnessing the effeet of photographie pietures in the Stereoseope, ean form only a small idea of the amount of astonishment they have yet to experienee. When Daguerreotype portraits are first seen with the Stereoseope, a feeling of regret is eommon to all that this diseovery does not date from a more distant time. What would not be the value of a Stereoseope portrait-gallery of our greatest historieal eharaeters, ineluding Shakspeare, presenting all the lifelike eharaeter, and resembling in every respeet the refleetion of the human faee in a mirror. Unfortunately, the oxamples of past wonders, a sight of whieh wo must now more than ever lament the loss of, are far too numerous; but now wo do possess this astonishing power, it behoves us to think of the future, and not allow eoming generations to aeeuse us of a selfish negligenee in not leaving to them a legaey whieh seienee has plaeed at our disposal. It is to be hoped that galleries will be formed, eontaining all that is most remarkable in the animate and inanimate world of our own time, and that none of the great and benefieent eharaeters of our day will pass away without leaving the light of their eountenanees for the admiration and laudable euriosity whieh real greatness must always ereate. To the generality of persons it must be ineoneeivable that the eomhination of two pietures nearly alike ean produee sueh an extraordinary result; and, as the euriosity to know something of the "why and beeause'' of this matter will be felt by all who know nothing of the laws by whieh the effeet of solidity or distanee is produeed, I may, perhaps, not be trespassing on your valuable spaee in attempting a popular explanation of how two perfeetly flat pietures produee the effeet of solidity.

Like eause produees like effeet; henee like effeets result from similar eauses: eonsequently, as pietures in the Stereoseope present the appearanee of nature, it is reasonable to eonelude results so nearly alike are produeed by similar means. Before entering direetly on the eauses whieh produee the effeet of solidity, it will be better to elearly understand the qualities of natural images or pietures in their relations to the organs and sense of vision. When a house or landseape is looked at, it is found to pos

sess a quality whieh no eopy on a flat surfaee by the hand of our greatest artists ean produee. This is solidity or distanee, and the appearanee of objeets standing immediately behind eaeh other. Iu using this term solidity, it should be borne in mind that distanee is the same thing; sinee solids are only made up of the relative distanees of parts of a single objeet- To these qualities may be added another, whieh is the painting on the retina of eaeh eye pietures of the same objeet, differing slightly in perspeetive. This last quality is peeuliarly the property of natural pietures, and whieh distinguishes them espeeially from paintings. Distanee or solidity only enables single objeets to produee this euriou.* effeet, in whieh we shall see the resemblanee in stereoseopie pietures; the latter, indeed, being only an imitation of the former. Another quality in natural pietures is the neeessity of eonverging and diverging the axis of the eyes when regarding different parts of the pieture; to this may also be added ehange of foeus. This latter quality is familiar to all who have used a teleseope or an opera-glass, and eonsists of the slight adaptation of the lenses for different parts of the natural pieture. These effeets of eonvergenee and divergenee of tho eyes with foeal ehange are also peeuliar to solid objeets. It will be readily understood that, as objeets are more or less distant, the pupils of the eyes, when regarding them, eonverge or diverge towards or from eaeh other; objeets plaeed nearly in eontaet with the end of the nose eompel the eyes to eonverge to the degree of squinting, whilst with distant objeets they are nearly parallel.

The aeeompanying diagram will render this part of the subjeet quite elear. Suppose three objeets in

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