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commander to make a speech, and, confessing his incapacity for public speaking, he called upon a huge black man, named Toby, to address the company in his stead. Toby, a man of powerful frame, six feet high, his face ornamented with a beard of fashionable cut, had hitherto stood leaning against the wall, looking upon the frolic with an air of superiority. He consented, came forward, and demanded a bit of paper to hold in his hand, and harangued the soldiery. It was evident that Toby had
listened to stump-speeches in his day. He spoke of 'de majority of Sous Carolina,'de interests of de State,' de honor of ole Ba’nwell district,' and these phrases he connected by various expletives, and sounds of which we could make nothing. At length he began to falter, when the captain, with admirable presence of mind, came to his relief, and interrupted and closed the harangue with an hurrah from the company. Toby was allowed by all the spectators, black and white, to have made an excellent speech."
BY HARLAND COULTAS.
It has been proved that plants are composed of a number of cells united together into a definite shape, and developing according to fixed natural laws. But, if plants are formed by the union and growth of cells, then differences in their size, form, and duration are simply the result of different degrees of cell-evolution. Hence it is not by abrupt transitions, but by a beautiful series of gradations, that nature passes from one vegetable form to another.
In forest trees, the evolution of new cells goes on for centuries, and the cells, as they increase in number, become specialized, or arrange themselves into definite parts, such as root, stem, and leaves, each having distinct offices to fulfil in the vegetable economy. In shrubs and herbaceous plants, these parts become successively less and less evolved; the size of such plants being consequently reduced, and the duration of their life proportionably shortened. In the hyacinth and Convallaria magalis, or lily of the valley, the internodes, or naked intervals of stem between the leaves, are non-developed, and the leaves are crowded together, forming a bulb, or rather subterranean bud; some of these leaves retain their rudimentary scalelike character as a protecting envelope, whilst the others rise in a tuft directly from the earth, the flower-stalk springing from their centre. In the Cycadaceæ and Coniferæ, those beautiful and highly ornamental whorls of leaves, the calyx and the corolla are absent, and the flower is reduced to the last degree of simplicity, whilst in the ferns it disappears altogether, and in its place we have a collection of mere dustlike spots or lines, arranged, however, with great beauty and regularity on the under surface of the frond. The same plan of structure, or distinction of parts into root, stem, and leaves, is still visible in the minute, but exquisitely beautiful mosses, although the root no longer springs from one extremity of the axis of growth, but from every part of it. In the liverworts, the leaves are reduced to mere imbricated scales, and in the lower forms become blended to
gether into a continuous expansion of vegetable matter called a frond. Finally, in the lichens and algæ, root, stem, and leaves disappear, and the whole plant is reduced to a mere plane of cells called a thallus—to a mere row of cells strung end to end, or even to a single cell. Now, as the plan of structure in the more highly organized and complex plants can only be understood by studying the operations of nature in detail, as exemplified in the simpler vegetable forms, we shall commence with these first, this being plainly the most natural and philosophical method of investigation. Let us begin, then, with
PLANTS COMPOSED OF A SINGLE CELL.-The lower forms of the algæ afford us several examples of plants thus organically simple. In these plants, vegetation is reduced to its simplest terms. The plant and cell are identical. Here we have the starting-point of vegetation, the beginning of the formation of those vegetable elements which, in their future development, shall clothe the earth's surface with the richest forms of life and beauty. These plants are especially interesting, as furnishing the simplest indications of those processes of cell-growth and reproduction, on an accurate knowledge of which rest the very foundations of all vegetable physiology.
The plant-cell, as it is termed by Schleiden, constitutes an entire vegetable without organs, imbibing food by endosmosis through every part of its exterior surface, which it converts into the materials of its own enlargement or growth, and finally into new cells, which constitute its progeny. Being without lateral compression of any kind, the plant-cell necessarily takes a globular form. But, even when her vegetative productions are thus organically simple, nature is by no means restricted to one uni. form pattern ; on the contrary, this family of plants presents almost every variety of color, and external appearances so marked and varied as to justify naturalists in regarding them as distinct species.
sereral individuals of this plant slightly magnified, to show the nature of the reproductive process. New cells are seen to originate in the interior of each plant-cell, which gradually take their place, and the new generation thus produced enlarge and give rise to a new progeny in their interior as before. In this manner, this simple vegetation grows on from age to age. Fig. 4 represents a more highly magnified individual of the Protococcus nivalis, showing more distinctly the new cells forming in its interior. The green pulverulent matter which appears on old walls, and on the bark of trees, consists of an unformed mass of free globular cells, which grow and reproduce in this simple manner.
In other species of plant-cells, the mode of reproduction is somewhat different. In Chroococcus rufescens (Fig. 2), the plant-cell takes an oval form, and (Fig. 3) a partition then appears across the cavity of the cell, dividing it into two cells. These two cells are again subdivided by the formation of another septum at right angles to the first partition,
magnified view of Vaucheria clavata, which consists of a single cell of unbroken caliber, furnished with branches. In one of these branches, at a, a spore is forming. Fig. 7 represents the end of the branch more magnified, with the spore escaped from its burst apex. In this instance, the ramifications of the cell foreshadow, as it were, the stem and branches of more highly organized plants.
MACAULAY tells us that the Lord-Treasurer Godolphin, though not habitually a reading man, was mortified by the exceeding badness of the poems which appeared in honor of the battle of Blenheim. It was expedient, if not necessary, to the political dignity of the administration, that the victory should be celebrated in better verses than had appeared, and this was the foundation of Addison's introduction to fortune and to fame. Addison occupied a garret up three pair of stairs, over a small shop in the Haymarket. So says Macaulay; but how he found out, and satisfied himself of the fact, that Addison's apartment was so high in the world, he does not tell us. In his humble lodging, he was surprised one morning by a visit from no less a person than the Right Hon. Henry Boyle, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, and afterwards Lord Carle
ton. This high-born minister, says our historian, had been sent by the Lord-Treasurer as ambassador to the needy poet. The result was the poem of the “ Campaign," and Addison was instantly appointed to a commissionership. In our days, it belongs to the fitness of things that an English commissioner must be endowed with £1200 a year; with £300 more, if he has the trouble of writing “chief" before his name when he describes himself. In Addison's time, a commissionership signified only £200 a year ; but the habits of English life were, in Queen Anne's time, less expensive. Four years afterwards, Addison became a member of the House of Commons for Malmesbury, and attained, finally, the rank of Secretary of State. The Whigs, it must be admitted, have generally been more ready to notice and promote literary ability than the Tories have been.
A LEGEND OF THE SECOND CRUSADE IN THE HOLY LAND.
THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF HÁSÁN SÁBán.
BY MRS. s. 1. WADDELL.
(Concluded from page 238.)
The encampment was in itself a considerable town. Nineteen different languages were spoken, and all of the various noisy transactions witnessed in cities abounded here, only increased tenfold. Huts and stables, with inclosures for horses and cattle, dotted the valleys as far as the eye could reach; and the bell, summoning the Crusaders to mass, matins, and vespers, was as regularly heard as the muezzin from the minaret of the mosque.
I returned home with the Christians and spies of Antioch, and recounted to my father and Al Alpso the dreadful scene I had witnessed. My preceptor raised his hands above his venerable head, as he said
“What a Sodom! What a Gomorrah! May the crescent yet be their Asphaltites! Never did the neighboring groves of Daphne, in the early days of Antioch, echo such ribaldry when they, Greek-like, invoked Apollo and Diana, as this we see and hear from the camp of these miserable Franks. Ye poor followers of Mohammed, not only executed, but roasted and eaten by those ravening wolves! Heard we ever before of such deeds ? Oh, Prophet, who journeyed to the moon in one night, rescue us ! How beautiful was the death of thy followers! They flinched not from the axe of thy enemies. And even thy gardens, oh Antioch, which they cut down and doomed to render them ignoble, in their own hands returned them homage by wasting their souls into the fifth heaven in clouds of perfumes. Oh, miserable Al Alpso, that thy gray head should see this day !"
As the imaum ceased, I heard the halting gait of the renegade, and presently saw him come in and sit down by my father. He appeared fatigued, and drew a cushion from the wall;* his eyes were blood. shot, and the expression of them worse than usual.
“Isamo discovered,” he said to my father, "a measure of those Franks for the future protection of their foragers; but I shall be even with them, and am now on my way to inform the governor of
Isamo's discovery, and to suggest the plan which kept me all night awake; my mind was at work, and sleep is the enemy of thought, you know. See yonder; they have commenced their operations al. ready-tying boats together, and placing planks and sods upon them. I must be off.” He rose hastily, and disappeared.
The imaum shook his head triumphantly, and remarked
“ The El-aasi, or rebel, was not anciently given to the Orontes for its sluggishness, but rapid and ungovernablo current. I think its swift and way. ward tide will combat the Franks more successfully than any thought of thine, Phirouz, my brother."
“I understand," said my father, " that Isamo is unwilling to return to the camp of the infidels, saying he was too pious to endure the pollution of being roasted and eaten by the emissaries of Eblîs; that, if he must die, let him be turned towards Mecca, and not on a spit before the fire of the enemies of Mohammed."
When I visited Valfrino again, I said to him—
“Valfrino, I am attached to you; curiosity induced me first to visit you, and, from apprehension of being put to death or imprisoned, I borrowed an Armenian dress. So far I was culpable, though I designed no injury to cross or crescent, and do not now, for I am neuter in these difficulties; and, should I find temptation to depart from this position, I would take leave of you forever. My mother's first lesson to me was to be true and faithful."
Valfrino looked at me for some time, as if bewildered; he then took both of my hands within his, and said
“ Hásan, if you are a true man, I will ever feel as an elder brother towards you. I cannot suspect one so young of such fiendlike treachery. No, it cannot be; thy nature must be pure and noble, or, by St. Cyprian, thou couldst neither look nor speak in such manner. See, let us make a mutual vow: Should my dear Lord Tancred and myself fall into the hands of the Antiochians, thou wilt befriend us, as I will, by St. Cyprian, thee, should the reverse take place."
We ate salt from the same salver, and I kissed his forehead and cheeks. My heart was now light, and free from oppression for the first time since the capture of Tarsus.
It was some time after this that I was rather late in returning to the city, for Valfrino had been en
* The Turks build their apartments with an elevation on one or both sides, of a foot in height, next the wall. It is padded and carpeted, or covered with damask; leaning against the walls are square cushions of different sizes, for the accommodation of those who may require a change of position.
tertaining me with all manner of amusing reminiscences, and he was the best mimic in the world; moreover, I was now his pupil in the game of chess. As I stepped along, thinking I might incur some punishment at home for being so late, and then saying to myself, “ No, it cannot be; my father knows how much Valfrino loves me, and that our intercourse is innocent; my mother says, moreover, but for the nature of our acquaintance, I should never leave the walls,” two figures appeared before me. They were wrapped up so that I could not distinguish them, and their backs were turned towards me. Presently, I heard one speak in a whisper to the other, and I instantly knew the voice to be the renegade's. He said
“My lord of Tarentum, you say, when I open the gate and surrender the town to you, you will place my person in safety, and pay over to me one hundred purses,* and bestow also a lucrative office upon me for the remainder of my life. But listen, Prince of Tarentum, give me now the pledge, for I trust no man."
Bohemond drew a parchment from his pouch ; I saw a ribbon and seal hanging from it, and saw the renegade turn it towards the light of the moon. He appeared satisfied, and added
“If you hear one stone fall, move not; if two, come instantly. Remember, the hour is midnight."
As he turned from the prince, he encountered me, and saw, moreover, that I was sufficiently near to have heard all that passed.
“Stand, at your peril !” he said, in an agitated whisper.
I did not move; and, in a moment's time, found myself grasped by the shoulder.
“I must poniard him !" said the renegade, drawing his weapon from the scabbard.
“Stay,” said the prince; "he will hardly die without a struggle ; and see, he is but a boy. I will imprison him where he will be quite safe until after the capture of the city."
I was led to the encampment, and handed over to the very executioner I had seen under such memorable circumstances. “Hold him fast, Bartemus," was all the introduction I had to this beast of a
He led me to his tent, and, after showing me into it, set himself down in the door-way. I looked around and shuddered. His tent was of the coarsest canvas, filled with implements of his profession ; and the very hacked and stained block I saw him place on the sand for the execution of the Turkish prisoners now answered him as a tent-table, on which a dirty iron lamp burned dimly; sometimes it would flicker and nearly leave us in darkness, then blaze with a lurid light and sink again. I was melancholy personified. I had seen enough to know that the renegade had turned traitor as well as apostate, and that Antioch was now to be surrendered into the hands of the Crusaders. I thought of my home, of the murder of my parents and friends, and no form of relief presented itself to my mind. In this state of distraction, I was tormented by the incessant repetition of the headsman's song
“A headsman I've been a merry long time,
And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent.” I observed that the executioner nodded sometimes, and a thought of jumping over his head and running occurred to me; but I saw that it would be immediate death, and gave it up in despair. Midnight was rapidly advancing, and I listened with agony to every sound.
At length, as if to torment me, he rose, but was too wary to leave the door-way without binding me; so, reaching a cord from the beam which supported his tent, he made fast my arms, and led me to the block. I did not know now but that the order, “Hold him fast, Bartemus," meant that I should be executed; but he only snuffed the wick of his lamp as he said
“ You may think, youngster, that you will catch me napping; but never you mind those signs; I was broad awake all the time. You would never have been given to Bartemus, but for his skill in keeping prisoners. Why, lad, I could tell thee”—but he stopped short, and began his song
" A headsman I've been a merry long time,
And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent.”
“I have no idea of escape, for I see no way by which I could effect it. I will tell you what; we will make a bargain.”
“Oh ho !” he answered, grinning hideously; "80 young, and about to bribe! None of that, my lad. If bribery would do any good to those who offer it, Bartemus would never have been trusted with thee, lad."
“You do not hear me, Bartemus," I said. “I have no wish to corrupt you, and only design proposing that you should take me to Prince Tancred's squire ; you shall be by my side and hear every word I say, and I will return with you. For this favor, I will reward you by a purse of gold.”
I now felt all of the horrors of my situation. I begged the executioner to send for Prince Tancred's squire, and allow me to speak, in his hearing, one word to him ; but he took no notice of me, and commenced singing
“ A headsman I've been a merry long time,
And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent." “Cease, old Cerbérus," said a sentinel. “ Thy song is of Satan's own making, and enough to singo one by the very hearing."
* A purse is four hundred dollars.
It was heart-rending to see the city, so recently the theatre of splendor and gayety, now, in a few hours, converted into the abode of wretchedness, murder, and death; the streets literally ran blood, and the wounded and dead formed a pavement of flesh for every part of Antioch.
I wept for joy when I found that Valfrino had escaped even being wounded. At midday, he paid us a visit, and granted my mother a flag to enter the governor's palace in safety. I went with her.
“How shall I know that you will pay it?” he surlily remarked.
“I will swear before Valfrino, by the holy Caaba, to give you one of my father's whiskers, should I fail placing in your hand the sum I promise."
“Well," he replied, “ that will do. I bave heard you people never break an oath bound by a whisker or beard."
I was all anxiety to hurry forward; but Bartemus was too great a tyrant to allow me to walk fast, when he saw that I desired to do so, and moved forward as slowly as a snail. When near the pavilion, I heard the stone fall, and involuntarily started forward, when he, construing this into a disposition to run from him, stopped me instantly, saying
“So you think to be off, do you? Suppose wo return."
And he jerked me around, and was returning, when I said
“Oh, Bartemus, I did not intend to run from
Before he had time to reply, Valfrino called to him
“Stop, Bartemus ; a word with you."
As he advanced towards us, tears came to my relief. I wept bitterly. He whispered something to the executioner which I could not understand, and I saw him walk off with an air of perfect indifference.
Valfrino cut the cord which bound me, and inquired, hastily, how I came in the hands of the executioner. I had barely time to inform him, and to beseech him to remember our vows and inquire for Zenghi, the Guzel, when men, clashing in armor and arms, rushed by; and presently I heard the dreadful shouts of the capturers of Antioch rend the air in every direction.
I fled through the gate of the city, which was now wide open, and ran to my father's residence. As I entered the gallery, all was as quiet as death; the heavens were refulgently lit with stars, and the moonbeams danced on the rebel waters of the Orontes.
I knocked loudly, and soon saw my father open the door. I hastily recounted all that had passed, and was relieved of the misery I apprehended lest Valfrino should not discover my father's residence, or be killed before he reached it, when I heard his voice calling out
“Do you say that Zenghi, the Guzel, lives here ?” “Yes, beloved brother," I answered;" here, here!"
He stepped in the gallery, and, in a moment, a bloody cross was fastened securely to the door. He darted off, and my father drew me in and closed the door.
I saw crowds of armed men pass us after pointing at the cross on the door, and thus we escaped death by the very crimson cross I had go often heard derided by my parents, and all who professed an opposite religion.
When we arrived at the emir's palace, we found all of the gates wide open ; courts, galleries, and passages were strewed with dead bodies; the “ Hali of Perfumes" alone escaped mutilation and death, being protected by a secret door which opened on an antechamber. With a noiseless touch, my mother withdrew the wainscot, and never before or since have my eyes beheld a sceno so gloriously beautiful, so absorbingly enchanting. The apartment was very large, and surrounded by gilded sashes, some of which were half open, and peeping through were the most fragrant and healthy roses, honeysuckles, and delicately-blooming acacias; the ceiling was arched, and inimitably painted to represent flowers showered from gilded baskets; two fountains of fine marble poured fragrant water into vases, in the form of shells; the floor was covered with a Turkish carpet, composed of the wool of the shawl-goat mixed with silk, and woven to represent the plumage of the pea-fowl, and bird of Paradise; a deep fringe of gold thread surrounded this, and on each side were divans, covered with embroidered white satin, fringed with gold, and piled with cushions of the same.
As my eyes wandered over this abode of elegance, the “Startled Fawn of Cashmere" bounded wildly from the fountain, behind which she had hid herself, and sprang, full of terror, in my mother's arms. She was a child of twelve years, of magnificent beauty, and the full, dark eye of the fawn was lustrous with terror. My mother sank on a cushion, and drew her by her side ; her dress of pink satin, confined by a girdle of diamonds, quivered from the quick beating of her heart, and she breathed with so much difficulty that I snatched a golden cup, which I observed by one of the fountains, and handed it full of water, that my mother might bathe her forehead and temples with it.
I looked for some of her attendants ; but she was the only animated being in the apartment.
As the child revived, my mother said, while she parted her fino black tresses
“Una, dear, compose thyself; I have brought a flag for thy protection, and will take thee home with