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eommander to make a speeeh, and, eonfessing his ineapaeity for publie speaking, he ealled upon a < huge blaek man, named Toby, to address the eom- \ pany in his stead. Toby, a man of powerful frame, t six feet high, his faee ornamented with a beard of j fashionable eut, had hitherto stood leaning against \ the wall, looking upon the frolie with an air of superiority. He eonsented, eame forward, and de- < manded a hit of paper to held in his hand, and harangued the soldiery. It was evident that Toby had!

listened to stump-speeehes in his day. He spoke of 'de majority of Sous Carolina, ' ' de interests of de State,' 'de henor of ole Ba'nwell distriet,'and these phrases he eonneeted by various expletives, and sounds of whieh we eould make nothing. At length he began to falter, when the eaptain, with admirable presenee of mind, eame to his relief, and interrupted and elosed the harangue with an hurrah from the eompany. Toby was allowed by all the speetators, blaek and white, to have made an exeellent speeeh."



It has been proved that plants are eomposed of a number of eells united together into a definite shape, and developing aeeording to fixed natural laws. But, if plants are formed by the union and growth of eells, then differenees in their size, form, and duration are simply the result of different degrees of eell-evolution. Henee it is not by abrupt transitions, but by a beautiful series of gradations, that nature passes from one vegetable form to another.

In forest trees, the evolution of new eells goes on for eenturies, and the eells, as they inerease in number, beeome speeialized, or arrange themselves into definite parts, sueh as root, stem, and leaves, eaeh having distinet offiees to fulfil in the vegetable eeonomy. In shrubs and herhaeeous plants, theae parts beeome sueeessively less and less evolved; the size of sueh plants being eonsequently redueed, and the duration of their lifo proportionably shertened. In the hyaeinth and Convallaria magalis, or lily of the valley, the internodes, or naked intervals of stem between the leaves, are non-developed, and the leaves are erowded together, forming a bulh, or rather subterranean bud; some of these leaves retain their rudimentary sealelike eharaeter as a proteeting envelope, whilst the others rise in a tuft direetly from the earth, the flower-stalk springing from their eentre. In the Cyeadaeeae and Coniferaj, these beautiful and higbly ornamental wherls of leaves, the ealyx and the eorolla are absent, and the flower is redueed to the last degree of simplieity, whilst in the ferns it disappears altogether, and in its plaee we have a eolleetion of mere dustlike spots or lines, arranged, hewever, with great beauty and regularity on the under surfaee of the frond. The same plan of strueture, or distinetion of parts into root, stem, and leaves, is still visible in the minuto, but exquisitely beautiful mosses, altheugh the root no longer springe from one extremity of the axis of growth, but from every part of it. In the liverworts, the leaves are redueed to mere imbrieated seales, and in the lower forms beeome blendod to



gether into a eontinuous expansion of vegetable matter ealled a frond. Finally, in the liehens and alga;, root, stem, and leaves disappear, and the whele plant is redueed to a mere plane of eells ealled a thallus—to a mere row of eells strung end to end, or even to a single eell. Now, as the plan of strueture in the more higbly organized and eomplex plants ean only be understood by studying the operations of nature in detail, as exemplified in the simpler vegetable forms, we shall eommenee with these first, this being plainly the most natural and philosophieal methed of investigation. Let us begin, then, with

Planvs Eomposen Op A Sinole Eell.—The lower forms of the alga> afford us several examples of plants thus organieally simple. In these plants, vegetation is redueed to its simplest terms. The plant and eell are identieal. Here we havo the starting-point of vegetation, the beginning of the formation of these vegetable elements whieh, in their future development, shall elothe the earth's surfaee with the riehest forms of life and beauty. These plants are espeeially interesting, as furnishing the simplest indieations of these proeesses of eell-growth and reproduetion, on an aeeurate knowledge of whieh rest the very foundations of all vegetable physiology.

The plant-eell, as it is termed by Sebleiden, eonstitutes an entire vegetable witheut organs, imhibing food by endosmosis through every part of its exterior surfaee, whieh it eonverts into the materials of its own enlargement or growth, and finally into new eells, whieh eonstitute its progeny. Being without lateral eompression of any kind, the plant-eell neeessarily takes a globular form. But, even when her vegetativo produetions are thus organieally simple, nature is by no means restrieted to one uniform pattern; on the eontrary, this family of plants presents almost every variety of eolor, and external appearanees so marked and varied as to justify naturalists in regarding them as distinet speeies.

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several individuals of this plant slightly magnified, to shew the nature of the reproduetive proeess. New eells aro seen to originate in the interior of eaeh plant-eell, whieh gradually take their plaee, and the new generation thus produeed enlarge and give rise to a new progeny in their interior as before. In this manner, this simple vegetation grows on from age to age. Fig. 4 represents a more highly magnified individual of the Protoeoeeus nivalis, shewing more distinetly the new eells forming in its interior. The green pulverulent matter whieh appears on old walls, and on the hark of trees, eonsists of an unformed mass of free globular eells, whieh grow and reproduee in this simplo manner.

In other speeies of plant-eells, the mode of reproduetion is somewhat different. In Chrooeoeeus rufeseens (Fig. 2), the plant-eell takes an oval form, and (Fig. 3) a partition then appears aeross the eavity of the eell, dividing it into two eells. These two eells are again subdivided by the formation of another septum at right angles to the first partition,


magnified view of Vaueheria elavata, whieh eonsists of a single eell of unbroken ealiber, furnished with branehes. In one of these branehes, at a, a spore is forming. Fig. 7 represents the end of the braneh more magnified, with the spore eseaped from its burst apex. In this instanee, the ramifieations of the eell foreshadow, as it were, the stem and branehes of more higbly organized plants.


Maeaelav tells ns that the Lord-Treasurer Godolphin, theugh not hahitually a reading man, was mortified by the exeeeding hadness of the poems whieh appeared in henor of the hattle of Blenheim. It was expedient, if not neeessary, to the politieal dignity of the administration, that the vietory sheuld be eelebrated in better verses than had appeared, and this was the foundation of Addison's introduetion to fortune and to fame. Addison oeeupied a garret up three pair of stairs, over a small shep in the Haymarket . So says Maeaulay; but hew he found out, and satisfied himself of the faet, that Addison's apartment was so high in the world, he does not tell ns. In his humble lodging, he was surprised one morning by a visit from no less a person than the Right Hon. Henry Boyle, then Chaneellor of the Exehequer, and afterwards Lord Carle

ton. This high-hern minister, says our historian, had been sent by the Lord-Treasurer as amhassador to the needy poet . The result was the poem of the "Campaign," and Addison was instantly appointed to a eommissionership. In our days, it belongs to the fitness of things that an English eommissioner must be endowed with £1200 a year; with £300 more, if he has the trouble of writing "ehief" before his name when he deseribes himself. In Addison's time, a eommissionership signified only £200 a year; but the hahits of English life were, in Queen Anne's time, lesS expensive. Four years afterwards, Addison beeame a member of the House of Commons for Malmeshury, and attained, finally, the rank of Seeretary of State. The Whigs, it must be admitted, have generally been more ready to notiee and promote literary ahility than the Tories have been. CHAPTER V,



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The eneampment was in itself a eonsiderable town. Nineteen different languages were spoken, and all of the various noisy transaetions witnessed in eities abounded here, only inereased tenfold. Huts and stables, with inelosures for horses and eattle, dotted the valleys as far as the eye eould reaeh; and the bell, summoning the Crusaders to mass, matins, and vespers, was as regularly heard as the muezzin from the minaret of the mosque.

I returned home with the Christians and spies of Antioeh, and reeounted to my father and Al Alpso the dreadful seene I had witnessed. My preeeptor raised his hands above his venerable head, as he said—

"What a Sodom! What a Gomorrah! May the ereseent yet be their Asphaltites! Never did the neighboring groves of Daphne, in the early days of Antioeh, eeho sueh rihaldry when they, Greek-Hke, invoked Apollo and Diana, as this we see and hear from the eamp of these miserable Franks. Ye poor followers of Mohammed, not only exeeuted, but roasted and eaten by those ravening wolves! Heard we ever before of sueh deeds? Oh, Prophet, who journeyed to the moon in one night, reseue us! How beautiful was the death of thy followers! They flinehed not from the axe of thy enemies. And even thy gardens, oh Antioeh, whieh they eut down and doomed to render them ignoble, in their own hands returned them homage by wafting their souls into the fifth heaven in elouds of perfumes. Oh, miserable Al Alpso, that thy gray head should see this day!"

As the imaum eeased, I heard the halting gait of the renegade, and presently saw him eome in and sit down by my father. He appeared fatigued, and drow a eushion from the wall ;* his eyes were bloodshot, and the expression of them worse than usual.

"Isamo diseovered," ho said to my father, "a measure of those Franks for the future proteetion of their foragers; but I shall be even with them, and am now on my way to inform the governor of

• The Turks build their apartments with an elevation on one or both sides, of a foot in height, next the wall. it is padded and earpeted, or eovered with damask; leaning against the walls are square eushions of different sizes, for the aeeommodation of those who may require a ehange of position.

Isamo's diseovery, and to suggest the plan whieh kept me all night awake; my mind was at work, and sleep is the enemy of thought, you know. See yonder; they have eommeneed their operations already—tying boats together, and plaeing planks and sods upon them. I must be off." Ha rose hastily, and disappeared.

The imaum shook his head triumphantly, and remarked—

"The £7-aati, or rebel, was not aneiently given to the Orontes for its sluggishness, but rapid and ungovernable eurrent. I think its swift and wayward tide will eomhat the Franks more sueeessfully than any thought of thine, Phirouz, my brother."

"I understand," said my father, " that Isamo is unwilling to return to the eamp of the infidels, saying he was too pious to endure the pollution of being roasted and eaten by the emissaries of Eblis; that, if ho must die, let him be turned towards Meeea, and not on a spit before the fire of the enemies of Mohammed."

When I visited Valfrino again, I said to him—

u Valfrino, I am attaehed to you; euriosity indueed me first to visit you, and, from apprehension of being put to death or imprisoned, I borrowed an Armenian dress. So far I was eulpable, though I designed no injury to eross or ereseent, and do not now, for I am neuter in these diffieulties; and, should I find temptation to deport from this position, I would take leave of you forever. My mother's first lesson to me was to bo true and faithful."

Valfrino looked at me for some time, as if bewildered: he then took both of my hands within his, and said—

"HAsan, if you are a true man, I will ever feei as an elder brother towords yon. I eannot suspeet one so young of sueh fiendlike treaehery. No, it eannot be; thy nature must be pure and noble, or, by St. Cyprian, thou eouldst neither look nor speak in sueh innnner. See, let us make a mutual vow: Should my dear Lord Tanered and myself fall into the hands of the Antioehians, thou wilt befriend us, as I will, by St. Cyprian, thee, should the reverse take plaee."

We ate salt from the same salver, and I kissed his forehead and eheeks. My heart was now light, and free from oppression for the first time sinee the eapture of Tarsus.

It was some time after this that I was rather late in returning to the eity, for Valfrino had been en


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te r tain in g me with all manner of amusing reminiseenees, and be was the best mimie in the world; moreover, I was now his pupil in the game of ehess. As I stepped along, thinking I might ineur some punishment at heme for being so late, and then saying to myself, " No, it eannot be; my father knows hew mueh Valfrino lores me, and that our intereourse is innoeent; my mother says, moreover, but for the nature of our aequaintanee, I sheuld never leave the walls," two figures appeared before me. They were wrapped up So that I eould not distinguish them, and their haeks were turned towards me. Presently, I heard one speak in a whisper to the other, and I instantly knew the voiee to be the renegade's. He said—

"My lord of Tarentum, you say, when I open the gate and surrender the town to you, you will plaee my person in safety, and pay over to me one hundred purses,s and bestow also a luerative offiee upon me for the remainder of my life. But listen, Prinee of Tarentum, give me now the pledge, for I trust no

Bohemond drew a parehment from his poueh; I saw a ribbon and seal hanging from it, and saw the renegade turn it towards the light of the moon. He appeared satisfied, and added—

"If you hear one stone fall, move not; if two, eome instantly. Remember, the heur is midnight.''

As he turned from the prinee, he eneountered me, and saw, moreover, that I was suffieiently near to have heard all that passed.

"Stand, at your peril!" he said, in an agitated whisper.

I did not move; and, in a moment's time, found myself grasped by the sheulder.

"I must poniard him !" said the renegade, drawing his weapon from the seabhard.

"Stay," said the prinee; "he will hardly die witheut a struggle; and see, he is but a boy. I will imprison him where he will be quite safe until after the eapture of the eity."

I was led to the eneampment, and handed over to the very exeeutioner I had seen under sueh memorable eireumstanees. "Hold him fast, Bartemus," was all the introduetion I had to this beast of a man.

I now felt all of the herrors of my situation. I begged the exeeutioner to send for Prinee Tanered's squire, and allow me to speak, in his hearing, one word to him; but he took no notiee of me, and eommeneed singing—

u A headsman I've been a merry long time,
And many have gone over Styx by my hand,
And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent.s

"Cease, old Cerbe'rus," said a sentinel. "Thy song is of Satan's own making, and enough to singo one by the very hearing."

s A purse is four hundred dollars.

He led me to his tent, and, after shewing me into it, set himself down in the door-way. I looked around and shuddered. His tent was of the eoarsest eanvas, filled with implements of his profession; and the very haeked and stained bloek I saw him plaee on the sand for the exeeution of the Turkish prisoners now answered him as a tent-table, on whieh a dirty iron lamp burned dimly; sometimes it would flieker and nearly leave us in darkness, then blaze with a lurid light and sink again. I was melanehely personified. I had seen enough to know that the renegade had turned traitor as well as apostate, and that Antioeh was now to be surrendered into the hands of the Crusaders. I theught of my heme, of the murder of my parents and friends, and no form of relief presented itself to my mind. In this state of distraetion, I was tormented by the ineessant repetition of the headsman's song—

"A headsman I 'vo been a merry long time,
And many have gone over Styx by my hamj,
And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent."

I observed that the exeeutioner nodded sometimes, and a theught of jumping over his head and running oeeurred to me; but I saw that it would be immediate death, and gavo it up in despair. Midnight was rapidly advaneing, and I listened with agony to every sound.

At length, as if to torment me, he rose, but was too wary to leave the door-way witheut hinding me; so, reaehing a eord from the beam whieh supported his tent, he made fast my arms, and led me to the bloek. I did not know now but that the order, "Hold him fast, Bartemus," meant that I sheuld be exeeuted; but he only snuffed the wiek of his lamp as he said—

"You may think, youngster, that you will eateh me napping; but never you mind these signs; I was broad awake all the time. You would never have been givon to Bartemus, but for his skill in keeping prisoners. Why, lad, I eould tell thee"—but he stopped shert, and began his song—

"A headsman I've been a merry long time,
And many have gone over Styx by my hand,
And many to the fields ef Elysium I've sent."

I replied by saying—

"I have no idea of eseape, for I see no way by whieh I eould effeet it. I will tell you what; we will make a hargain."

"Oh he !" he answered, grinning hideously; "so young, and about to bribe! None of that, my lad. If bribery would do any good to these whe offer it, Bartemus would never have been trusted with thee, lad."

"You do not hear me, Bartemus," I said. "I have no wish to eorrupt you, and only design proposing that you sheuld take me to Prinee Tanered's squire; you shall be by my side and hear every word I say, and I will return with you. For this favor, I will reward you by a purse of gold."

"How shall I know that you will pay it?" he surlily remarked.

"I will swear before Valfrino, by the holy Cuaha, to give you one of my father's whiskers, should I fail plaeing in your hand the sum I promise."

"Well," he replied, " that will do. I have heard you people never break an oath bound by a whisker or beard."

I was all anxiety to hurry forward; but Bartemus was too great a tyrant to allow me to walk fast, when he saw that I desired to do so, and moved forward as slowly as a snail. When near the pavilion, I heard the stone fall, and involuntarily started forward, when he, eonstruing this into a disposition to run from him, stopped me instantly, saying—

"So you think to bo off, do you? Supposo we return."

And he jerked me around, and was returning, when I said—

"Oh, Bartemus, I did not intend to run from you!"

Before he had time to reply, Valfrino ealled to him—

"Stop, Bartemus; a word with you."

As he advaneed towards us, tears eame to my relief. I wept hitterly. He whispered something to the exeeutioner whieh I eould not understand, and I saw him walk off with an air of perfeet indifferenee.

Valfrino eut the eord whieh bound mo, and inquired, hastily, how I eame in the hands of the exeeutioner. I had harely time to inform him, and to beseeeh him to remember our vows and inquire for Zenghi, the Ouzel, whon men, elashing in armor and arms, rushed by; and presently I heard the dreadful shouts of the eapturers of Antioeh rend the air in every direetion.

I fled through the gate of the eity, whieh was now wide open, and ran to my father's residenee. As I entered the gallery, all was as quiet as death; the heavens were refulgently lit with stars, and the moonbeams daneed on the rebel waters of the Orontes.

I knoeked loudly, and soon saw my father open the door. I hastily reeounted all that had passed, and was relieved of the misery I apprehended lest Valfrino should not diseover my father's rosidenee, or be killed before he reaehed it, when I heard his voiee ealling out—

"Do you say that Zenghi, the Ousel, lives here?"

"Yes, beloved brother," I answered; " here, here!"

He stepped in the gallery, and, in a moment, a bloody eross was fastened seeurely to the door. He darted off, and my father drow me in and elused the door.

I saw erowds of armed men pass us after pointing at the eross on the door, and thus we eseaped death by the very erimson eross I had so often heard derided by my parents, and all who professed an opposite religion.

j It was heart-rending to see the eity, so reeently

j the theatre of splendor and gayety, now, in a few

j hours, eonverted into the abode of wretehedness,

< murder, and death; the streets literally ran blood,

\ and the wounded and dead formed a pavement of

i flesh for every part of Antioeh. j I wept for joy when I found that Valfrino had

; eseaped even being wounded. At midday, he paid

. us a visit, and granted my mother a flag to enter the governor's palaee in safety. I went with her.


When we arrived at the emir's palaee, we found all of the gates wide open; eourts, galleries, and | passages were strowed with dead bodies; the " Hail i of Perfumes" alone eseaped mutilation and death, j being proteeted by a seeret door whieh opened on j an anteehamber. With a noiseless toueh, my mo• ther withdrow the wainseot, and never before or 1 sinee have my eyes beheld a seeno to gloriously ; beautiful, so absorhingly enehanting. The apart\ ment was very large, and Eurrounded by gilded i sashes, some of whieh were half open, and peeping j through were the most fragrant and healthy roses, honeysuekles, and delieately-blooming aeaeias; the j eeiling was arehed, and inimitably painted to reprei sent flowers showered from gilded haskets; two j fountains of fine marble poured fragrant water into j vases, in the form of shells; the floor was eovered > with a Turkish earpet, eomposed of the wool of the ; shawl-goat mixed with silk, and woven to represent the plumage of the pea-fowl, and hird of Paradise; a ! deep fringe of gold thread surrounded this, and on ! eaeh side were divans, eovered with embroidered white satin, fringed with gold, and piled with eushions of the same.

As my eyes wandered over this abode of eleganee, the " Startled Fawn of Cashmere" bounded wildly from the fountain, behind whieh she hod hid herself, and sprang, full of terror, in my mother's arms. She was a ehild of twelve years, of magnifieent beauty, and tho full, dark eye of the fawn was lustrous with terror. My mother sank on a eushion, and drow her by her side; her dress of pink satin, eonfined by a girdle of diamonds, quivered from the quiek beating of her heart, and she breathed with so mueh diffieulty that I snatehed a golden eup, whieh I observed by one of the fountains, and handed it full of water, that my mother might hathe her forehead and temples with it.

I looked for some of her attendants; but she was the only animated being in the apartment . ; As the ehild revived, my mother said, while she parted her fine blaek tresses—

"Una, dear, eompose thyself; I have brought a flag for thy proteetion, and will take thee home with S me."

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