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amannaanamumewwwwww a aanaaannemanan commander to make a speech, and, confessing his { listened to stump-speeches in his day. He spoke incapacity for public speaking, he called upon a of de majority of Sous Carolina,' de interests of huge black man, named Toby, to address the com de State,' de honor of ole Ba'nwell district,' and pany in his stead. Toby, a man of powerful frame, these phrases he connected by various expletives, six feet high, his face ornamented with a beard of and sounds of which we could make nothing. At fashionable cut, had hitherto stood leaning against length he began to falter, when the captain, with the wall, looking upon the frolic with an air of admirable presence of mind, came to his relief, and superiority. He consented, came forward, and de interrupted and closed the harangue with an hurrah manded a bit of paper to hold in his hand, and ha from the company. Toby was allowed by all the rangued the soldiery. It was evident that Toby had spectators, black and white, to have made an excel

lent speech."

VEGETABLE PHYSIOLOGY.

BY HARLAND COULTAS.

It has been proved that plants are composed of a } gether into a continuous expansion of vegetable number of cells united together into a definite shape, į matter called a frond. Finally, in the lichens and and developing according to fixed natural laws. algæ, root, stem, and leaves disappear, and the But, if plants are formed by the union and growth whole plant is reduced to a mere plane of cells of cells, then differences in their size, form, and called a thallus--to a mere row of cells strung end duration are simply the result of different degrees of to end, or even to a single cell. Now, as the plan cell-evolution. Hence it is not by abrupt transi of structure in the more highly organized and comtions, but by a beautiful series of gradations, that plex plants can only be understood by studying the nature passes from one vegetable form to another. operations of nature in detail, as exemplified in the

In forest trees, the evolution of new cells goes on simpler vegetable forms, we shall commence with for centuries, and the cells, as they increase in num these first, this being plainly the most natural and ber, become specialized, or arrange themselves into philosophical method of investigation. Let us bedefinite parts, such as root, stem, and leaves, each gin, then, with having distinct offices to fulfil in the vegetable eco-} PLANTS COMPOSED OF A SINGLE CELL.—The lower nomy. In shrubs and herbaceous plants, these forms of the algæ afford us several examples of parts become successively less and less evolved; the plants thus organically simple. In these plants, size of such plants being consequently reduced, and vegetation is reduced to its simplest terms. The the duration of their life proportionably shortened. plant and cell are identical. Here we have the In the hyacinth and Convallaria magalis, or lily of starting-point of vegetation, the beginning of the the valley, the internodes, or naked intervals of formation of those vegetable elements which, in stem between the leaves, are non-developed, and the their future development, shall clothe the earth's leaves are crowded together, forming a bulb, or surface with the richest forms of life and beauty. rather subterranean bud; some of these leaves re- These plants are especially interesting, as furnishtain their rudimentary scalelike character as a pro { ing the simplest indications of those processes of tecting envelope, whilst the others rise in a tuft cell-growth and reproduction, on an accurate knowdirectly from the earth, the flower-stalk springing ledge of which rest the very foundations of all from their centre. In the Cycadaceæ and Conifere, vegetable physiology.

e beautiful and highly ornamental whorls of} The plant-cell, as it is termed by Schleiden, conleaves, the calyx and the corolla are absent, and the stitutes an entire vegetable without organs, imbibflower is reduced to the last degree of simplicity, ing food by endosmosis through every part of its whilst in the ferns it disappears altogether, and in exterior surface, which it converts into the materials its place we have a collection of mere dustlike spots of its own enlargement or growth, and finally into or lines, arranged, however, with great beauty and new cells, which constitute its progeny. Being withregularity on the under surface of the frond. The out lateral compression of any kind, the plant-cell same plan of structure, or distinction of parts into necessarily takes a globular form. But, even when root, stem, and leaves, is still visible in the minute, her vegetative productions are thus organically but exquisitely beautiful mosses, although the root simple, nature is by no means restricted to one unino longer springs from one extremity of the axis form pattern ; on the contrary, this family of plants of growth, but from every part of it. In the liver presents almost every variety of color, and external worts, the leaves are reduced to mere imbricated appearances so marked and varied as to justify nascales, and in the lower forms become blended to- turalists in regarding them as distinct species.

ADDISON

347

We select, as an illustration of the plant-cell, the Protococcus nivalis, or red snow-plant, found in the arctic regions, and which also occurs on damp ground in much lower latitudes. In Fig. 1, we have

as is seen in Fig. 5. The four cells thus formed enlarge and ultimately separate, constituting four new individuals, which propagate in like manner.

In Oscillaria, the plant-cell becomes elongated, or it may become elongated and branched, as is the case with the species Vaucheria, which forms one kind of those delicate and flossy green threads abounding in fresh water, and which are popularly known in some places as brook silk. Fig. 6 is a

several individuals of this plant slightly magnified, to show the nature of the reproductive process. New cells are seen to originate in the interior of each plant-cell, which gradually take their place, and the new generation thus produced enlarge and give rise to a new progeny in their interior as before. In this manner, this simple vegetation grows on from ago to age. Fig. 4 represents a more highly magnified individual of the Protococcus nivalis, showing more distinctly the new cells forming in its interior. The green pulverulent matter which appears on old walls, and on the bark of trees, consists of an unformed mass of free globular cells, which grow and reproduce in this simple manner.

magnified view of Vaucheria clavata, which consists In other species of plant-cells, the mode of repro of a single cell of unbroken caliber, furnished with duction is somewhat different. In Chroococcus branches. In one of these branches, at a, a spore rufescens (Fig. 2), the plant-cell takes an oval form, is forming. Fig. 7 represents the end of the branch and (Fig. 3) a partition then appears across the more magnified, with the spore escaped from its cavity of the cell, dividing it into two cells. These burst apex. In this instance, the ramifications of two cells are again subdivided by the formation of the cell foreshadow, as it were, the stem and another septum at right angles to the first partition, ļ branches of more highly organized plants.

ADDISON.

MACAULAY tells us that the Lord-Treasurer Go- } ton. This high-born minister, says our historian, dolphin, though not habitually a reading man, was had been sent by the Lord-Treasurer as ambassador mortified by the exceeding badness of the poems to the needy poet. The result was the poem of the which appeared in honor of the battle of Blenheim. “ Campaign," and Addison was instantly appointed It was expedient, if not necessary, to the political to a commissionership. In our days, it belongs to the dignity of the administration, that the victory fitness of things that an English commissioner must should be celebrated in better verses than had ap be endowed with £1200 a year; with £300 more, if he peared, and this was the foundation of Addison's has the trouble of writing “chief" before his name introduction to fortune and to fame. Addison occu when he describes himself. In Addison's time, a pied a garret up three pair of stairs, over a small commissionership signified only £200 a year; bat shop in the Haymarket. So says Macaulay; but the habits of English life were, in Queen Anne's how he found out, and satisfied himself of the fact, time, less expensive. Four years afterwards, Addithat Addison's apartment was so high in the world, } son became a member of the House of Commons for he does not tell us. In his humble lodging, he was } Malmesbury, and attained, finally, the rank of surprised one morning by a visit from no less a per Secretary of State. The Whigs, it must be admitson than the Right Hon. Henry Boyle, then Chan- ted, have generally boen more ready to notice and cellor of the Exchoquer, and afterwards Lord Carle- į promote literary ability than the Tories have been.

A LEGEND OF THE SECOND CRUSADE IN THE HOLY LAND.

• THE LIFE AND ADVENTURES OF HÁSAN SÁBÁT.

BY MRS. 8. . WADDELL.

(Concluded from page 238.)

CHAPTER V.

į Isamo's discovery, and to suggest the plan which

į kept me all night awake; my mind was at work, TAE encampment was in itself a considerable { and sleep is the enemy o

and sleep is the enemy of thought, you know. See town. Nineteen different languages were spoken, { yonder; they have commenced their operations aland all of the various noisy transactions witnessed ready—tying boats together, and placing planks in cities abounded here, only increased tenfold. }

and sods upon them. I must be off.” He rose Huts and stables, with inclosures for horses and hastily, and disappeared. cattle, dotted the valleys as far as the eye could The imaum shook his head triumphantly, and reach; and the bell, summoning the Crusaders to remarkedmass, matins, and vespers, was as regularly heard “ The El-aasi, or rebel, was not anciently given as the muezzin from the minaret of the mosque. to the Orontes for its sluggishness, but rapid and I returned home with the Christians and spies of

ungovernable current. I think its swift and way. Antioch, and recounted to my father and Al Alpsow ard tide will combat the Franks more successfully the dreadful scene I had witnessed. My preceptor

than any thought of thine, Phirouz, my brother." raised his hands above his venerable head, as he

“I understand," said my father, “ that Isamo is said

unwilling to return to the camp of the infidels, say. “What a Sodom! What a Gomorrah! May the

ing he was too pious to endure the pollution of crescent yet be their Asphaltites! Never did the being roasted and eaten by the emissaries of Eblis; neighboring groves of Daphne, in the early days of

that, if he must die, let him be turned towards MecAntioch, echo such ribaldry when they, Greek-like, ca, and not on a spit before the fire of the enemies invoked Apollo and Diana, as this we see and hear { of Mohammed.” . from the camp of these miserable Franks. Ye poor When I visited Valfrino again, I said to him-followers of Mohammed, not only executed, but “Valfrino, I am attached to you; curiosity inroasted and eaten by those ravening wolves! Heard

duced me first to visit you, and, from apprehension we ever before of such deeds ? Oh, Prophet, who

of being put to death or imprisoned, I borrowed an journeyed to the moon in one night, rescue us !

Armenian dress. So far I was culpable, though I How beautiful was the death of thy followers!

designed no injury to cross or crescent, and do not They flinched not from the axe of thy enemies. { now, for I am neuter in these difficulties; and, And even thy gardens, oh Antioch, which they cut

should I find temptation to depart from this posidown and doomed to render them ignoble, in their tion, I would take leave of you forever. My moown hands returned them homage by wafting their ther's first lesson to me was to be true and faithful.” souls into the fifth heaven in clouds of perfumes. } Valfrino looked at me for some time, as if bewilOh, miserable Al Alpso, that thy gray head should dered; he then took both of my hands within his, see this day !"

and said As the imaum ceased, I heard the halting gait of “Hásan, if you are a true man, I will ever feel as the renegade, and presently saw him come in and an elder brother towards you. I cannot suspect one sit down by my father. He appeared fatigued, and so young of such fiendlike treachery. No, it cannot drew a cushion from the wall;* his eyes were blood- be; thy nature must be pure and noble, or, by St. shot, and the expression of them worse than usual. Cyprian, thou couldst neither look nor speak in such

“Isamo discovered," he said to my father, "a manner. See, let us make a mutual vow : Should measure of those Franks for the future protection { my dear Lord Tancred and myself fall into the hands of their foragers; but I shall be even with them, { of the Antiochians, thou wilt befriend us, as I will, and am now on my way to inform the governor of by St. Cyprian, thee, should the reverse take place."

We ate salt from the same salver, and I kissed # The Turks build their apartments with an elevation

his forehead and cheeks. My heart was now light, on one or both sides, of a foot in height, next the wall. It

and free from oppression for the first time since the is padded and carpeted, or covered with damask; leaning against the walls are square cushions of different sizes, for

{ capture of Tarsus. the accommodation of those who may require a change of

It was some time after this that I was rather late position.

in returning to the city, for Valfrino bad been en

A LEGEND OF THE SECOND CRUSADE IN THE HOLY LAND.

349

tertaining me with all manner of amusing reminis He led me to his tent, and, after showing me into cences, and he was the best mimic in the world; {it, set himself down in the door-way. I looked moreover, I was now his pupil in the game of chess. around and shuddered. His tent was of the coarsest As I stepped along, thinking I might incur some canvas, filled with implements of his profession; punishment at home for being so late, and then say and the very hacked and stained block I saw him ing to myself, “ No, it cannot be; my father knows place on the sand for the execution of the Turkish how much Valfrino loves me, and that our inter prisoners now answered him as a tent-table, on course is innocent; my mother says, moreover, which a dirty iron lamp burned dimly; sometimes but for the nature of our acquaintance, I should it would flicker and nearly leave us in darkness, never leave the walls," two figures appeared before then blaze with a lurid light and sink again. I was me. They were wrapped up so that I could not melancholy personified. I had seen enough to know distinguish them, and their backs were turned to that the renegade had turned traitor as well as aposwards me. Presently, I heard one speak in a whis. tate, and that Antioch was now to be surrendered per to the other, and I instantly knew the voice to into the hands of the Crusaders. I thought of my be the renegade's. He said,

home, of the murder of my parents and friends, and My lord of Tarentum, you say, when I open the no form of relief presented itself to my mind. In gate and surrender the town to you, you will place this state of distraction, I was tormented by the inmy person in safety, and pay over to me one hun cessant repetition of the headsman's songdred purses,* and bestow also a lucrative office upon " A headsman I've been a merry long time, me for the remainder of my life. But listen, Prince

And many have gone over Styx by my hand, of Tarentum, give me now the pledge, for I trust no And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent.” man."

I observed that the executioner nodded someBohemond drew a parchment from his pouch ; I

times, and a thought of jumping over his head and saw a ribbon and seal hanging from it, and saw the

running occurred to me; but I saw that it would be renegade turn it towards the light of the moon. He

immediate death, and gave it up in despair. Midappeared satisfied, and added

night was rapidly advancing, and I listened with “If you hear one stone fall, move not; if two,

agony to every sound. come instantly. Remember, the hour is midnight.”

At length, as if to torment me, he rose, but was As he turned from the prince, he encountered me,

too wary to leave the door-way without binding me; and saw, moreover, that I was sufficiently near to

80, reaching a cord from the beam which supported have heard all that passed.

his tent, he made fast my arms, and led me to the “Stand, at your peril !” he said, in an agitated

block. I did not know now but that the order, whisper.

“Hold him fast, Bartemus," meant that I should be I did not move; and, in a moment's time, found

executed; but he only snuffed the wick of his lamp myself grasped by the shoulder.

as he said, “I must poniard him !" said the renegade, drawing his weapon from the scabbard.

You may think, youngster, that you will catch

me napping; but never you mind those signs; I was “Stay," said the prince; "he will hardly die

broad awake all the time. You would never have without a struggle ; and see, he is but a boy. I

been given to Bartemus, but for his skill in keeping will imprison him where he will be quite safe until

prisoners. Why, lad, I could tell thee”—but he after the capture of the city."

stopped short, and began his songI was led to the encampment, and handed over to the very executioner I had seen under such memo

“A headsman I've been a merry long time, rable circumstances. “Hold him fast, Bartemus,"

And many have gone over Styx by my hand, was all the introduction I had to this beast of a

And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent.” man.

I replied by sayingI now felt all of the horrors of my situation. I “I have no idea of escape, for I see no way by begged the executioner to send for Prince Tancred's which I could effect it. I will tell you what; we squire, and allow me to speak, in his hearing, one will make a bargain." word to him; but he took no notice of me, and com “Oh ho !” he answered, grinning hideously; "so menced singing

young, and about to bribe! None of that, my lad.

If bribery would do any good to those who offer it, “ A headsman I've been a merry long time,

Bartemus would never have been trusted with thee, And many have gone over Styx by my hand,

lad." And many to the fields of Elysium I've sent."

“You do not hear me, Bartemus," I said. “I “Cease, old Cerbérus," said a sentinel. “Thy have no wish to corrupt you, and only design prosong is of Satan's own making, and enough to singo posing that you should take me to Prince Tancred's one by the very hearing."

squire ; you shall be by my side and hear every

word I say, and I will return with you. For this * A purse is four hundred dollars.

favor, I will reward you by a purse of gold.”

M

m

you !"

ence.

“How shall I know that you will pay it ?” he It was heart-rending to see the city, so recently surlily remarked.

the theatre of splendor and gayety, now, in a few “I will swear before Valfrino, by the holy Caaba, hours, converted into the abode of wretchedness, to give you one of my father's whiskers, should I murder, and death; the streets literally ran blood, fail placing in your hand the sum I promise."

and the wounded and dead formed a pavement of “Well,” he replied, " that will do. I have heard flesh for every part of Antioch. you people never break an oath bound by a whisker { I wept for joy when I found that Valfrino had or beard."

escaped even being wounded. At midday, he paid I was all anxiety to hurry forward ; but Bartemus us a visit, and granted my mother a flag to enter was too great a tyrant to allow me to walk fast, the governor's palace in safety. I went with her. when he saw that I desired to do so, and moved forward as slowly as a spail. When near the pavilion, I heard the stone fall, and involuntarily started forward, when he, construing this into a disposition to

CHAPTER VI. run from him, stopped me instantly, saying

“So you think to be off, do you? Suppose we { When we arrived at the emir's palace, we found return."

all of the gates wide open ; courts, galleries, and And he jerked me around, and was returning, passages were strewed with dead bodies; the “ Hail when I said,

of Perfumes" alone escaped mutilation and death, “Oh, Bartemus, I did not intend to run from { being protected by a secret door which opened on

an antechamber. With a noiseless touch, my moBefore he had time to reply, Valfrino called to ther withdrew the wainscot, and never before or him

since have my eyes beheld a scene so gloriously “Stop, Bartemus ; a word with you."

beautiful, so absorbingly enchanting. The apartAs he advanced towards us, tears came to my re ment was very large, and surrounded by gilded lief. I wept bitterly. He whispered something to sashes, some of which were half open, and peeping the executioner which I could not understand, and through were the most fragrant and healthy roses, I saw him walk off with an air of perfect indiffer honeysuckles, and delicately-blooming acacias; the

ceiling was arched, and inimitably painted to repreValfrino cut the cord which bound me, and in sent flowers showered from gilded baskets ; two quired, hastily, how I came in the hands of the fountains of fine marble poured fragrant water into executioner. I had barely time to inform him, and vases, in the form of shells; the floor was covered to beseech him to remember our vows and inquire with a Turkish carpet, composed of the wool of the for Zenghi, the Guzel, when men, clashing in armor shawl-goat mixed with silk, and woven to represent and arms, rushed by; and presently I heard the } the plumage of the pea-fowl, and bird of Paradise; a dreadful shouts of the capturers of Antioch rend the deep fringe of gold thread surrounded this, and on air in every direction.

each side were divans, covered with embroidered I fled through the gate of the city, which was now white satin, fringed with gold, and piled with cushwide open, and ran to my father's residence. As I } ions of the same. entered the gallery, all was as quiet as death ; the As my eyes wandered over this abode of elegance, heavens were refulgently lit with stars, and the the “Startled Fawn of Cashmere" bounded wildly moonbeams danced on the rebel waters of the

from the fountain, behind which she had hid herOrontes.

self, and sprang, full of terror, in my mother's arms. I knocked loudly, and soon saw my father open

She was a child of twelve years, of magnificent the door. I hastily recounted all that had passed,

beauty, and the full, dark eye of the fawn was lusand was relieved of the misery I apprehended lest trous with terror. My mother sank on a cushion, Valfrino should not discover my father's residence,

and drew her by her side ; her dress of pink satin, or be killed before he reached it, when I heard his confined by a girdle of diamonds, quivered from the voice calling out

quick beating of her heart, and she breathed with “Do you say that Zenghi, the Guzel, lives here ?” 80 much difficulty that I snatched & golden cup, “Yes, beloved brother," I answered;" here, here!"

' which I observed by one of the fountains, and handHe stepped in the gallery, and, in a moment, a

ed it full of water, that my mother might bathe her bloody cross was fastened securely to the door. He forehead and temples with it. darted off, and my father drew me in and closed the I looked for some of her attendants; but she was door.

the only animated being in the apartment. I saw crowds of armed men pass us after pointing

As the child revived, my mother said, while she at the cross on the door, and thus we escaped death parted her fine black tressesby the very crimson cross I bad so often heard de- { “Una, dear, compose thyself; I have brought a rided by my parents, and all who professed an flag for thy protection, and will take thee home with opposite religion.

me."

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