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A DAY AT THE BOOKBINDERY OF { idea of the labor performed in which we shall erLIPPINCOTT, GRAMBO, & Co.

deavor to give in the following pages.

When we received the consent of the senior partHaving given our readers, in our last article, an n er of the firm for this privilege, we expected to see insight into the mechanical operation required to much that would surprise us, but were not prepared set the types and print the sheets of a book, we this to find so vast an amount of business performed, or month take them to one of the largest publishing { capital invested. We were completely lost in astohouses in the country, that they may know some nishment, as we passed through room after room thing of the manner in which books are bound and peopled with workmen engaged in the various circulated through the Union. We are enabled to s branches to which the rooms were devoted. It was do this through the courtesy of Messrs. Lippincott, { our intention, at first, to give a description of bookGrambo, & Co., who allowed us the privilege of ex- } binding only, but were so struck with the extent of amining their extensive range of rooms, a general labor employed in the establishment, that we have


concluded, so far as we are able, to make our read- placed between two tinned iron plates, are passed ers acquainted with the general machinery of a through the rollers. This method not only renders large publishing house, hoping it may prove as in the paper smoother than by hammer-beating, but teresting to them as it was to us. We will first the compression of the book is one-sixth greater, a describe the

very desirable object, inasmuch as the book-shelves

will contain nearly one-sixth more books. These BOOKBINDING DEPARTMENT,

superior effects are also produced by the rollers in After the sheets are finished in the drying-room, one-twentieth of the time required by the hammer. as described in our last, and are pressed, they are } This method is now adopted for books that hare sent in bundles to the bindery, where they are been printed some time, in which the ink is properopened and given out to the girls employed to fold ly set, and also for books that require rebinding. them.

After pressing, rolling, or hammering, each book When the whole of the impression has been fold { is collated, to see that all the signatures run proed, each sheet is laid out in a row, in piles of one perly, and the plates, if any, are inserted in their hundred. The folder then takes one from the top proper places. The waste leaves are added at the of each pile, and, placing them together, they form beginning and end; the 'back and head are then the printed matter of a book. The copies thus col- knocked up square, and one side of the book is lected are knocked evenly together, and put into a placed on a pressing-board of the size of the book hydraulic press, between steel boards, in rows of } itself, and another similar board is laid on the upper two deep, and as many along-side of each other as side of the book, taking care to let the back of the. the boards will hold, for the purpose of compress sheets project about half an inch between the two ing them into a compact form. If the work be boards. The workman then grasps the boards

firmly between the thumb and fingers of the left hand, and lowers them into the cutting-press, which consists of two strong wooden cheeks c c, connected by two slide bars 1 b, and two wooden screws & 8. The use of the two guides on one of the cheeks will

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CUTTING-PRES8. be explained hereafter; but it may be remarked that when these guides are not wanted, the press is turned completely over, so that these guides may be at the bottom, and out of the way. When the sheets are lowered between the cheeks ce, the press

is screwed up tight by working an iron bar in the FOLDING.

heads of the screws. The man then passes a tenon newly printed, care must be taken not to allow it to saw across the back of the sheets, so as to make a set of, as the fresh ink has a tendency to make an number of grooves, according to the size of the impression on the opposite page, as was generally book, for the reception of the cords or bands for the case with new books when compressed by the holding the threads in the sewing, and also for old method, which was to beat them on a large securing the boards which are to form the side smooth stone with a cast-iron bell-shaped hammer covers. The number of bands depends upon the weighing twelve or fourteen pounds. This required style of binding or method of finishing the book ; some skill so as to compress or condense the sheets hoarded books, or books bound in cloth, have only without marking them with the edge of the ham- } two bands. But in the better descriptions of bindmer, and to give the paper a smooth polished sur-}ing, 32mos. sometimes have three bands; 18mos., face. This process was very much improved some 12 mos., 8vos., and two-leaf 4tos., bave four bands; years ago by a rolling-press, consisting of two iron royal octavos and whole sheet 4tos., five bands; and cylinders, mounted and set in the usual way at any folios from five to seven bands. In addition to required distance apart. A number of sheets, vary. these grooves for the bands, a groove is also formed ing from six to fourteen, according to the size, being at each end for the catch or kettle stitch. Suppos



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ing a book with two bands is to be sewed, it is taken { She passes the needle through the bottom kettleto the sewing-press, * which is a stout flat board 6 b, stitch, and proceeds as before, passing the needle in

and out round the bands, only proceeding up the sheet instead of down. When the needle comes out through the top kettle-stitch, the thread is drawn tight, and secured by tying it into a knot with the end projecting from the first sheet. These two sheets form a sort of foundation for the subsequent sheets, which require a less elaborate sewing. Two sheets are taken at a time, and the thread is drawn throngh the grooves of each alternately: passing the needle through the top kettle-stitch of the lower sheet; then out above the first band; then into the upper sheet below the first band; then out above

the second band; then below this band into the containing an upright screw & 8 at each end, sup lower sheet; then out through the kettle-stitch of porting a top rail r, which rises and falls on the

the lower sheet; and, lastly, this lower sheet is. screws by means of nuts n n. Attached to this rail

secured to the previous sheet by passing the thread are several cords corresponding with the grooves

round its lower kettle-stitch. Two more sheets are sawed in the back, and these cords are secured by then taken, and in this way the sewing is continued being fastened to brass keys, one of which is here

with great rapidity. When one length of thread is shown, passed through the aperture in the bed of

nearly exhausted, another is taken, and joined to the former by a kpot. This kind of sewing is called up and down work, and presents the following arrangement in the sheets of the book


the sheets showing two threads and one thread alternately, as the reader will find by examining

any boarded book, or a book bound in cloth. When the press, while they are tightened by turning the

the sewing of one book is completed, the thread ig

secured at the kettle-stitch, and cut off. nuts n n, so as to raise the top rail. The book to be

A second

book is sewed upon the first, upon the same bands, sewed being placed on the board b, with the title } uppermost, the sewer first takes the fly-leaf, or end

until the press is full. The bands are then loosened paper, if such there be, or sheet A of the book, and }

by slipping off the keys, and the books are separated turning it over so that the title-page may lie with

from each other by severing the bands, care being its face on the board, she places the grooves in it so }

taken, for some descriptions of binding to be noticed

hereafter, to leave a sufficient portion of the bands as to correspond with the stretched strings or bands. She then passes the left hand into the opening of

projecting on each side of each book for the purpose

of securing the boards. the sheet, and with the right pushes the needle

There are various kinds of sewing, depending on through the right hand kettle-stitch; the left band receives the needle, and returns it out through the

the size of the book and the style of the binding. first groove above the stretched string ; the right

The commonest kind of sewing, such as we have hand draws the needle completely through, and

attempted to describe, is called sewing two sheets, or

up and down work. In some kinds of fine binding, passes it through the same groove below the stretched string; the left hand takes the needle and passes it

the sheets are sewed all along, and only one at a

time; that is, the thread is passed round every through the second groove above the string, and the right hand returns it below the second string; and

band, so that, supposing there were three bands, the lastly, the left hand returns the needle through the

sewing in every sheet would present the following bottom kettle-stitch. The thread is then drawn so

appearanceas to lie evenly in the angle of the sheet, a small

Where it is an object to make the book superior piece being left projecting through the back at the

and stronger, fine silk is used, instead of thread. To top kettle-stitch. The sewer then takes the second sheet, and turning it over upon the first, inserts the

prevent injury to the book by sawing grooves for stretched strings into the sawed grooves at the back.

the bands, which cause the book to wear out much

faster--for the holes thus made gradually enlarge in * This press is arranged for three bands; but, for the size until the book falls in pieces-a method of se sake of simplicity, the description refers to two bands. } ing is adopted without any grooves, tapes being

used instead of strings. The only holes made in the sheets by this method are those of the needle, which is passed in and out above and below the tapes, and the sewer forms her own kettle-stitch

side edges into a concave groove, the concavity of which corresponds with the convexity of the back, and the grooves formed at the two boundary lines of the back allow the boards or side covers of the book to fall in so as to present an even surface at the sides.

The books are now to be placed in thin cases, and the outside fly-leaf being pasted to the boards, the books are built up between wooden boards, the backs of the books outwards, and projecting; and this pile is placed in what is called a standing-press, consist

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with the needle. This kind of sewing is shown above. It requires more care than the former to keep the sheets even, and when well done the effect is excellent, for by this plan the book opens flat at any part, the fold of the sheet starting up fully to

STANDING-PRESS. view when the book is opened. This style is called flexible binding.

ing of a well-oiled iron screw working in a nut, and When the books are folded and sewed, they pass} the upper bed of the press is screwed down with from the sheet-room to the forwarding-room. The great force, by means of an iron bar inserted into forwarder first prepares the linings for his book, the inverted head of the screw. To economize which are made of fancy or enamelled paper; then, labor, the pile, which constantly varies in size, is if the book is a stout book, for instance a quarto made to rest upon a number of boards, which diBible, he makes his boards, which is done by pasting minishes the distance between the upper and lower two or three pieces of the proper size together and beds of the press. There the books are left for some pressing them. His linings are then pasted on his hours to undergo the requisite compression. books, which are first glued, then rounded and { The mill. boards, which form the solid substance backed. The operation of rounding the back is of the cases, are supplied to the binder in sheets, done by placing the book on its fat surface, and varying in size from 177 inches by 147, for the drawing the back on one side, gently tapping it smaller sizes, up to 41 by 31 inches. The binder with a broad-faced hammer: the book is then turned cuts up these sheets to the required size with great over upon its other surface, and the operation re precision and rapidity, by a machine constructed peated, by which means the back is brought into a for the purpose. It consists of an iron frame, oneconvex form. Each book is then placed separately half of which is covered with a horizontal plate, or between a couple of boards, with the back project table, for holding the board. At the inner edge of ing, and is thus lowered into a screw-press, which this table is a holdfast, or bar of metal, extending is screwed up tight. The workman then, by a suc} across the frame, moving on a binge at the opposite cession of blows, applied somewhat obliquely up side, and connected by a hinged lever on the near and down one side of the back, depresses that side, side with a treadle. The lower surface of this bar and causes a ridge to project over the board. He is furnished with file teeth for holding the board then repeats the operation on the other side, by fast. Just beyond this holdfast is a straight, fixed which means the back is depressed at the two sides, bar, with a square cutting edge, and by the side of and is raised in the middle; a few gentle taps in this is a curved bar, or knife, mounted on an axis, the middle, and some finishing blows at the sides and balanced by a weight at the further side, and complete the rounding, and its effect is to form the { furnished with a handle at the near side. The edge





of this curved bar forms, with the fixed bar, a pair which case brass must be used. The counter die, for of shears for cutting the boards. The gauge being embossing, which is attached to the upper bed of the set at the proper distance, the board is placed flat press, is formed by the man who manages the press, ou the table, and its rough edge is first cut off. This by gluing a number of pieces of mill-board together, is done by sliding the board along until the edge and gluing them to the surface of the lower bed. just projects beyond the shears. The man then By turning the arms of the press round, the lower puts his foot on the treadle, wbich brings the hold surface of the mill-board is brought up with amazing fast down, and secures the board; he next forces force upon the metal die, and the softer material the curved blade down against the fixed blade, } takes the impression of the harder. The man then which cuts the board to a clean, smooth edge. Then, cuts and trims and adjusts the counter die, every releasing the board by lifting his foot off the treadle, now and then taking improssions on paper; and and raising the knife, he passes the board up to the when he is satisfied with his arrangement, he pro

ceeds to emboss the leather pieces cut to the proper size for covering the book.

Every piece of leather requires to be passed three times through the press-once for the back, which is of course of a pattern different from that of the sides, and once for each of the sides. If the two sides are of the same pattern, the man embosses all the leathers on one side-say the left-and then, re-adjusting the die, embosses the other side.

Cloth covers are embossed after the boards are inserted. The cloth, which is now consumed in such enormous quantities in bookbinding, is manufactured for the purpose. The cloth is cut up to the proper size of the cover, an extra quantity being allowed for the overlap within the boards. The cases are then made up, with great rapidity, by two men, one of whom covers the inside with a layer of glue, and then places two mill-boards in their proper position on the cover, so as to form the stiff sides,

the space between the two depending, of course, on BOARD-CUTTING MACHINE.

the thickness of the book. He then turns the corer gauge, which is furnished with an edge or chamfer, ļ over, and rubs the cloth firmly down with a clothand stops its further progress : the board is cnt rubber, shaped something like the stone muller used through as before, the piece falling into the bin be- in color-grinding. He then tosses the cover to a neath. In this way, the board is cut up into three man, who places a strip of paper or canvas along the or four long strips, the other long edge, nearer the inside of the back between the two boards, and then left hand, being cut off while it rests on the table. } folds down the projecting edges of the cloth over A number of boards being thus cut up, each strip the boards, smoothing them down with the edge of being sufficient for two, three, four, or more boards, a flat piece of stick with a blunt point at each end, the strips are again passed through the shears, and and then drawing the point of the stick down the cut to the proper size of the books they are intended boundary lines between the back and the sides. to cover. Such is the precision of this machine The two men complete about one hundred covers in that, when all the pieces thus cut are piled up and } an hour. knocked together, they appear to form a solid paral- { When the covers thus formed are perfectly dry, lelopipedon, with perfectly sharp edges, in conse- they are embossed and gilt. The ornaments which quence of all the pieces being of the same size. { are simply produced by pressure are called blind

The cover of the book may be of leather or of { stamping, and, when done by hand, blind-tooling ; cloth ; but, in either case, it is ornamented at the wbile the gilt ornaments or lettering are called goldback and sides with a pattern inclosed within a { stamping or gold-tooling. The machines employed figured or flowered border, with different toolings in both descriptions of ornament are called stampingand devices for the back, and blank borders for the presses, and they do not greatly differ, except in gilt lettering or other ornaments. These are stamped, power, from the fly-press already described. The by means of certain presses, varying in power, with ornamental pattern for the back or sides is cut out the material to be embossed. The dies are formed in a thick plate or block of brass, and is fixed in the either of steel or brass, the latter being the more upper bed of the press by means of a dove-tail joint. common. The dies are cut or chased by band; but, } This upper bed is furnished with a cavity containfor some patterns, consisting of regular curves, they ing a gas-pipe, with a row of jets for heating the die can be more economically turned in the lathe, in by conduction of heat from the upper bed. The



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