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the press, while they are tightened by turning the nuts n n, so as to raise the top rail. The book to be sewed being plaeed on the board h, with the title uppermost, the sewer first takes the fly-leaf, or end paper, if sueh there be, or sheet A of the book, and turning it over so that the title-page may lie with its faee on the board, she plaees the grooves in it so as to eorrespond with the stretehed strings or hands. She then passes the left hand into the opening of the sheet, and with the right pushes the needle through the right hand kettle-stiteh; the left hand reeeives the needle, and returns it out through the first groove above the stretehed string; the right hand draws the needle eompletely through, and passes it through the same groove below the stretehed string; the left hand takes the needle and passes it through the seeond groove above the string, and the right hand returns it below the seeond string; and lastly, the left hand returns the needle through tfce bottom kettle-stiteh. The thread is then drawn so as to lio evenly in the angle of the sheet, a small pieee being left projeeting through the haek at the top kettle-stiteh. The sewer then takes the seeond sheet, and turning it over upon the first, inserts the stretehed strings into the sawed grooves at the haek.

s This press is arranged for three hands; but, for the sake of simplieity, the deseription refers to two hands.

She passes the needle through the bottom kettlestiteh, and proeeeds as beforo, passing the needle in and out round the hands, only proeeeding up the sheet instead of down. When the needle eomes out through the top kettle-stiteh, the thread is drawn tight, and seeured by tying it into a knot with the end projeeting from the first sheet. These two sheets form a sort of foundation for the subsequent sheets, whieh require a less elaborate sewing. Two sheets are taken at a time, and the thread is drawn through the grooves of eaeh alternately: passing the needle through the top kettle-stiteh of the lower sheet; then out above the first hand; then into the upper sheet below the first hand; then out above the seeond hand; then below this hand into the lower sheet; then out through the kettle-stiteh of the lower sheet; and, lastly, this lower sheet is seeured to the previous sheet by paEsing the thread round its lower kettle-stiteh. Two more sheets are then taken, and in this way the sewing is eontinued with great rapidity. When one length of thread is nearly exhausted, another is taken, and joined to the former by a knot. This kind of sewing is ealled vp and down work, and presents the following arrangement in the sheets of the book—

the sheets shewing two threads and one thread alternately, as the reader will find by examining any hearded book, or. a book bound in eloth. When the sewing of one book is eompleted, the thread is seeured at the kettle-stiteh, and eut off. A seeond book is sewed upon the first, upon the same hands, until the press is full. The hands are then loosened by slipping off the keys, and the books are separated from eaeh other by severing the hands, eare being taken, for some deseriptions of hinding to be notieed hereafter, to leave a suffieient portion of the hands projeeting on eaeh side of eaeh book for the purpose of seeuring the boards.

There are various kinds of sewing, depending on the size of the book and the style of the hinding. The eommonest kind of sewing, sueh as we have attempted to deseribe, is ealled tewing two sheets, or up and down work. In some kinds of fine hinding, the sheets are sewed all along, and only one at a time; that is, the thread is passed round every hand, so that, supposing there were three hands, the sewing in every sheet would present the following appearanee—

Where it is an objeet to make the book superior and stronger, fine silk is used, instead of thread. To prevent injury to the book by sawing grooves for the hands, whieh eause the book to wear out mueh faster—for the heles thus made gradually enlarge in size until the book falls in pieees—a methed of sewing is adopted witheut any grooves, tapes being

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with the needle. This kind of sowing is shown above. It requires more eare than the former to keep the sheets even, and when well done the effeet is exeellent, for by this plan the book opens flat at any part, the fold of the sheet starting up fully to viow when the book is opened. This style is ealled flexible hinding.

When the books are folded and sowed, they pass from the sheet-room to the forwarding-room. The forwarder first prepares the linings for his book, whieh are made of faney or enamelled paper; then, if the book is a stout book, for instanee a quarto Bible, he makes his boards, whieh is done by pusting two or three pieees of the proper size together and pressing them. His linings are then pnsted on his books, whieh are first glued, then rounded and haeked. The operation of rounding the haek is done by plaeing the book on its flat surfaee, and drawing the haek on one side, gently tapping it with abroad-faeed hammer: the book is then turned over upon its other surfaee, and the operation repeated, by whieh means the haek is brought into a eonvex form. Eaeh book is then plaeed separately between a eouple of boards, with the haek projeeting, and is thus lowered into a serow-press, whieh is serowed up tight. The workman then, by a sueeession of blows, applied somowhat obliquely up and down one side of the haek, depresses that side, and eauses a ridge to projeet over the board. He then repeats the operation on the other side, by whieh means the haek is depressed at the two sides, and is raised in the middle; a fow gentle taps in the middle, and some finishing blows at the sides eomplete the rounding, and its effeet is to form the

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ing of a well-oiled iron serow working in a nut. and the upper bed of the press is serowed down with great foree, by means of an iron har inserted into the inverted head of the serow. To eeonomize labor, the pile, whieh eonstantly varies in size, is made to rest upon a number of boards, whieh diminishes the distanee between the upper and lower beds of the press. There the books are left for some hours to undergo the requisite eompression.

The mill-boards, whieh form the solid substanee of the eases, are supplied to the hinder in sheets, varying in size from 17i inehes by 144, for smaller sizes, up to 41 by 31 inehes. The hinder euts up these sheets to the required size with great preeision and rapidity, by a maehine eonstrueted for the purpose. It eonsists of an iron frame, onehalf of whieh is eovered with a horizontal plate, or table, for holding the board. At the inner edge of this table is a holdfast, or har of metal, extending aeross the frame, moving on a hinge at the opposite side, and eonneeted by a hinged lever on the near side with a treadle. The lower surfaee of this har is furnished with file teeth for holding the board fast. Just beyond this holdfast is a straight, fixed har, with a square eutting edge, and by the side of this is a eurved har, or knife, mounted on an axis, and halaneed by a weight at the further side, and furnished with a handle at the neur side. The edge of this eurved har forms, with the fixed har, a pair of shears for eutting the buurds. The gauge being set at the proper distanee, the board is plaeed flat on the table, and its rough edge is first eut off. This is done by sliding the board along until the edge just projeets beyond the shears. The man then puts his foot on the treadle, whieh brings the heldfast down, and seeures the board; he next forees the eurved blade down against the fixed blade, whieh euts the board to a elean, smooth edge. Then, releasing the board by lifting his foot off the treadle, and raising the knife, he passes the board up to the



gauge, whieh is furnished with an edge or ehamfer, 1 and stops its further progress: the board is ent through as before, the pieee falling into the hin beneath. In this way, the board is eut up into three or four long strips, the other long edge, nearer the left hand, being eut off while it rests on the table. A number of boards being thus eut up, eaeh strip being suffieient for two, threo, four, or more boards, the strips are again passed through the shears, and eut to the proper size of the books they are intended to eover. Sueh is the preeision of tin's maehine that, when all the pieees thus eut are piled up and knoeked together, they appear to form a solid parallelopipedon, with perfeetly sharp edges, in eonsequenee of all the pieees being of the same size.

The eover of the book may be of leather or of eloth; but, in either ease, it is ornamented at the haek and sides with a pnttern inelosed within a :* figured or flowered border, with different toolings ', and deviees for the haek, and blank borders for the \ gilt lettering or other ornaments. These are stamped,' by means of eertain presses, varying in power, with \ the material to be embossed. The dies are formed i either of steel or brass, the latter being the more! eommon. The dies are eut or ehased by hand; but, \ for some patterns, eonsisting of regular eurves, they / ean be more eeonomieally turned in the lathe, in!

whieh ease brass must be used. The eounter die, for embossing, whieh is attaehed to the upper bed of the press, is formed by the man whe manages the press, by gluing a number of pieees of mill-board together, and gluing them to the surfaee of the lower bed. By turning the arms of the press round, the lower surfaee of the mill-board is brought up with amazing foree upon the metal die, and the softer material takes the impression of the harder. The man then euts and trims and adjusts the eounter die, every now and then taking impressions on paper; and when he is satisfied with his arrangement, he proeeeds to emboss the leather pieees eut to the proper size for eovering the book.

Every pieee of leather requires to be passed three times through the press—onee for the haek, whieh is of eourse of a pattern different from that of the sides, and onee for eaeh of the sides. If the two sides are of the same pattern, the man embosses all the leathers on one side—say the left—and then, re-adjusting the die, embosses the other side.

Cloth eovers are embossed after the boards are inserted. The eloth, whieh is now eonsumed in sueh enormous quantities in bookhinding, is manufaetured for the purpose. The eloth is eut up to the proper size of the eover, an extra quantity being allowed for the overlap within the boards. The eases are then made up, with great rapidity, by two men, one of whem eovers the inside with a layer of glue, and then plaees two mill-boards in their proper position on the eover, so as to form the stiff sides, the spaee between the two depending, of eourse, on the thiekness of the book. He then turns the eover over, and rubs the eloth firmly down with a elothrubber, shaped something like the stone muller used in eol or-grin ding. He then tosses the eover to a man, whe plaees a strip of paper or eanvas along the inside of the haek between the two boards, and then folds down the projeeting edges of the eloth over the boards, smoothing them down with the edge of a flat pieee of stiek with a blunt point nt eaeh end, and then drawing the point of the stiek down the boundary lines between the haek and the sides. The two men eomplete about one hundred eovers in an heur.

When the eovers thus formed are perfeetly dry, they are embossed and gilt. The ornaments whieh are simply produeed by pressure are ealled blinditamping, and, when done by hand, blind-tooling; while the gilt ornaments or lettering are ealled goldatnmping or gold-tooling. The maehines employed in both deseriptions of ornament are ealled stampingprm$mt and they do not greatly differ, exeept in power. from the fly-press already deseribed. The ornamental pattern for the haek or sides is eut out in a thiek plate or bloek of brass, and is fixed in the upper bed of the press by means of a dove-tail joint. This upper bed is furnished with a eavity eontaining a gas-pipe, with a row of jets for heating the die by eonduetion of heat from the upper bed. Tl>e eloth eovers ore Inserted within metal rules, whieh serve as a gauge, by a man whe sits before the press, while another man turns round with great strength a largo fly-wheel, whereby the lower bed is brought up a few inehes upon the ease in the upper bed, and embosses the impression. When the eases are to be gilt, it is first prepared with a thin layer of ovalbumen or white of egg, ealled glaire; after this, the gold-leaf is laid on and the ease is then passed through the press as before.

In gilding, the designs are often made up of many different small stamps, aeeording to the taste of the stamper.

As the eovers are removed, they are taken by a boy, whe wipes off" the superfluous gold with a pieee of thiek rag, whieh thus gradually absorbs the fragile leaf, and, in the eourse of two or three months, this rag is so valuable that it is sold to the gold refiner, whe burns it in a eovered erueible, and thus reeovers the preeious metal.

The eovers thus formed are next adjusted to the books, whieh wo left in the standing-press. The eovers are seeured to the books by pasting the waste leaves on eaeh side of the book to the boards, and to eoneeal this arrangement as well as the uneovered parts of the boards, and also to give a neat finish to the book, some eolored paper, ealled lining paper, is pasted in. The books are lastly put into the standing-press for a few heurs, and may then bo said to be finished.

We have thus traeed the various proeesses eoneerned in hinding a eloth-boarded book. They eonsist of gathering, folding, and sewing the sheets; gluing and rounding the haeks; eutting the edges; making, embossing, and gilding the eovers; and, lastly, seeuring the eovers to the books. In a large establishment, sueh as Messrs. Lippineott, Grambo, A Co., the whele impression of an oetavo work, eonsisting of one theusand eopies, ean be done up in eloth in the eourse of about ten heurs; in whieh ease, hewever, the eloth eovers are prepared a day or two before, all the information required for the purpose being the thiekness of the book, whieh is known by stating the number of sheets eontained in It . The title and the style of ornament, eolor of the eloth, Ae., are also determined. A theusand eovers or eases ean be prepared in one or two days. The book itself ean be folded, stitehed, glued, and rounded, the edges trimmed, and the book mounted in eases and pressed, all within ten heurs. This is, indeed, an extraordinary example of the power of numbers of skilful workpeople, and the effeet of a refined system of division of labor.

The methed of hinding thus far deseribed applies eniefly to these books whieh aro issued in largo numbers, and whether the eovers be leather or eloth, there is no very great differenee in the metheds adopted. In leather hindings, sueh os in Bibles and prayer-books, the edges, instead of being trimmed with a knife, as before deseribed, are eut through

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ploughed is plaeed between a eouple of boards in the press, with the edges projeeting as mueh as is required, and one of the eheeks being plaeed in a groove of the press, the point of the knife is brought up to the book, and moved haekwards and forwards against it, the workman at the same time giving the handle of the serew a twist, whieh advanees the knifo forward until the eutting is eompleted. The white edges of the book in eommon hinding aro then sprinkledt whereby that speekled or mottled effeet is given to them, whieh prevents them from soiling, and also improves the appearanee of the book. This is done by mixing up some eolored ehalk, umber, Venetian red, or oehre, in a little size and water, and dipping a brush into the mixture, so as just to wet the bristles; the man helds a long pieee of wood a few feet over the books, and beats the bristles of the brush agaiust it, whieh eauses a shewer of minute drops of eolor to rain down upon the edges of the books, a number of whieh are set up together for the purpose. When the desired effeet is produeed on the top edges, the books are turned over, and the bottom edges are treated in a similar manner, the man turning up one of the finished edges, every now and then, to see that he is produeing tho same tint of eolor at the bottom as at the top. The side edges are done in the same way, and the eolor is fixed by plaeing the books in the beneh-press, and passing an agate burnisher over the edges, whieh 409


produees a high polish, and prevents the eolor from being removed by ordinary use. By these simple and expeditious proeesses, a eheap and useful ornament is added to the books.

In the better elass of hinding, as in whele-bound ealf, gilt lettered, with raised haeks, the boards are added after the gluing and rounding of the haeks, for whieh purpose the sewer leaves small projeeting pieees of string hands. The boards being eut to the proper size, a eouple of heles are made in eaeh board with a brad-awl, opposite eaeh hand, and the string being passed through these heles is seeured with glue. In a book of three hands, the boards are held by six strings, three on eaeh side, and eaeh board is, of eourse, piereed with six heles. The books are then put into the standing-press for a few heurs, after whieh the edges are ploughed, the



boards being slightly depressed below the edge to be eut otT, the strings allowing them a little play before the eover is put on. In eutting the side edges, the workman takes eure to preserve the eoneavity produeed by the rounding, for whieh purpose be flattens the haek by psssing a flat tool between the edges of the boards, whieh are allowed to hang down loose, and the baek. He then plaees the book between a eouple of boards, grasps it tightly, and withdraws the flat tool; then lowers it into the press, and serews it up tightly. By thus flattening the haek, the edges beeome flat also, and when they have been ploughed, and the book is taken out of the press, the haek starts into shape again, and the side edges beeome eoneave. After this, the edges are gilt or marbled. In gilding, the book is seeured between a eouple of boards in the press, and the edges being eovered with glaire, a layer of goldleaf is laid on, and the agate burnisher, being well rubbed over every part across the edges, seeures the goldlenf, at the same time giving it a beautiful

polish. AVhen all the edges are thus gilt, paper is wrapped round them, to prevent them from getting soiled. When the edges are to be marbled, the books are sent out to the marbler's, whe produees the effeet of marbled paper by the following eontrivanee: A trough about two inehes deep is filled with elean gum-water. Various eolored pigments, ground in spirits of wine, and mixed with a small quantity of ox-gall, are thrown upon the surfaee of the gum-water, and disposed in various forms with a quill and eomh, aeeording to the desired pattern. This being obtained, the book is tied between two boards, and the edges being dipped into the trough, the floating eolors beeome attaehed; eold water is then dashed over the edges, whieh set* the eolors, and brings them out elear.

The book is now ready to reeeive the headhand, whieh serves as a finish to the top and bottom of the sheets, and assists in keeping the upper and lower parts of the hellow haek in shape, when the book is elosed. The book, still in the rough boards, is fixed by one eorner in a small portable serew-press, and a small strip of mill-board, plaeed on edge at the haek, is seeured by passing a needle and thread two or three times between the leaves through the solid haek, and over and under the small strip; the thread, whieh is generally of silk or eotton, two or three eolors being sometimes used, is then twisted or plaited over the strip, and when about a third or one-half is eovered, it is further seeured by a few stitehes through the solid haek. The plaiting or eovering is then eompleted, and is seeured as before by sewing through the haek. The superfluous portions of the strip are then eut off. This deseription of headhand is ealled worked; a eommoner deseription, ealled ntuek-on, is a pieee of striped or eolored linen, inelosing a pieee of eord, stuek or glued to the haek of the book. The hands or raised projeetions at the haek of the book are formed by gluing strips of mill-board, leather, or eord aeross them.

The book is now ready for eovering. The leather may be ealf, or moroeeo, or Russia; but, whatever the leather, it is earefully ehesen, so as to bo free from blemishes, and of the proper size; being plaeed on a flat board, with the rough side up, the edges are pared thin with a sharp knife, so that, in turning them over the board, they may not bulge out into unsightly projeetions. The leather is then damped, and eovered with paste, and applied to the book, a few simple tools being used to smooth it down and press it into shape, to square the edges, and to raise the hands. The leather is neatly turned in at the top and bottom, and then folded over the headhands. When the sides and edges are nieely smoothed and squared, the hands at the haek are raised, and the spaees between them depressed, by working them with a bone paper-knife, and during all these mani pulations the man every now and then moistens the leather with a hit of wet sponge. When the leather eover is properly arranged, the marbled or other

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