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cloth covers are inserted within metal rules, which with a plough, so that there is no necessity for cutserve as a gauge, by a man who sits before the ting open the book before reading it. The bookpress, while another man turns round with great binder's plough consists of two upright cheeks of strength a large fly-wheel, whereby the lower bed is brought up a few inches' upon the case in the upper bed, and embosses the impression. When the cases are to be gilt, it is first prepared with a thin layer of ovalbumen or white of egg, called glaire; after this, the gold-leaf is laid on and the case is then passed through the press as before.

In gilding, the designs are often made up of many different small stamps, according to the taste of the stamper. As the covers are removed, they are taken by a

BOOK BINDER'S PLOUGI. boy, who wipes off the superfluous gold with a piece

wood c c, connected together by a wooden screws, of thick rag, which thus gradually absorbs the fra

and a couple of guides b b, fixed into one cheek, and gile leaf, and, in the course of two or three months,

moving in square holes in the other. The screw this rag is so valuable that it is sold to the gold re

passes through both cheeks, so that by turning it finer, who burns it in a covered crucible, and thus

round in one direction the cheeks are brought nearer recovers the precious metal.

together, and, in the contrary direction, moved farThe covers thus fornted are next adjusted to the

ther apart. Into one of the cheeks at k is fixed books, which we left in the standing-press. The

{ a cutting-knife, a double-edged, pointed blade, of covers are secured to the books by pasting the waste

which two forms are given. The book to bo leaves on each side of the book to the boards, and to conceal this arrangement as well as the uncovered parts of the boards, and also to give a neat finish to the book, some colored paper, called lining paper, is pasted in. The books are lastly put into the standing-press for a few hours, and may then be said to be finished.

We have thus traced the various processes concerned in binding a cloth-boarded book. They ploughed is placed between a couple of boards in consist of gathering, folding, and sewing the sheets; the press, with the edges projecting as much as is gluing and rounding the backs; cutting the edges; required, and one of the cheeks being placed in a making, embossing, and gilding the covers; and, groove of the press, the point of the knife is brought lastly, securing the covers to the books. In a large } up to the book, and moved backwards and forwards establishment, such as Messrs. Lippincott, Grambo, } against it, the workman at the same time giving & Co., the whole impression of an octavo work, con the handle of the screw a twist, which advances the sisting of one thousand copies, can be done up in cloth knife forward until the cutting is completed. The in the course of about ten hours; in which case, white edges of the book in common binding are however, the cloth covers are prepared a day or two then sprinkled, whereby that speckled or mottled before, all the information required for the purpose effect is given to them, which prevents them from being the thickness of the book, which is known by soiling, and also improves the appearance of the stating the number of sheets contained in it. The book. This is done by mixing up some colored title and the style of ornament, color of the cloth, chalk, umber, Venetian red, or ochre, in a little size &c., are also determined. A thousand covers or and water, and dipping a brush into the mixture, so cases can be prepared in one or two days. The as just to wet the bristles; the man holds a long piece book itself can be folded, stitched, glued, and round of wood a few feet over the books, and beats the ed, the edges trimmed, and the book mounted in bristles of the brush against it, which causes a shower cases and pressed, all within ten hours. This is, { of minute drops of color to rain down upon the edges indeed, an extraordinary example of the power of of the books, a number of which are set up together numbers of skilful work people, and the effect of a { for the purpose. When the desired effect is prorefined system of division of labor.

duced on the top edges, the books are turned orer, The method of binding thus far described applies į and the bottom edges are treated in a similar manchiefly to those books which are issued in large ner, the man turning up one of the finished edges, numbers, and whether the covers be leather or cloth, every now and then, to see that he is producing the there is no very great difference in the methods same tint of color at the bottom as at the top. Tho adopted. In leather bindings, such as in Bibles and } side edges are done in the same way, and the color prayer-books, the edges, instead of being trimmed is fixed by placing the books in the bench-press, and with a knife, as before described, are cut through } passing an agate burnisher over the edges, which




produces a bigh polish, and prevents the color from polish. When all the edges are thus gilt, paper is being removed by ordinary use. By these simple { wrapped round them, to prevent them from getting and expeditious processes, a cheap and useful orna soiled. When the edges are to be marbled, the ment is added to the books.

books are sent out to the marbler's, who produces In the better class of bioding, as in whole-bound the effect of marbled paper by the following concalf, gilt lettered, with raised backs, the boards are trivance: A trough about two inches deep is filled added after the gluing and rounding of the backs, with clean gum-water. Various colored pigments, for which purpose the sewer leaves small projecting ground in spirits of wine, and mixed with a small pieces of string bands. The boards being cut to the { quantity of ox-gall, are thrown upon the surface of proper size, a couple of holes are made in each the gum-water, and disposed in various forms with a board with a brad-awl, opposite each band, and the quill and comb, according to the desired pattern. string being passed through these holes is secured This being obtained, the book is tied between two with glue. In a book of three bands, the boards are boards, and the edges being dipped into the trough, held by six strings, three on each side, and each the floating colors become attached; cold water is board is, of course, pierced with six holes. The then dashed over the edges, which sets the colors, books are then put into the standing-press for a few ånd brings them out clear. hours, after which the edges are ploughed, the } The book is now ready to receive the headband,

which serves as a finish to the top and bottom of the sheets, and assists in keeping the upper and lower parts of the hollow back in shape, when the book is closed. The book, still in the rough boards, is fixed hy one corner in a small portable screw-press, and a small strip of mill-board, placed on edge at the back, is secured by passing a needle and thread two or three tiines between the leaves through the solid back, and over and under the small strip; the thread, which is generally of silk or cotton, two or three colors being sometimes used, is then twisted or plaited over the strip, and when about a third or one-half is covered, it is further secured by a few stitches throngh the solid back. The plaiting or covering is then completed, and is secured as before by sewing through the back. The superfluous portions of the strip are then cut off. This description of headband is called worked ; a commoner description, called stuck-on, is a piece of striped or colored linen, inclosing a piece of cord, stuck or glued to

the back of the book. The bands or raised projecPLOUGHING THE EDGES.

tions at the back of the book are formed by gluing boards being slightly depressed below the edge to { strips of mill-board, leather, or cord across them. be cut off, the strings allowing them a little play { The book is now ready for covering. The leather before the cover is put on. In cutting the side

may be calf, or morocco, or Russia; but, whatever edges, the workman takes care to preserve the con

the leather, it is carefully chosen, so as to be free cavity produced by the rounding, for which purpose { from blemishes, and of the proper size; being placed he flattens the back by passing a flat tool between

{ on a flat board, with the rough side up, the edges the edges of the boards, which are allowed to hang ļ are pared thin with a sharp knife, so that, in turning down loose, and the back. He then places the

them over the board, they may not bulge out into book between a couple of boards, grasps it tightly, { unsightly projections. The leather is then damped, and withdraws the flat tool; then lowers it into the } and covered with paste, and applied to the book, a press, and screws it up tightly. By thus flattening few simple tools being used to smooth it down and the back, the edges become flat also, and when they press it into shape, to square the edges, and to raise have been ploughed, and the book is taken out of the bands. The leather is neatly turned in at the the press, the back starts into sbape again, and the top and bottom, and then folded over the headbands. side edges become concave. After this, the edges

When the sides and edges are nicely smoothed and are gilt or marbled. In gilding, the book is secured squared, the bands at the back are raised, and the between a couple of boards in the press, and the spaces between them depressed, by working them edges being covered with glaire, a layer of goldleaf with a bone paper-knife, and during all these mani is laid on, and the agate burnisher, being well rub- pulations the man every now and then moistens the bed over every part across the edges, secures tho į leather with a bit of wet sponge. When the leather goldleaf, at the same time giving it a beautiful cover is properly arranged, the marbled or other lining papers are inserted, and the book is put into { We have thus gone over the principal processes the standing-press for a few hours, after which it is concerned in binding a book. A few years ago, a ready for tooling. But in some descriptions of bind method of binding by means of caoutchouc cement ing, a good effect is produced by having distinct let was patented, by which the operations of sawing-in, tering pieces, of a different color from the general sewing, rounding, and the use of glue are dispensed binding. These are cut out separately, thinned at with, and, instead of leaves attached by thread the edges, and attached by means of glue. The stitches at two or three points, they are agglutinated blind-tool ornaments of the book are put on by means securely along their whole length. This plan is of pieces of brass, cut into the desired pattern and admirably adapted for binding engravings, maps, shape, and mounted in handles as below. If a long manuscripts, and collections of letters, which have


little or no margin left at the back for the stitching. The plan has been thus described : “ After folding the sheets in double leaves, the workman places them vertically, with the edges forming the back of the book downwards, in a concave mould, of such rounded or semi-cylindrical shape as the back of the book is intended to have. The mould for this

purpose consists of two parallel upright boards, set line, plain or figured, is to run up the sides of the

apart upon a cradle frame, each having a portion or book, it is cut upon the periphery of a disc of brass,

portions cut out vertically, somewhat deeper than moving upon a central axis, and furnished with a

the breadth of the book, but of a width nearly equal long handle, which the man rests against his right

to its thickness before it is pressed. One of these upright boards may be slidden nearer to or further from its fellow, by means of a guide-bar, attached to the sole of the cradle. Thus the distance be

tween the concave bed of the two vertical slots in shoulder, holding the tool near the axis; in this which the book rests may be varied according to way, he can roll the tool the whole length of each the length of the leaves. In all cases, about oneside of the cover. All these tools are heated at a fourth of the length of the book at each end projects gas-stove, a great improvement on the unwholesome beyond the board, so that one-balf rests between charcoal brazier formerly in use. The small tools the two boards. Two or three packthreads are now are pressed down with an equable force in those bound round the leaves thus arranged, from top to parts of the cover where they are wanted. Gilt bottom of the page, in different lines, in order to tooling is produced by covering the parts to be gilt preserve the form given to the back of the mould in first with glaire and then with goldleaf, and then which it lay. The book is next subjected to the pressing the hot tool upon the part thus covered. action of the press. The back, which is left proOn wiping off the gold with a rag, that part of the jecting very slightly in front, is then smeared caregold only is attached which came in contact with the } fully by the fingers with a solution of caoutchouc, hot tool. Lettering is performed commonly by a } whereby each paper-edge receives a small portion set of lettering tools, each letter of the alphabet of the cement. In a few hours, it is sufficiently dry being cut out in brass, and mounted in a wooden to take another coat of a somewhat stronger caouthandle. Letters, numerals, &c., are kept of differ chouc solution. In forty-eight hours, four applicaent sizes; but for words in common use, such as tions of the caoutchouc may be made and dried. “Holy Bible,” “Atlas,” &c., tools are kept, with the The back and the adjoining part of the sides are whole word or words cut in them. When the orna- { next covered with the usual band or fillet of cloth,

glued on with caoutchouc; after which the book is ready to bave the boards attached, and to be covered with leather or parchment, as may be desired."

Blank-book binding is a distinct branch of the trade, and is applied to the binding of every description of

account-book. The paper is first folded and counted ments, lettering, &c., are complete, the book is fin. } into sections, which in foolscap generally consist of ished off with polishing-irons, of various shapes and six sheets, and, above that size, of four sheets. These sizes, one of which is shown. These are beated, and are sewed upon strips of vellum, three strips being passed over the leather, and also over the marble usually applied to foolscap folio, and a greater numlining-paper, &c.

ber for larger sizes. In sewing account books, waxed thread is used, as being stronger. After sewing, the first ruled leaf at each end is pasted to the waste paper, and the marble lining paper inserted. The back is then glued, and when dry, the fore edge is




cut and the back rounded, a rounder back and conse for the panelled or more costly style of binding, quently a deeper hollow being given than in printed the edges are then ready for embossing or illumibooks. The two ends are then cut, and the edges nating, the process of which we have before degreened. The headbands are worked on a slip of scribed. Finishing, as its name denotes, is the last parchment, as before described. Strong pieces of process of this interesting art. The finisher must leather are then glued at the top and bottom of } possess a high order of taste and skill. The methe back and between each of the yellum slips, A chanical execution of his branch is much the same hollow back is produced by soaking in water a strip as in embossing, with the difference that he must of mill-board about a quarter of an inch wider work out his designs with the aid of the small tools than the back of the book, and gluing it on both we have before mentioned, upon leather. The difsides; it is then placed on a sheet of paper, and a ficulty he has to overcome, and the nicety with roller corresponding to the curvature of the back { which his work must be done, can be understood, of the book is placed upon it, and the strip is when we inform our readers that one pattern v worked backwards and forwards on the roller, which we saw in this establishinent bad five thousand imgives it the semicircular shape. It is then dried { pressions of different tools upon its surface. hard before the fire. Another method is to paste a To enumerate all the various styles of decoration number of pieces of paper in succession upon a roller, as practised in book-finishing, would be a very and when thoroughly dry it is cut down lengthwise, difficult, if not an endless task, as some styles are thus forming two semicircular backs. Thin sheet purely local, while others again do not stand the iron is sometimes used for the purpose. The milled test of progressive and improving taste, and conseboards are then cut out for the side covers. In quently are but of short-lived duration. There is large books, it is usual to glue together two thin scarcely any style of ornament which book-finishers boards for each cover, and to insert beween them do not more or less practise. The improved artistithe projecting ends of the vellum bands on which cal knowledge of the workmen of the present day, the book is sewn. The first and last fly-leaves are and the proficiency attained by them in the execupasted to the boards, and after they are squared, the } tion of designs, are far ahead of anything in the art curved back above described is placed on, and a } of bookbinding which has preceded them. piece of canvas sufficient to extend over half the } The earliest specimens of book binding extant width of the book on one side to the same distance } were executed in the monasteries by the monks, on the other side, is glued on the boards and over anterior to the invention of printing, which prothe back : this holds the hollow back firmly in place. } cured for such the name of the monastic style, the The book is then ready for covering, for which pur monks being then the principal composers, copyers, pose the leather is carefully pared all round and and bookbinders. The monastic style is distinct neatly put on. The covers are usually sheep skin and peculiar in itself, the sides of the book being and Russia, white and covered; smooth and rough closely filled up with what is technically called blind calf. If the cover be rough calf or sheep, it is dressed tooling, that is, the impressions made by the tools with pumice-stone and a clothes-brush. Smooth are not put in gold; this style is much sought after calf are glaired and polished as in printed book in the present day, especially in the binding of old binding. Rough calf or sheep books are usually { books. But this is not the only description of finornamented by passing a very hot roller round the ishing to which the monks of that period applied edges and sides of the cover. Large books are al themselves, books being then, as regards price, of ways furnished with bands of Russia leather worked great value compared to what they are in the present on sometimes with thongs of vellum, which add to { day, and it was consequently considered that nothe strength of the binding, and have a neat appear. thing could be too costly in decorating the exterior. ance.

Hence arose those beautiful specimens of needleThe finer qualities of binding, embracing Turkey work of various colored silks-gold and silver ornamorocco, calf, and Levant, in the various styles of ments-stones, and jewels of great value, with richly gilt, massive panels, and velvet, embossed } which the books of that period were frequently with rich ornaments, have many processes which are richly ornamented. very attractive and curious to the uninitiated. The The next in rotation is the Aldine style, which operation of embossing and illuminating the edges, derives its name from Aldus, a famous printer an which is carried to great perfection in this establish- book binder who flourished in Italy in the fifteenth ment, gives the book an ornamental and attractive century. This style (like the monastic) is principally appearance, of which it is impossible to give our in blind tooling, but of a lighter and more open readers any idea. In this process the books are } description of tools, and more fancifully arranged. fastened firmly in iron presses, the edges are then } After that period, books becoming more plentiful, scraped smooth as polished ivory, they then receive } book ornamentation consequently took a more extena coat of size upon which the goldleaf is laid.} sive range, as we find, before the expiration of the When the leaf is dry, it is polished with agate and sixteenth century, great improvements had taken blood-stone burnishers. Should the book be designed place in book-finishing. A style of intersected

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patterns were much in practice, which, for beauty } Bibles and prayer-books alone, they sell upwards of design, are rarely surpassed, added to which, the of fifty thousand copies yearly, and most of them Elizabethan style of ornament was much in use; bound in a superior style. In this class of books, since then, down to the present day, various styles one their sales are next to those of the American Bible after the other have been adopted, all tending to Society, Mr. J. B. Lippincott having, for years bethe perfection of the art, and the advancement of the fore he purchased an interest in this firm, enjoyed profession in general.

the reputation of being the Bible publisher of the We have given as near as we could an idea of the country.” Of one book which they are now pubprocess of Bookbinding, as conducted at this estab lishing, they issue daily one thousand copies bound lishment; but there has been much that we could { in cloth, and this independent of the other works not insert without going more into detail than our they have in press. After the above facts, our readers would wish. They can form some estimate { readers can well inagine why we were struck with of the labor required, from what we have recorded astonishment at what we saw, and will, with us, above, and we here offer our thanks to all concerned, give this house a just meed of praise for the enterfor their attention to us in our progress through this prise they exbibit. establishment.

In the store, a view of which we give on the top The publishing house of Lippincott, Grambo, & of the first page, and which will doubtless be recogCo. was established over thirty years ago, by John }nized by hundreds of booksellers through the counGrigg, Esq., who, with his partner, Hugh Elliot, try, are employed twenty-seven clerks, who have Esq., and others who now continue in the firm, con each their separate departments to attend to. This ducted the business under the firm of Grigg, Elliot, rooin is also used for packing; the books, after & Co., until a few years back, when J. B. Lippin- being sent down from the second and third story cott, Esq., who had been in the same business for a rooms, are here boxed up and sent to their various number of years, purchased the interest of Messrs. destinations. The second and third story rooms of Grigg & Elliot, and, in connection with the junior the main building, and one room in the adjoining partners of the old firm, established the present one. one, are occupied as salesrooms, each one of which The reward which enterprise and industry always is about twenty feet wide and one hundred feet long. bring has favored this house from the commence- { In these rooms, a view of one of which we give on ment. Increasing yearly in its business, it has the first page, there are thousands of volumes on the gradually extended its sphere until it is at present shelves on both sides of each, requiring the services one of the largest, if not the largest, publishing of a number of salesmen to attend to the duty of house in the United States, employing in its opera selling and recording orders. In looking at the tions over half a million of dollars. In their store vast number of books in these salesrooms, and the can be found not only their own publications, but constant operations of sending off and replacing, those of every publisher in the country; as they which pass before you, the wonder is what becomes receive all new books of other houses as soon as of them all, and what an amount of capital is published. It is this fact, together with the vast required to keep up such a stock. Few persons, number of books issued by themselves, which ren- } without seeing, would believe the thousands of ders their business one of such immensity, and books which are daily sent from these rooms to makes their establishment the great jobbing book- } every section of the New World, and to portions of house of the country.

the Old. To enumerate their various publications would The fourth and fifth stories of their own and the require a volume; they embrace all subjects, scien adjoining buildings on each side are occupied as tific, historical, scholastic, &c. &c. Over one hun. their bindery, and comprise eleven rooms. In them dred books have been issued by them since the are employed over two hundred hands, men and cummencement of the year, many of which are women, in the various branches of bookbinding among the most costly ever issued in the country, which we have previously described. Some of the comprising, amongst others, the “Waverley Novels," finest specimens of binding ever executed in this in twelve volumes; “Schoolcraft's Work on the country have been done in the establishment of LipAmerican Indians," elaborately illustrated with pincott, Grambo, & Co., among the more prominent steel engravings by the best engravers in the coun of which is a Bible which was presented to.Queen try; “A Series of Histories of the States in the Victoria. Union;" “ Ancient Christianity," by Dr. Coleman; In the semi-annual “ trade sales," or sale of books “Shakspeare,” two editions, one in four volumes, by auction to booksellers only, which takes place in and the other in one volume; and a numerous va- } New York, Philadelphia, and Boston, Messrs. Lipriety of school books, &c. &c. They have the pincott, Grambo, & Co. are one of the largest destereotype plates of over two hundred volumes of positors and purchasers; and their enterprise and standard works, from which they are constantly capital furnish employment to over five hundred working off editions to supply the current demand. } workmen in their own, and other establishments These plates cost, originally, over $250,000. Of employed by them.

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