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MARIE. Mercy, dearest!
“ Ha! and see; its fellow-hand is left free to make gestures, or drum with the knife it holds on the chair-bottom between his legs, or to whittle bits which he picks occasionally from the contents of the wood-box at his side. Oh! he ought to havo been drawn spitting. He is always spitting, you know, real yellow tobacco juice. The monster !"
MARIE. You make me shudder, dearest. Pray, do you honestly think we have any reason to be vexed with Dickens, or Trollop, or anybody whom
“No indeed! no indeed! not even with that writer of the “Edinburgh Review who said that Americans spit as soon as they are born, spit through life, and at last spit out their expiring breath."
MARIE. But then, poor Mr. Brown!
“Yes; poor Mr. Brown. We will not scorn him at all instinctively as we are inclined to do this. Like many in this our day and generation, he inherited a bad organization from parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents, who lived mostly in the sensual; together with bad habits from a father, whose only care it was to add yet other acres to his farm, yet other hundreds to his glittering horde, and yet other horses, cows, chickens, turkeys, and geese to his homestead menagerie. True, the son must learn to read, write, and cipher, at least as far as through interest. This was indispensable in the art of acquiring and retaining property. The daughters likewise must learn somewhat of the same; for they might be widows and have estates to settle. But into all the mysteries of all sorts of cookery, and other work, they must be thoroughly initiated. Habits of acquisition and saving must be ingrafted into their very being. Pity that these habits did not extend themselves into that branch of household economy where their fruits would have been really saving—the dietetic! But no; here also the animal reigned. To eat abundantly, superabundantly, and of food of superabundant lusciousness, was a prime article of the elder Brown's creed. And when his conscience whispered him, as it sometimes did, about his deeds of extortion, fraudulent bargaining, and so forth, he silenced its reproofs by referring to his generously furnished board, his overflowing larder, the plenty he spread before all who claimed his hospitalities. Something more conscience said about his being just before he could be generous, but in fainter and fainter tones. So that he went on in his self-justifications, ay, in his self-glorifications; and hugged the closer his delusions as death began beckoning him away. He died a wretched, wretched death. Then the papers wrote him'a faithful husband, an indulgent parent, a benevolent neighbor, and a good citizen.' His funeral text was, “Let me die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his;' his epitaph, ‘Blessed are the dead who die in the Lord.' Ah, Marie, how full is this world of
temptations to get wealth-to get it by some means -at any rate, to be rich!"
MARIE. Alas, yes! And still, dearest, not so great and many are they, if one looks a little below the surface. Mr. Brown would have been a miserable man in all his hardness of soul, if this adulation and all the deference ho met had been sincere. But they were only lip and hand service; matterof-course homage to his wealth and assumed consequence. Everybody read his other and truo inscriptions written in blood and tears on the hearts and on the brows of all those he had wronged and cheated. Everybody could see the scars of wounds he had been all his lifetime making, in treading upon all the low and feeble on his march to wealth. Ah! let him rest in peace, dearest. Never enry him, nor any like him the miserable pittance they get for all their anxiety and toil. And the son of such a man, the present Mr. Brown, pity him! Rub out that drawing.
“Pity him I will, I do from my very heart; but rub out his picture I will not. I will show it to him, and to others like him; for, if they are to be pitied, if they are not very, very much to be blamed, all things considered, “they yet need to see themselves as others see them: they yet need to mend for their own sakes, for their neighbors', and for the sake of the capacities that God has given them for usefulness, improvement, and happiness, and which they do so neglect or misapply.”
SONG.-TO THEE, MY LOVE.
BY SAMUEL M'XUTT.
Awar from thee, my gentle one,
From Fanny distant far,
My loved, my guiding star.
Is shed o'er wold and lea,
To thee, my love, to thee.
I range the wildwood free;
To thee, my love, to thee.
Forsake the world and me,
To thee, my love, to thee.
of other years, I see: I'm there, amid its golden gleams,
With thee, my love, with thee.
On shore or silv'ry sea-
To thee, my love, to thee.
NO. IV.-ON THE MORE MODERN FORMS OF FOREIGN BOOTS AND SHOES.
UPON critically examining the various forms assumed by the coverings for the feet adopted by the nations around us, we shall find that they were in no small degree modified by the circumstances with which they were surrounded, or the necessities of the climate they inhabited.
Thus, the northern nations of Europe enswathed their legs in skins, and used the same material for the shoes, binding the whole in warm folds about the leg, the thongs being fastened to them in the manner represented in Fig. 1, and which is copied from a full-length figure of a Russian boor, in 1768. The sandal of a Russian lady of the same period is given in Fig. 2, and the men of Friesland, at the same time, wore sandals or shoes of a similar construction, the common people generally wearing a
close leathern shoe and clog, something like those in use in the Middle Ages; one delineated in Fig. 3, of our plate, and is represented on the feet of a countrywoman in the curious series of costumes of Finland, engraved in Jeffery's collection of the dresses of different nations, published in 1757, and which were copied from some very rare prints, at least a century earlier in point of date. Another female's shoe is given in Fig. 4; it is a low slipperlike shoe, and is secured by a band across the instep, having an ornamental clasp, like a brooch, to secure it on each side of the foot, it was probably a coarsely made piece of jewelry, with glass or cheap stones set around it; as the people of this country at that time were fond of such showy decorations, and particularly upon their shoes. The noblemen be compared to that of the buskin, the height varying from the mid-leg to near the knee. They are of capacious breadth, except among the Persians, whose boots generally fit close to the leg, and are mostly of a sort of Russia leather, uncolored ; whereas those of other people are, like the slipper, of red and yellow morocco. There is also a boot or shoe for walking in frosty weather, which differs from the common one only in having under the heel iron tips, which, being partly bent vertically with a jagged edge, give a hold on the ice, which prevents slipping, and are particularly useful in ascending or descending the frozen mountain paths—reminding us of the sort of boot worn by Tartarian ladies, as given in Fig. 8. The shoes of the Oriental ladies are sometimes highly ornamented; the covering part being wrought with gold, silver, and silk, and perhaps set with jewels, real or imitated. Examples of such decorated shoes are given in Figs. 9 and 10, and will sufficiently explain themselves to the eye of the reader, rendering detailed description unnecessary. The shoes of noblemen are of precisely similar construction.
In China, the boots and shoes of the men are worn as clumsy and inelegant as in any country. They are broad at the toe, and sometimes upturned. We give a specimen of both in the subjoined woodcut. They are no doubt easy to wear.
and ladies always decorated theirs with ornaments and jewels all over the upper surface, of which we give two specimens in Figs. 5 and 6; the former upon the foot of a nobleman, the latter upon that of a matron of the upper classes. It will be seen that both are very elegant, and must have been very showy wear.
The boots of a Hungarian gentleman, in 1700, may be seen in Fig. 7, and such boots were common to Bohemia at the same period. They are chiefly remarkable for the way in which they are cut upward from the middle of the thigh to the knee, and then curl over in front of the leg.
A Tartarian lady, of 1577, is exhibited by John Wiegel, the engraver of Nuremburg, in his work on dress, in the boots delineated in Fig. 8. They are remarkable for the sole to which they are affixed, and which was, no doubt, formed of some strong substance, probably with metallic hooks to assist the wearer in walking a mountainous country where frosts abound.
Descending towards the south, we shall find a lighter sort of shoe in use, and one partaking more of the character of a slipper, used more as a protection for the sole of the foot in walking than as an article of warmth. Thus the shoes generally used in the East scarcely do more than cover the toes; yet, from constant use, the natives hardly ever allow them to slip from the feet. The learned author of the notes to “Knight's Pictorial Bible," speaking from personal observation of these articles, says: “The common shoe in Turkey or Arabia is like our slipper with quarters, except that it has a sharp and prolonged toe turned up. No shoes in Western Asia have ears, and they are generally of colored leather -red or yellow morocco in Turkey and Arabia, and green shagreen in Persia. In the latter country, the shoe or slipper in general use (having no quarters) has a very high heel; but, with this exception, the heels in these countries are generally flat. No shoes, or even boots, have more than a single sole (like what we call pumps”), which, in wet weather, imbibes the water freely. When the shoe without quarters is used, an inner slipper, with quarters, but without a sole, is worn inside, and the outer one alone is thrown off on entering a house. But in Persia, instead of this inner shoe of leather, they use a worsted sock. Those shoes that have quarters are usually worn without any inner covering for the foot. The peasantry and the nomade tribes usually go barefoot, or wear a rude sandal or shoo of their own manufacture; those who possess a pair of red leather or other shoes seldom wear them ex. cept on holiday occasions, so that they last a long time, if not so long as among the Maltese, with whom a pair of shoes endures for several generations, being, even on holiday occasions, more frequently carried in the band than worn on the feet. The boots are generally of the same construction and material as the shoes; and the general form may
Not so are the ladies' shoes, for they only aro allowed the privilege of discomfort, fashion having in this country declared in favor of small feet, and the prejudice of the people having gone with it, the feet of all ladies of decent rank in society are cramped in early life, by being placed in so straight a confinement that their grow this retarded, and they are not more than three or four inches in length from the toe to the heel. By the smallness of the foot, the rank or high breeding of the lady is decided on, and the utmost torment is endured by the girls in early life to insure themselves this distinction in rank; the lower classes of females not being allowed to torture themselves in the same manner. The Chinese poets frequently indulge in panegyrics on the beauty of these crippled members of the body, and none of their heroines are considered perfect without excessively small feet, when they are affectionately termed by them “ the little golden lilies." It is needless to say that the tortures of early youth are succeeded by a crippled maturity, a Chinese lady of high birth being scarcely able to walk without assistance. A specimen of such a foot and shoe is given in Fig. 11. These shoes are generally made of silk, and embroidered in the most beautiful manner with flowers and ornaments, in colcred silk and threads of gold and silver. A piece of stout silk is generally attached to the heel for the convenience of pulling up the shoe.
Having bestowed some attention on ancient Egypt, we may briefly allude to the shoes of modern times, as given in Lane's work devoted to the history of the manners and customs of the modern Egyptians. They, like the Persian ones, have an upturned toe, and may with equal ease be drawnon and thrown off. Yet a shoe is also worn with a high instep and high in the heel, which will be best understood by the first figure in the accompanying cut.
heard it observed among them, that by how much the nobler a woman is, by so much the higher are her chapineys. All their gentlewomen, and most of their wives and widows that are of any wealth, are assisted and supported either by men or women, when they walk abroad, to the end they might not fall. They are borne up most commonly by the left arm, otherwise they might quickly take a fall." In “Douce's Illustrations of Shakspeare," a woodcut of such a chapiney, or chopine, is given, which is here copied, and it is an excellent example of the
The Turkish ladies of the sixteenth century, and very probably much earlier, wore a very high shoe known in Europe by the name of a “chopine." In the voyages and travels of N. de Nicholay Dauphinoys, Seigneur D'Arfreville, Valet de Chambre and Geographer to the King of France, printed at Lyons, 1568, one of the ladies of the Grand Seigneur's seraglio is represented in a pair of chopines, of which we copy one in Fig. 12. This fashion spread in Europe in the early part of the seventeenth century, and it is alluded to by Hamlet, in Act II., Scene 2, when he exclaims, “Your ladyship is nearer heaven than when I saw you last, by the altitude of a chopine;" by which it would appear that something of the kind was known in England, where it may have been introduced from Venice, as the ladies there wore them of the most exaggerated size. Coryat, in his “ Crudities,” 1611, says : “ There is one thing used of the Venetian women, and some others dwelling in the cities and towns subject to signiory of Venice, that is not to be observed -I think-amongst any other women in Christendom”--the reader must remember that it was new to Coryat, but a common fashion in the East" which is so common in Venice that no woman whatsoever goeth without it, either in her house or abroad—a thing made of wood, and covered with leather of sundry colors; some with white, some red, somo yellow. It is called a chapiney, which they never wear under their shoes. Many of these are curiously painted; some of them I have also seen fairly gilt ; 80 uncomely a thing, in my opinion, that it is a pity this foolish custom is not clean banished and exterminated out of the city. There are many of these chapineys of a great height, even half a yard high, which maketh many of their women that are very short seem much taller than the tallest woinen we have in England. Also, I havo
thing, showing the decoration which was at times bestowed on it.
Douce quotes some curious particulars of this fashion, in “Raymond's Voyage through Italy," 1648, and the following curious account of the chopine occurs : “ This place (Venice) is much frequented by the walking May-poles; I mean the women; they wear their coats half too long for their bodies; being mounted on their chippeens (which are as high as a man's leg), they walke betweene two handmaids, majestically deliberating of every step they take.” Howel also says of the Venetian wo
They are low and of small stature, for the most part, which makes them to raise their bodies upon high shoes, called chapins, which gave me occasion to say that the Venetian ladies were made of three things: one part of them was wood, meaning their chapins; another part was their apparel; and the third part was a woman. The senate hath often endeavored to take away the wearing of those high shoes, but all women are so passionately delighted with this kind of state that no law can wean them from it." Douce adds that “some have supposed that the jealousy of Italian husbands gave rise to the invention of the chopine," and quotes a story from a French author to show their dislike to an alteration; he also says, that “the first ladies who rejected the use of the chopine were the daughters of the Doge Dominico Contareno, about the year 1670." The chopine, or some kind high shoe, was occasionally used in England. Bulwer, in his
the ordinary shoe, and the second, the extraordinary or genteel one.
“ Artificial Changeling," p. 550, complains of this fashion as a monstrous affectation, and says that his countrywomen therein imitated the Venetian and Persian ladies. In “Sandy's Travels," 1615, there is a figure of a Turkish lady with chopines, and it is not improbable that the Venetians might have borrowed them from the Greek islands in the Archipelago. We know that something similar was in use amongst the ancient Greeks. Xenophon, in " Economics,"mentions the wife of Ischomachus as wearing high shoes, for increasing her stature. They are still worn by the women in many parts of Turkey, but more particularly at Aleppo. Douce's notice of their antiquity is curiously corroborated by the discovery in the tombs of Ancient Egypt of such shoes; they are formed of a stout sole of wood, to which are affixed four round props, raising the wearer a foot in height; specimens were among the collections of Mr. Salt, the British Consul in Egypt, from which some of the choicest Egyptian antiquities in the English national collection were obtained. The other remark of Douce's, that they were probably derived from the Greek islands of the Archipelago, is confirmed by the fact that high-soled boots and shoes were much coveted by the ladies there, to raise their stature, and were worn when chopines had long been disused ; thus the high-soled boots delineated in Fig. 13 are found upon the feet of "I young lady of Argentiera," one of these islands, in a print dated 1700; and, in another of the same date, giving the costume of a lady of the neighboring Island of Naxis, the shoe shown in Fig. 14 is worn.
Of the modern European nations with whom wo have been most in contact-England, Spain, France, and the Netherlands—their boots and shoes have so nearly resembled our own as to render a detailed description scarcely necessary. Indeed, as Franco has been tacitly submitted to as the arbiter elegantiarum in all matters of dress, much has been derived from thence.
There was, however, a French shoe that we do not over appear to have adopted : it was made low in the quarters, and ended at the instep; there was no covering for the heel or the sides of the foot beyond it. The fashion spread to Venice; and the figure of a Venetian lady, of 1750, has supplied us with the specimen in Fig. 15.
The sabots of France is another peculiarity which was never adopted elsewhere. They are generally clumsy enough; their large size and bad fit are generally improved by the introduction of others made of list, wbich give warmth and steadiness to the foot. A small wooden shoe is, however, made in Normandy and elsewhere, much like that which came into fashion about 1790, with an imitation of its fringes and pointed too, and which is generally painted black; the ordinary sabot being totally unadorned, and the color of the wood. In the cut here given, both are introduced. The first figure is
And now having, in the pursuit of our history of boots and shoes,
“ Travelled the wide world all over," let us not dismiss the subject without a parting look at the “Brogues" of Ireland, which, upon the authority of Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, especially deserve our attention. In their work on Ireland, they engrave the figure of this article, which we copy, Fig. 16, and say: “The brogue, or shoe, of the Irish peasantry, differs in its construction from the shoe of any other country. It was formerly mado of untanned hide; but, for the last century at least, it has been made of tanned leather. The leather of the uppers is much stronger than what is used in the strongest shoes ; being made of cow-hide dressed for the purpose, and it never had an inside lining, like the ordinary shoe; the sole leather is generally of an inferior description. The process of making the brogue is certainly different from that of shoemaking; and the tools used in the work, except tho hammer, pinchers, and knife, bear little analogy. The awl, though used in common by those operators, is much larger than the largest used by the shoemaker, and unlike in the bend and form. The regular brogue was of two sorts, the single and double pump. The former consisted of the sole and uppers only; the latter had a welt sewed between the sole and upper leather, which gavo it a stouter appearance and stronger consistency; in modern times, the brogue-maker has assimilated his manufacture to the shoe by sewing the welt on an inner sole, and then attaching the outer sole to it, in shoe fashion. In the process of making the regular brogue, there formerly were neither hemp, wax, nor bristles used by the workmen, the sewing all being performed with a thong, made of horsehide, prepared for the purpose.” Thus the construction of this article is quite different from that of the English shoe; and it is made and stitched without a last, the upper leather and side being secured by sewing together; it is then turned inside out, and, for the first time, put upon the last, and being well fitted to it by a smooth iron surface, it is placed before the fire to dry and harden. “The heel of the brogue is made of what they call jumps,' tanner's shavings stuck together with a kind of pasto, and pressed hard and dried, either before the fire or in the sun. This, when properly dried, is cut to the size of the heel and sewed down with the thong, and then covered with a top piece of very thin solo loather, fastened on with deal or sally pegs; and in this ono