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Manie. Merey, dearest!

"Hal and see; its fellow-hand is left free to make gestures, or drum with the knife it helds on the ehair-bottom between his legs, or to whittlo hits whieh he pieks oeeasionally from the eontents of the wood-box at his side. Oh! he ought to havo been drawn spitting, He is always spitting, you know, real yellow tohaeeo juiee. The monster!"

Maaie. You make mo shudder, dearest. Pray, do you henestly think wo havo any reason to bo vexed with Diekens, or Trollop, or anybody whe

"No indeed! no indeed! not even with that writer of the 'Edinburgh Review* whe said that Amerieana spit as soon as they are born, spit through life, and at last spit out their expiring breath."

Manie. But then, poor Mr. Brown!

"Yes; poor Mr. Brown. Wo will not seorn him at all instinetively as* wo are inelmed to do this. Like many in this our day and generation, he inherited a had organization from parents, grandparents, and great-grandparents, whe lived mostly in the sensual j together with had hahits from a father, whese only eare it was to add yet other aeres to his farm, yet other hundreds to his glittering herde, and yet other herses, eows, ehiekens, turkeys, and geeso to his hemestead menagerie. True, the son must learn to read, write, and eipher, at least as far as through interest. This was indispensable in the art of aequiring and retaining property. The daughters likewise must learn somewhat of the same; for they might bo widows and havo estates to settle. But into all the mysteries of all sorts of eookery, and other work, they must be therougbly initiated. Hahits of aequisition and saving must be ingrafted into their very being. Pity that these hahits did not extend themselves into that braneh of heuseheld eeonomy where their fruits would have been really saving—the dietetie! But no; here also the animal reigned. To eat abundantly, superabundantly, and of food of superabundant luseiousness, was a prime artielo of the elder Brown's ereed. And when his eonseienee whispered him, as it sometimes did, about his deeds of extortion, fraudulent hargaining, and so forth, he sileneed its reproofs by referring to his generously furnished board, his overflowing larder, the plenty he spread before all whe elaimed his hespitalities. Something more eonseienee said about his being just before he eould be generous, but in fainter and fainter tones. So that he went on in his self-justifieations, ay, in his self-glorifieations; and hugged the eloser his delusions as death began beekening him away. He died a wretehed, wretehed death. Then the papers wrote him 'a faithful hushand, an indulgent parent, a benevolent neighbor, and a good eitizen.' His funeral text was, 'Let mo die the death of the righteous, and let my last end be like his;' his epitaph, 'Blessed are the dead whe die in the Lord.' Ah, Marie, hew full is this world of Vol. Xlv.—37

\ temptations to get wealth—to get it by some means

< —at any rate, to be rieh!"

j Maaie. Alas, yes! And still, dearest, not so

< great and many are they, if one looks a little below

< the surfaee. Mr. Brown would havo been a misera5 ble man in all his hardness of soul, if this adulation < and all the deferenee he met had been sineere. J But they were only lip and hand serviee; matterj of-eourso hemage to his wealth and assumed eonj sequenee. Everybody read his other and truo 1 inseriptions written in blood and tears on the hearts I and on the brows of all these he had wronged and { eheated. Everybody eould see the sears of wounds i he had been all his lifetimo making, in treading upon i all the low and feeble on his mareh to wealth. Ah! i let him rest in peaee, dearest. Never envy him, ) nor any liko him the miserable pittanee they get j for all their anxiety and toil. And the son of sueh J a man, the present Mr. Brown, pity him! Bub out s that drawing.

s "Pity him I will, I do from my very heart; but

j rub out his pieture I will not. I will shew it to him,

j and to others like him; for, if they are to bo pitied,

i if they are not very, verg mueh to be blamed, all

j things eonsidered, 'they yet need to see themselves

j as others see them:' they yet need to mend for

i their own sakes, for their neighbors', and for the

i sake of the eapaeities that God has given them for

j usefulness, improvement, and happiness, and whieh

i they do so negleet or misapply."



AWat from thee, my gentle one,

From Fanny distant far,
I rove alone; but tbou art still

My loved, my guiding star.

When morning's gay and silver light

Is shed o'er wold and lea,
My early tbought is borne away

To thee, my love, to thee.

At noonday, in the forest glades,

I range the wtldwood free; But still my faney wings away

To thee, my lovo, to thee.

And when tbo last fnlr tints of evo

Forsake the world and me,
Fond mem'ry brings mo haek again

To thee, my lovo, to thee.

The land of Dresmn, with gems and flowers

Of other years, I see:
I "m there, amid its golden gleams,'

With thee, my lovo, with thee.

At morning, noon, and dewy ere—

On ibore or aflVry sea—
My heart still turns, as to a star

To thee, my love, to thee.




Upon eritieally examining the various forms assumed by the eoverings for the feet adopted by the nations around us, wo shall find that they were in no small degree modified by the eireumstanees with whieh they were surrounded, or the neeessities of the elimate they inhahited.

Thus, the northern nations of Europe enswathed their legs in skins, and used the same material for the shees, hinding the whele in warm folds about the log, the thengs being fastened to them in the manner represented in Fig. 1, and whieh is eopied j from a full-length figure of a Russian boor, in 1768. < The sandal of a Russian lady of the same period is < given in Fig. 2, and the men of Frieslond, at the j same time, wore sandals or shees of a similar eon- j struetion, the eommon people generally wearing a j

eloso leathern shee and elog, something like these in use in the Middle Ages; one delineated in Fig. 3, of our plate, and is represented on the feot of a eountrywoman in the eurious series of eostumes of Finland, engraved in Jeffery's eolleetion of the dresses of different nations, published in 1757, and whieh were eopied from some very rare prints, at least a eentury earlier in point of date. Another female's shee is given in Fig. 4; it is a low slipperlike shee, and is seeured by a hand aeross the instep, having an ornamental elasp, like a brooeh, to seeure it on eaeh sido of the foot, it was prohably a eoarsely mado pieee of jewelry, with glass or eheap stones set around it; as the people of this eountry at that timo were fond of sueh shewy deeorations, and partieularly upon their shees. The noblemen

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and ladies always deeorated theirs with ornaments and jewols all over the upper surfaee, of whieh we give two speeimens in Figs. 5 and 6 j the former upon the foot of a nobleman, the latter upon that of a matron of the upper elasses. It will be seen that both are very elegant, and must bave been very shewy wear.

The boots of a Hungarian gentleman, in 1700, may be seen in Fig. 7, and sueh boots were eommon to Bohemia at the same period. They are ehiefly remarkable for the way in whieh they aro eot upward from the middle of the thigh to the knee, and then eurl over in front of the leg.

A Tartarian lady, of 1577, is exhihited by John Wiegel, the engraver of Nuremburg, in his work on dress, in the boots delineated in Fig. 8. They are remarkable for the sole to whieh they are affixed, and whieh was, no doubt, formed of some strong substanee, prohably with metallie heoks to assist the wearer in walking a mountainous eountry where frosts abound.

Deseending towards the south, wo shall find a lighter sort of sheo in nse, and one partaking more of the eharaeter of a slipper, used more as a proteetion for the sole of the foot in walking than as an artiele of warmth. Thus the shees generally used in the East seareely do more than eover the toes; yet, from eonstant use, the natives hardly ever allow them to slip from the feet . The learned auther of the notes to "Knight's Pietorial Bible," speaking from personal observation of these artieles, Eays: "The eommon sheo in Turkey or Arahia is like our slipper with quarters, exeept that it has a sharp and prolonged toe turned up. No shees in Western Asia have ears, and they are generally of eolored leather —red or yellow moroeeo in Turkey and Arahia, and green shagreen in Persia. In the latter eountry, the shee or slipper in general use (having no quarters) has a very high heel; but, with this exeeption, the heels in these eountries are generally flat. No shees, or even boots, have more than a single sole (like what we eall'pumps'), whieh, in wet weather, imhibes the water freely. When the shee witheut quarters is used, an inner slipper, with quartors, but witheut a sole, is worn inside, and the outer one alone is thrown off on entering a heuse. But in Persia, instead of this inner shee of leather, they use a worsted soek. These shees that have quarters are usually worn witheut any innor eovering for the foot . The peasantry and the nomade tribes usually go harefoot, or wear a rude sandal or shee of their own manufaeture; these whe possess a pair of red leather or other shees seldom wear them exeept on heliday oeeasions, so that they last a long time, if not so long as among the Maltese, with whem a pair of shees endures for several generations, being, even on heliday oeeasions, more frequently earried in the hand than worn on the feet . The boots are generally of the same eonstruetion and material as the shees; and the general form may

be eompared to that of the buskin, the height varying from the mid-leg to near the knee. They aro of eapaeious breadth, exeept among the Persians, whese boots generally fit elose to the leg, and aro mostly of a sort of Russia leather, uneolored; whereas these of other people are, like the slipper, of red and yellow moroeeo. There is also a boot or sheo for walking in frosty weather, whieh differs from the eommon one only in having under the heel iron tips, whieh, being partly bent vertieally with a jagged edge, give a h'old on the iee, whieh prevents slipping, and are partieularly useful in aseending or deseending the frozen mountain paths—reminding us of the sort of boot worn by Tartarian ladies, as given in Fig. 8. The shees of the Oriental ladies ore sometimes highly ornamented; the eovering part being wrought with gold, silver, and silk, and perhaps set with jewels, real or imitated. Examples of sueh deeorated shees are given in Figs. 9 and 10, and will suffieiently explain themselves to the eye of the reader, rendering detailed deseription unneeessary. The shees of noblemen are of preeisely similar eonstruetion.

In China, the boots and shees of the men are worn as elumsy and inelegant as in any eountry. They aro broad at the toe, and sometimes upturned. Wo give a speeimen of both in the subjoined woodeut. They are no doubt easy to wear.


Not so are the ladies' shees, for they only are allowed the privilege of diseomfort, fashion having in this eountry deelared in favor of small feet, and the prejudiee of the peoplo having gone with it, the feet of all ladies of deeent rank in soeiety are eramped in early life, by being plaeed in so straight a eonfinement that their grow this retarded, and they are not more than threo or four inehes in length from the toe to the heel. By the smallness of the foot, the rank or high breeding of the lady is deeided on, and the utmost torment is endured by the girls in early life to insure themselves this distinetion in rank; the lower elasses of females not being allowed to torture themselves in the same manner. The Chinese poets frequently indulge in panegyries on the beauty of these erippled members of the body, and nono of their heroines are eonsidered perfeet witheut exeessively small feet, when they are affeetionately termed by them "the litUo golden lilies." It is needless to say that the tortures of early youth are sueeeeded by a erippled maturity, a Chinese lady of high hirth being seareoly able to walk witheut assistanee. A speeimen of sueh a foot and shoe is given in Fig. 11. These shoes are generally made of silk, and embroidered in the most beautiful manner with flowers and ornaments, in eolored silk and threads of gold and silver. A pieeo of stout silk is generally attaehed to the heel for the eonvenienee of pulling up the shoe.

Having bestowed some attention on aneient Egypt, we may briefly allude to the shoes of modern times, as given in Lane's work devoted to the history of the manners and eustoms of the modern Egyptians. They, like tho Persian ones, have an upturned toe, and may with equal ease be drawnson and thrown off. Yet a shoe is also worn with a high instep and high in tho heel, whieh will be best understood by the first figure in the aeeompanying eut.

Tho Turkish ladies of the sixteenth eentury, and Tery prohably mueh earlier, wore a very high shoe known in Europe by the name of a u ehopine." In the voyages and travels of N. do Nieholay Dauphinoys, Seigneur D'Arfreville, Valet do Chambre and Geographer to the King of Franee, printed at Lyons, 1568, ono of tho ladies of tho Grand Seigneur's seraglio is represented in a pair of ehopines, of whieh we eopy one in Fig. 12. This fashion spread in Europe in the early part of the seventeenth eentury, and it is alluded to by Hamlet, in Aet II., Seene 2, when ho exelaims, "Your ladyship is nearer heaven than when I saw you last, by the altitude of a ehopine f by whieh it would appear that something of the kind was known in England, where it may have been introdueed from Veniee, as the ladies there wore them of the most exaggerated size. Coryat, in his "Crudities," 1611, says: "There is one thing used of the Venetian women, and some others dwelling in the eities and towns subjeet to signiory of Veniee, that is not to be observed—I think—amongst any other women in Christendom"—the reader must remember that it was now to Coryat, hat a eommon fashion in the East—"whieh is so eommon in Veniee that no woman whatsoever goeth without it, either in her house or abroad—a thing made of wood, and eovered with leather of sundry eolors; some with white, some red, some yellow. It is called a ehapiney, whieh they never wear under their shoes. Many of these are euriously painted; some of them I have also seen fairly gilt; so uneomely a thing, in my opinion, that it is a pity this foolish eustom is not elean hanished and exterminated out of the eity. There are many of these ehapineys of a great height, even half a yard high, whioh maketh many of their women that are very short seem muoh tailor than tho tallest women wo havo in England. Also, I have

heard it observed among them, that by how mueh tho nobler a woman is, by so mueh the higher are her ehapineys. All their gentlowomen, and most of their wives and widows that are of any wealth, are assisted and supported either by men or women, when they walk abroad, to the end they might not fall. They are borne up moat eommonly by the le/t arm, otherwise they might quiekly take a fall.'" In '* Donee's Hlustrations of Shakspeare," a woodeut of sueh a ehapiney, or ehopine, is given, whieh is here eopied, and it is an exeellent example of the


thing, showing the deeoration whieh was at times bestowed on it .

Douee quotes some eurious partieulars of this fashion, in "Raymond's Voyage through Italy." 1648, and the following eurious aeeount of the ehopine oeeurs: "This plaee (Veniee) is mueh frequented by the walking May-poles; I mean the women; they wear their eoats half too long for their bodies; being mounted on their ehippeent (whieh are as high as a man's leg), they walke betweene two handmaids, majestieally deliberating of every step they take." Howel also says of the Venetian women: "They are low and of small stature, for the most part, whieh makes them to raise their bodies upon high shoes, ealled ehapin*t whieh gave me oeeasion to say that the Venetian ladies were made of throe things: one part of them was wood, meaning their ehapins; another part was their apparel; and the third part was a woman. Tho senate hath often endeavored to take away the wearing of those high shoes, but all women are so passionately delighted with this kind of state that no law ean wean them from it" Douee adds that "somo have supposed that the jealousy of Italian hushands gave rise to the invention of the ehopine," and quotes a story from a Freneh author to show their dislike to an alteration; he also says, that "the first ladies who rejeeted tho use of the ehopine were tho daughters of the Doge Dominieo Contareno, about the year 1670." The ehopine, or some kind of high shoe, was oeeasionally used in England. Bulwer, in his

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"Artifieial Changeling," p. 550, eomplains of this fashion as a monstrous affeetation, aud says that his eountrywomen therein imitated the Venetian and Persian ladies. In "Sandy's Travels," 1815, there is a figure of a Turkish lady with ehepines, and it is not improhable that the Venetians might hare borrowed them from the Greek islands in the Arehipelago. We know that something similar was in uso amongst the aneient Greeks. Xenophen, in " (Eeonomies," mentions the wife of Isehemaehus as wearing high shees, for inereasing her stature. They are still worn by the women in many parts of Turkey, but moro partieularly at Aleppo. Doueo's notiee of their antiquity is euriously eorroborated by the diseovery in the tombs of Aneient Egypt of sueh shees; they are formed of a stout sole of wood, to whieh are affixed four round props, raising the wearer a foot in height; speeimens were among the eolleetions of Mr. Salt, tho British Consul in Egypt, from whieh some of the eheieest Egyptian antiquities in the English national eolleetion wero obtained. The other remark of Doueo's, that they were prohably derived from the Greek islands of the Arehipelago, is eonfirmed by the faet that high-soled boots and shees were mueh eoveted by the ladies there, to raise their stature, and wero worn when ehepines had long been disused; thus the high-soled boots delineated in Fig. 13 are found upon the feet of "a young lady of Argentiera," ono of these islands, in a print dated 1700; and, in another of the same date, giving the eostume of a lady of the neighboring Island of Naxis, the sheo shewn in Fig. 14 is worn.

Of the modern European nations with whem wo have been most in eontaet—England, Spain, Franee, and the Netherlands—their boots and shees have so nearly resembled our own as to render a detailed deseription seareely neeessary. Indeed, as Franeo has been taeitly submitted to as the arhiter elaiantiarum in all matters of dress, mueh has been derived from thenee.

Thero was, hewever, a Freneh sheo that wo do not ever appear to have adopted: it was made low in the quarters, and endod at the instep; there was no eovering for the heel or the sides of the foot beyond it . The fashion spread to Veniee; and the figure of a Venetian lady, of 1750, has supplied us with the speeimen in Fig. 15.

The tabott of Franeo is another peeuliarity whieh was never adopted elsewhere. They are generally elumsy enough; their large size and had fit are generally improved by the introduetion of others made of list, whieh give warmth and steadiness to the foot. A small wooden sheo is, hewover, mado in Normandy and elsewhere, mueh like that whieh eame into fashion about 1790, with an imitation of its fringes and pointed toe, and whieh is generally painted blaek; the ordinary tabot being totally unadorned, and the eolor of the wood. In the out hero given, both aro introdueed. The first figuro is

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And now having, in the pursuit of our history of boots and shees,

"Travelled the wide world all over,"

let as not dismiss the subjeet witheut a parting look at the "Brogues" of Ireland, whieh, upon the autherity of Mr. and Mrs. S. C. Hall, espeeially deserve our attention. In their work on Ireland, they engrave the figure of this artiele, whieh we eopy, Fig. 16, and say: "The brogue, or shee, of the Irish peasantry, differs in its eonstruetion from the shee of any other eountry. It was formerly made of untanned hido; but, for the last eentury at least, it has been made of tanned leather. The leather of the uppers is mueh stronger than what is used in the strongest shees ; being made of eow-hide dressed for the purpose, and it never had an inside lining, like the ordinary shee; the solo leather is generally of an inferior deseription. The proeess of making the brogue is eertainly different from that of sheemaking; and the tools used in the work, exeept the hammer, pinehers, and knife, bear little analogy. The awl, theugh usod in eommon by theso operators, is mueh larger than the largest used by the sheemaker, and unlike in the bend and form. The regular broguo was of two sorts, the single and double pump. The former eonsisted of the sole and uppers only; the latter had a welt sewed between the solo and upper leather, whieh gave it a stouter appearanee and stronger eonsisteney; in modern times, the brogue-maker has assimilated his manufaeture to the shee by sewing the welt on an inner sole, aud then attaehing the outer sols to it, in shee fashion. Iu the proeess of making the regular brogue, there formerly were neither hemp, wax, nor bristles used by the workmen, the sewing all being performed with a theng, made of hersehide, prepared for the purpose." Thus the eonstruetion of this artiele is quito different from that of the English sheo; and it is made and fetitohed witheut a last, the upper leather and side being seeured by sewing together; it is then turned inside out, and, for the first time, put upon the last, and being well fitted to it by a smooth iron surfaee, it is plaeed beforo the fire to dry and harden. "The heel of the brogue is made of what they eall 'jumps,' tanner's shavings stuek together with a kind of paste, and pressed hard and driod, either before the fire or in the sun. This, when properly dried, is eut to the site of the heel and sewed down with the theng, and then eovered with a top pieee of very thin sole leather, fastened on with deal or sally pegs; and in this one

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